Method of forming a pattern on the surface of the plate

 

(57) Abstract:

Method of forming a pattern on the surface of the plate to improve the quality of the picture is that asking the flow of ions based on the selected wavelength so that when the sputtering of silicon by this thread formed wave-like structure during the next growth wave. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

The invention relates to a method of forming a drawing with the dimensions of the elements is less than 100 nm on the surface of the wafer.

The known method of forming a pattern on the surface of the plate, which consists in selecting a wavelength in the range from 9 to 120 nm periodic wavelike nanostructures formed by sputtering silicon to the flow of ions selected depths spray, corresponding to the beginning and completion of the growth of the wave amplitude nanostructures; ion energy, angle of incidence of ions on the original silicon surface, the temperature of the silicon and the depth of penetration of nitrogen ions into the silicon (see EN 2164718, 27.03.2001, is similar and prototype).

The technical result of the present invention is to improve the quality of the picture through the formation of a relief pattern in the form of an array of coherent nanoline on the silicon surface and the array eat that specify the distribution of the flow of ions based on the selected wavelength so that when the sputtering of silicon by this thread formed wave-like structure with alternating growth of waves on the surface, the distance between two points on the line along the wavefront, corresponding to the beginning and completion of the growth of the wave amplitude does not exceed two and one-half wavelengths of the patterns.

Spray a flow of ions in a vacuum multi-layer structure, observe and measure the contours of sputtered layers of a multilayer structure, and then establish the distribution of the ion flux to the target distribution of the flow of ions.

Spray the surface of the silicon specified by the flow of ions in vacuum until the formation of wave-like patterns.

It is preferable to set the flow of ions dynamically by scanning the ion beam.

It is preferable to set the flow of ions in the form of a ribbon beam.

It is preferable for the formation of a coherent array of lines in the groove with a variable wavelength to define the distribution of the flow of ions in the form of a ribbon beam with a Gaussian distribution of the flow of ions in the transverse beam direction on sleduiushie 50120;

- the minimum wavelength of the generated coherent array of lines in the groove with a variable wavelength to 2;

L is the length of the linear beam;

x - the distance from the center of the beam in the direction perpendicular to the ribbon beam in the plane of the silicon surface.

It is preferable for the formation of a planar array of lines with a constant period in a plane parallel to the original surface of the silicon to define the distribution of the flow of ions in the form of a ribbon beam with a Gaussian distribution of the flow of ions in the transverse beam direction according to the following dependence:

< / BR>
where I is the total current of the ribbon beam;

is the wavelength of the generated coherent array lines;

DFthe depth of the formation of wave-like coherent structures;

And the amplitude of the generated wave;

L is the length of the linear beam;

x - the distance from the center of the beam in the direction perpendicular to the ribbon beam in the plane of the surface of the silicon;

moving transverse to the beam direction at a speed determined by the dependence of

< / BR>
where I is the total current of the ribbon ion beam, AND;

Y is the sputtering rate of the silicon nitrogen ions per one nitrogen atom;

And molar masses of the Finance wavy coherent structures, cm;

NA- Avogadro's number, 6,0221023mol-1;

e - the electron charge, 1,610-19CL.

Simultaneously with the movement of the ribbon ion beam preferably provide a uniform depth of sputtering speed of movement of the ribbon beam on the silicon surface due to the effect of changes in the controlled signal, proportional to the current of ions, the control system moves the sample of silicon or the scanning system of the linear beam.

Preferably as a controlled signal, proportional to the current of ions, to use the signal of the secondary electron emission emitted from the surface of the silicon.

With the aim of increasing aspect ratios of the wavy profile of the structure, it is preferable to carry out plasma etching, followed by oxidation of the disturbed plasma silicon layer and removing the layer of liquid chemical etching.

Preferably in carrying out the invention to use as the silicon layer of the silicon material KND to as coherent wavelike nanostructures to get an array of silicon quantum wires.

