Biologically erodible thermoplastic composition based on starch

 

(57) Abstract:

Described biologically erodible thermoplastic composition comprising starch, a polymer, a mixture of plasticizers, and the composition of the polymer contains a polymer binder is a product of copolycondensation caprolactam, adipic acid and diamine - copolyamide selected from the group comprising copolyamids brands AK-85/15, AK-80/20, AK-93/7, as a mixture of the plasticizer is glycerol and water, and optionally titanium dioxide and ultramarine in the following ratio, wt.h.: starch 100, glycerol 20, water 20, the product copolycondensation caprolactam, adipic acid and diamine 1-10, titanium dioxide 3, ultramarine 0,008. table 1.

The invention relates to the production of plastics based on starch used in the production of various termoformovannyh products, including consumer packaging, disposable tableware etc. used in contact with food products.

With the ever-increasing consumption of minerals for the production of synthetic high-molecular compounds there is a need in the alternative form polymeric materials, cos the th environment degradation products, but also contribute to the settlement of the balance of CO2.

One of the possible ways of obtaining biologically decomposable material is a modification of traditional polymers. The combination of a synthetic polymer with nature can give to the material a new set of properties.

The first category of such material is a filled system, in which starch is used as a functional filler in its natural form. Grain starch due to forces of adhesion are enclosed in a matrix of a synthetic polymer. Known low - and high-filled starch composition. The most important quality of these compositions is their ability to degradation under the influence of natural environmental factors: light, heat, microorganisms.

Two other categories of materials based on the degradation of starch grains, which occurs when thermo-mechanical disintegration macroscopic starch grains adding plasticizer. A more significant scope has a thermoplastic starch, which when interacting with a synthetic polymer plays the role of a copolymer. In addition, you can create reinforced polymer is used the first category materials in which the starch acts as an active filler. Known biologically decomposable packaging material based on starch (France, 2691467, class 5 08 J 5/18, 65 D 1/10, 65/46, C 08 L 3/02).

In the last decade a large number of patents and scientific publications containing information about the use of starch as a filler for imparting polymer compositions biological destructible (U.S. patent 5248702, C 08 J 9/12, publ. 93.09.28, volume 1154, 4; U.S. patent 5208267, C 08 J 9/02, 9/12, publ. 93.05.04, volume 1150, 1, patent RU 2095379, publ. 30.06.98,

Company Archer Daniels Midland USA developed concentrate brand Poly Clean polyethylene-based to obtain biodegradable films. The concentrate contains 40% starch and oxidizing additive, the amount of starch in the final product is 5-6%.

The disadvantage of all these materials is that biological destruction in it subject only starch component, and then only on the surface of the synthetic polymer matrix, the assimilation of which in the soil may continue until 70-90 years, and the products of assimilation toxic.

These drawbacks of the proposed biologically erodible thermoplastic composition based on kr is the technical essence and the achieved result of the present invention is the composition according to the patent of the Russian Federation 2026321:

Destructively starch - 10,0-99,9

Water-soluble Homo - or copolymer is 0.1 to 90.0

Obtaining compositions of the prototype requires pre-treatment of starch. A method of obtaining a destructured starch is heated above the glass transition temperature and melting its components so that they are endothermic transitions with the formation of disordered molecular structure of starch granules. While derived in a simple way the proposed polymer composition does not require pre-treatment of starch, biodegradable, has a relatively high speed and capacity with the absorption of water and natural humus. In addition, the treatment temperature for the claimed composition below is 90-140oWith, in comparison with the prototype 130-190oC.

Another advantage of the claimed composition in comparison with the prototype is the lack of shrinkage of the product during processing and preservation of shape under operating conditions in a predictable life.

The purpose of the invention - creation moulded compositions based on starch, the product of which collapse under the action of light, moisture and soil microflora.

Using the proposed techniques modification provided a composition, rheological characteristics which meet the requirements of materials for recycling on traditional for plastics equipment (automatic molding machine, extruder). Termoformowanie products