While choosing tonnage relief and depth of penetration of nitrogen ions into the silicon.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

In Fig. 1A presents the image of a part of the wave-like structure, formed of a homogeneous stream of nitrogen ions in the window of the mask silicon nitride with a sublayer of silicon oxide on silicon, obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The angle of incidence of the ions was 47orelative to the normal to the silicon surface. The mask is completely removed by the sputtering process, and on the border of the mask formed ledge. The level of surface nanostructures below the level of the flat surface of the silicon to the right from the border of the mask on the height of the ledge. It is seen that only the first two waves of the same shape as the mask boundary.

In Fig.1B presents SEM-image of a part of the wave-like structure, formed of a homogeneous stream of nitrogen ions in the window of the mask silicon nitride with a sublayer of silicon oxide on silicon. The mask edge is curved. The angle of incidence of the ions was 47orelative to the normal to the silicon surface. The mask is completely removed by the sputtering process, and on the border of the mask formed ledge. The level of surface nanostructures below the level of the flat surface of silicon around the edge of the mask to the height of the ledge. It is seen that a twelve first mask on the right. Outside the specified segment of the wave is oriented perpendicular to the flow of ions near the border of the mask, and the border does not affect their orientation.

In Fig. 2A shows a ribbon ion beam with Gaussian intensity distribution of the flow of ions. Sputtering of silicon by this beam leads to the formation of grooves.

In Fig.2B shows a SEM image of the fracture grooves formed ribbon ion beam with a Gaussian intensity distribution of the flow of ions. Visible wavelike nanostructure on the wall near the bottom of the groove.

In Fig. 2B shows a top view of grooves formed ribbon ion beam with a Gaussian intensity distribution of the flow of ions. On the SEM image is visible coherent wavelike nanostructure with a wavelength continuously and monotonically increasing in the direction of flow of the ions.

In Fig. 3A shows the running ribbon ion beam with a Gaussian intensity distribution of the flow of ions. The length of the beam is L, the speed of movement of the beam over the surface of the silicon - V.

In Fig. 3B shows the intensity distribution of the flow of ions traveling ribbon ion beam on the silicon surface in the plane of incidence of ions is determined by the flux vector is obrazovaniya wavy patterns - DFthe amplitude of the wave, the speed of movement of the beam on the silicon surface in the plane of incidence of ions - Vx. The width of the ribbon beam in the plane of the surface of the silicon - OW. The local angle of incidence of the ions on the slope of the surface of the silicon . Front coherent growth of waves - FE.

In Fig. 3B presents the SEM image of the array of lines produced on the silicon surface of the running belt ion beam, front coherent growth of waves on the right.

In Fig. 3G shows the graphs of dependencies depths spray, corresponding to the beginning and completion of the growth of the wave amplitude wave-like patterns, respectively Dmand DFfrom the angle of incidence of ions of molecular nitrogen on silicon surface for ion energy of 8 Kev.

In Fig.3D shows the intensity distribution of the flow of ions traveling ribbon ion beam on the silicon surface in the plane of incidence of the ions. Curve OFED depicts the profile of the silicon surface irradiated with ions. The depth of formation of wave-like patterns - DFthe local angle of inclination of the surface of silicon , the speed of movement of the beam on the silicon surface in the plane of incidence of ions - Vx. The width of the ribbon beam in the plane of the surface of the silicon - OW. Froh is here depths DFand Dmand approximately equal to the wave amplitude A.

In Fig. 3E shows a rectangular triangles FEL at different local angles of incidence of ions on the surface of the silicon. Different local angles of incidence of ions correspond to various angles of inclination of the front coherent growth of waves FE relative to the horizontal LE due to changes in the geometry of the wave when the angle changes .

In Fig. 4A shows the running ribbon ion beam with a Gaussian intensity distribution of the flow of ions. The speed of movement of the beam over the surface of the silicon - V.

In Fig. 4B shows the intensity distribution of the flow of ions traveling ribbon ion beam on the silicon surface in the plane of incidence of the ions. Curve OFE depicts the profile of the irradiated ions surface. The depth of formation of wave-like patterns - DFthe amplitude of the wave, the speed of movement of the beam on the silicon surface in the plane of incidence of ions - Vx. The width of the ribbon beam in the plane of the surface of the silicon - OW. The local angle of incidence of the ions on the slope of the surface of the silicon . Front coherent growth of waves - FE.

In Fig. 5A shows the dispersion of the layered structure of the ribbon ion beam with a Gaussian distribution intne 14 nm, the thickness of the layer of molybdenum 36 nm.

In Fig.5B shows a SEM-image of the sprayed plot structure with the contours of the sputtered layers of molybdenum.

In Fig. 6 shows SEM image of an array of lines with a period of 90 nm deposited on a silicon surface a running ribbon ion beam. The array size of 4.5 to 6 microns.

In Fig.7 shows the image of a coherent array of waves with aspect ratio equal to 100, formed of a running ribbon ion beam.

In Fig. 8 presents a panorama of the eleven SEM images. The total length of the panorama was 45.6 μm is equal to the length of the site (close to straight) longitudinal scan point of the ion beam. Bending waves reflect the imperfection of the scanning and dynamic focusing of the beam. The image with the defect wave patterns as etching pits in the frame 2 shows that the gap of the wave front of the wave-like structures localized near the defect, the wave conformal bypass the defect. It is seen that the curves of the waves do not cause their intersections.

In Fig.8A shows frames of a panorama from first to seventh.

In Fig.8B shows frames of a panorama from the seventh to the eleventh.

The method posn patterns can be made on the basis of the selection of the wavelength of the patterns in the range from 9 to 120 nm. The parameters that define the geometry of the resulting wave patterns, as well as specifying the depth of sputtering, corresponding to the beginning (Dm) and the completion of the growth of the wave amplitude patterns (DF): the ion energy, angle of incidence of the ions on the original silicon surface, the temperature of the silicon and the penetration depth of nitrogen ions into the silicon - all selected based on the wavelength of the patterns. However, as a result of this process is formed incoherent (disordered) structure shown in Fig.1A, 1B. To further determine the nature of the wave-like patterns, experiments were carried out for forming patterns on a limited catchment area of the silicon surface in the window of the mask from the layer of silicon nitride with a thickness of 100 nm with a sublayer of silicon oxide with a thickness of 50 nm. Before structure formation process was carried out in a liquid etching of silicon oxide to provide the overhanging edge of the window masks. Thus was obtained a sharp boundary region forming patterns. It was interesting effect of boundaries on wave length and the morphology of the structure.

In Fig. 1A, 1B shows that the boundary located perpendicular to the direction of flow of ions affects uporyadochennaya to the border. It is seen that only these two waves without gaps and overlaps conformal same shape as the border. Thus was established the coherence length wavy patterns equal to two and one-half wavelengths.

On the possibility of the formation of coherent wave-like structures pointed observation of such structures on curved surfaces on the edge of the crater ion sputtering. To find out the conditions for the formation of these structures has allowed experiments on the formation of wave-like patterns in the groove, resulting in sputtering of silicon scanning in a straight line spot ion beam (probe).

In Fig. 2A, 2B, 2C illustrates the process of formation of coherent structures in the groove scanning in a straight line beam of ions N2+. Since the formation of wave-like patterns does not affect the speed of the scanning beam along the line, it is possible to structure the ribbon ion beam, shown in Fig. 2A. The angle of incidence of the ions relative to the normal to the original surface of the silicon was estimated at 38.5othe ion energy of 8 Kev, a current of the ion beam 300, the time of formation of the grooves 10 minutes. For the formation of coherent structures in the groove need some focus Landon diameter of 10.5 μm, meet the half-intensity distribution of the ion flux probe.

In Fig. 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, 3E, 3F shows the process and the criterion for the formation of planar wave-like coherent structures with a constant wavelength. To do this, the ribbon ion beam is moved over the surface of the silicon at a constant speed. Resulting in this beam displacement curved surface shown in the profile view of Fig.3B. Profile OFE moves with the speed of travel of the beam. The profile shape of the surface under ion sputtering can be calculated with sufficient accuracy without regard to the formation of wave-like structures are known in the field methods. Thus, by setting the intensity distribution of the ion flux can be calculated profiles sprayed ions surfaces, including in the case of the moving threads.

In Fig.3B shows the calculated surface profile for a beam with Gaussian intensity distribution of the flow of ions. The calculated profile imposed the front profile of the coherent growth of waves FE extended for two and a half wavelength. In Fig. 3C shows a wavy structure with front coherent growth of the waves formed by scanning in a straight line probe p is anise travel time line. This is equivalent to moving the ribbon beam. It is seen that the length of the front of the coherent growth of the waves is two and a half wavelength. Longer front coherence was observed. That is, the coherence length for the process of the formation of coherent structures - two and a half wavelength, is the property of this structure.

In Fig. 3B at the point F of the wave front of the wave amplitude begins to grow and, therefore, this point is at a depth of Dm. At the point E of the wave front, the growth of the wave amplitude is completed and, therefore, at the point E wave is at a depth of DF. This condition can only be achieved by some form of calculated profile OFE. In other words, the depth of the points F and E, separated by the surface profile along the line of the wave front at two and a half wavelength, clearly define the shape of the surface profile at the dispersion, and hence the shape of the distribution of the flow of ions in the beam, i.e., the width of the beam. In this case, the distance W (beam width) is 10 wavelengths patterns. This is the most strict requirement for focusing the beam, satisfying the condition of alternate growth of waves. For example, for a wavelength of 90 nm should focus the beam on Rennie set equal 56oand the ion energy of 8 Kev.

The moving speed of the beam on the surface is calculated according to the following dependence:

< / BR>
where I is the total current of the ribbon ion beam, AND;

Y is the sputtering rate of the silicon nitrogen ions per one nitrogen atom;

And is molar mass of silicon, g;

is the density of silicon, g/cm3;

L is the length of the ribbon beam, cm;

D is the depth of sputtering, cm;

NA- Avogadro's number, 6,0221023mol-1;

e - the electron charge, 1,610-19CL.

For I= 1 µa; Y=1,3; L=100 μm; D=DF=100 nm; =2.3 g/cm3the moving speed of the beam on the surface of the Vx=33 μm/s For I=1, ceteris paribus, the rate will drop to Vx=33 nm/sec.

From the formula (4) for the speed of movement of the ribbon beam, it follows that the constant depth D, i.e., playmost formed structure is determined by the stability of the beam current I. the instability of the beam current can be compensated by adjusting the moving speed of the beam. To control the current of the ion beam is possible by known methods, in particular, the current flowing to the anode of the ion cannon, or current secondary electron emission from the surface of the silicon. Therefore, simultaneously with the movement of the ion pooch the displacement of the silicon due to the effect of changes in the controlled signal, proportional to the current of ions to the control system by the movement of the sample of silicon or the scanning system of the linear beam. More regulatory function of the etching process can be described as follows. The decrease in the monitored signal relative to the working level should lead to a proportional reduction in the rate of movement of the beam across the surface. The increase of the control signal relative to the working level should lead to a proportional increase in the speed of movement of the beam across the surface. Thus, control of the etching process based on the reception signal, proportional to the current of ions, provides playmost generated array nanoline.

To lower the requirements for the focusing of the ion beam may be subject to the formation of waves on the most shallow portion of the profile of the sprayed surface, as shown in Fig. 3D. In this case, the sequential growth of the waves must be performed on an inclined plane, i.e. at constant local angle ion bombardment. Points F and E to provide conditions alternating growth of waves should be posted in depth on the difference of depths DFand Dmand along the profile on rosstanoutinmo, the width of the ion beam. The width of the beam now varies in the range from 38 to 100 wavelengths structure is approximately proportional to the ratio of DFto the amplitude of the wave and can be defined by the formula (2). Thus, for DF/A=3 the width of the beam is equal to 38, and for DF/A=9 width of the beam is equal to 100 wavelengths. It is established that increase the ratio of DF/A the saturation of oxygen in the vacuum chamber. The velocity of the beam can be calculated by the formula (4), substituting instead the depth of sputtering double D depth of DFthat leads to the formula (3). Lowering the requirements for beam focusing resulted in decrease the speed of its movement ceteris paribus twice, because doubled the depth of sputtering of silicon.

From the graphs Dm() and DF(a) in Fig.3G shows that the relative difference of the depths Dfand Dmfor angles bombing in the range from 45 to 60oapproximate constant. From the data on the geometry of the waves, disclosed in the prototype, it follows that in the specified interval of angles absolute difference of depths DFand Dmapproximately equal to the wave amplitude A. This allows to simplify the criterion of sequential growth of waves and reduce it to demand graphically represent the s in the groove of Fig.2B. In the groove of the local angle of bombardment gradually changes from the so-called critical angle equal to the 39oat the bottom, up 56oon the slope of the groove. These angles correspond to the different depth of the formation of waves. Great depths correspond to smaller angles. From prototype it is also known that with increasing DFand Dmlinearly increases and the wavelength . Therefore, the wavelength of the patterns formed in the groove smoothly and monotonically increasing in the direction of depth of the groove.

In Fig.3E shows the variation of the slope of the plot of the coherent wavefront FE relative to the horizontal LE at different local angles of attack. It is seen that with increasing angle bombing slightly decreases the steepness of the slope profile sprayed silicon surface, which allows sequential growth of waves with even more broadened beam.

The speed of travel of the ion beam does not have to be directed along the flow of ions. It is possible to move the beam in the opposite direction, as shown in Fig. 4A, 4B. This geometry provides a lower corners of the bombing of the original silicon surface at the same local angles bombing sprayed surface as compared with the geometry shown is dstable in Fig.5A, 5B, 5B. Thus, we measured the width of the beam, which was formed with the structure shown in Fig.6.

When the movement of the ribbon ion beam across its length in the direction of flow of the ions of 5 μm was able to get an array of waves, shown in Fig.6, with a constant wavelength on a plane inclined relative to the original surface on the 17o. The front of the coherent growth of the waves was converted into. The array size was 4.5 μm, the wavelength is 90 nm, the width of the beam is 15.5 μm, i.e., 172 wavelength, the ion energy of 8 Kev, the angle of incidence of ions is 38.5o. When moving on an inclined plane into a sprayed surface requirements for beam focusing, the least stringent.

The characteristic quality of coherence is the aspect ratio of the wave-like structure (the ratio of the length of the waves to their period). In Fig.7 shows the image of a coherent array of waves with aspect ratio equal to 100, formed by moving the ribbon ion beam. The length of the coherent waves generated by moving the ribbon ion beam is determined by the length L of the straight part of the ion ribbon beam, as shown in Fig.3A. If the tape is ka such ribbon beam is determined by the quality of the scan and dynamic focusing. The quality of the resulting array of lines is determined in turn by the degree of ideality of form ribbon beam, i.e., the degree of proximity of its shape to a straight line. In Fig.8A, 8B presents a panorama of the 11 Miroshnikov. The total length of the panorama was 45.6 μm is equal to the length of the site (close to straight) line scanning spot of the ion beam along the waves. Bending waves reflect the imperfection of the scanning and dynamic focusing.

The image with the defect wave-like structure was specifically included in the panorama to show the stability of the process of moving the ribbon ion beam to the defects of this kind (etching pits). It is seen that the gap wavefront patterns short and the waves conformal bypass the defect, reducing the perturbation. Noteworthy that the curves of the waves do not cause their intersections.

Formed a wavy structure for plasma-chemical etching to improve the aspect of her relationship profile is the ratio of the amplitude of the wave to the wave period). Indeed, from a prototype known that each wave is covered with the silicon nitride side facing toward the ion beam. The nitride layer acts as a mask for preplasma the silicon layer can be removed by means of its conversion into the oxide with subsequent etching liquid. It should be noted that the nitride layers on the slopes of the waves of the wavy patterns can be replaced oxide by irradiation of the structure of the oxygen ions. The increased aspect ratios wavy coherent structures was carried out with plasma-chemical etching of structures in chlorine plasma.

It is known that if the silicon using a layer of silicon material CLP, you can obtain coherent wavelike nanostructure in the form of an array of silicon quantum wires. In this case, as in the prototype, choose the specified thickness of the layer of silicon is greater than the sum of the depth of formation of wave-like nano, the amplitude of the specified elevation and depth of penetration of nitrogen ions into the silicon.

Apparatus for implementing the method included an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, ion microprobe with the possibility of changing the ion energy and motion control microprobe on the surface of the sample, electron microprobe, precision table to move, tilt and rotation of the sample, provided with means for changing and controlling the temperature of the sample, a detector of secondary electrons and secondary ion mass analyzer. As a suitable instrument can be used Mnogotochie laboratories and manufactured by the industry. In particular, the formation of coherent wavelike nanostructures can be performed in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber device PHI 660 firm Perkin Elmer, USA.

Thus, the invention improves the quality of the picture.

Industrial applicability. The invention can be used in methods for forming a pattern, including on the silicon surface with dimensions less than 100 nm, and methods of forming nanowires for nanoelectronics devices and silicon Photonics.

1. Method of forming a pattern on the surface of the plate, which consists in selecting a wavelength in the range from 9 to 120 nm periodic wavelike nanostructures formed by sputtering silicon ions of molecular nitrogen with a wave front in the plane of incidence of the ions, the choice of depths spray, corresponding to the beginning and completion of the growth of the wave amplitude nanostructures: ion energy, angle of incidence of ions on the original silicon surface, the temperature of the silicon and the depth of penetration of nitrogen ions into the silicon, characterized in that specify the distribution of the flow of ions based on the selected wavelength so that so when spraying silicon this stream was formed wave-like structure under the sequential growth of the Lu and the completion of the growth of the wave amplitude does not exceed two and one-half wavelengths of the patterns, spray a flow of ions in a vacuum multi-layer structure, observe and measure the contours of sputtered layers of a multilayer structure, and then establish the distribution of the ion flux to the target distribution of the flow of ions and sprayed silicon surface defined by the flow of ions in vacuum until the formation of wave-like patterns.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that specify the distribution of the flow of ions dynamically by scanning the ion beam.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that specify the distribution of the flow of ions in the form of a ribbon beam.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that specify the distribution of the flow of ions in the form of a ribbon beam with a Gaussian distribution of the flow of ions in the transverse beam direction according to the following dependence:

< / BR>
where I is the total current of the ribbon beam;

the coefficient takes values in the range 50-120;

- the minimum wavelength of the generated coherent array of lines in the groove with a variable wavelength to 2;

L is the length of the linear beam;

x - the distance from the center of the beam in the direction perpendicular to the ribbon beam in the plane of the surface kreca with a Gaussian distribution of the flow of ions in the transverse beam direction according to the following dependence:

< / BR>
where I is the total current of the ribbon beam;

is the wavelength of the generated coherent array lines;

DFthe depth of the formation of wave-like coherent structures;

And the amplitude of the generated wave;

L is the length of the linear beam;

x - the distance from the center of the beam in the direction perpendicular to the ribbon beam in the plane of the surface of the silicon;

moving transverse to the beam direction at a speed determined by the relationship:

< / BR>
where I is the sputtering rate of the silicon nitrogen ions per one nitrogen atom;

And is molar mass of silicon, g;

is the density of silicon, g/cm3;

L is the length of the ribbon beam, cm;

DFthe depth of the formation of wave-like coherent structures, cm;

NA- Avogadro's number, 6,0221023mol-1;

e - the electron charge, 1,610-19CL.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that simultaneously with the movement of the ribbon ion beam ensure consistency depth spraying speed of movement of the ribbon beam on the silicon surface due to the effect of changes in the controlled signal proportional to the current of ions to the control system by the movement of the sample silicon is controlled signal, proportional to the current of the ions, using the signal of the secondary electron emission emitted from the surface of the silicon.

8. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that perform plasma etching of wavy patterns, then the oxidation of disturbed plasma silicon layer and removing the layer of liquid chemical etching.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that used as a KND to get the array of silicon quantum wires.

10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that choose the specified thickness of the layer of silicon is greater than the sum of the depth of formation of wave-like nano, the amplitude of the specified elevation and depth of penetration of nitrogen ions into the silicon.

 

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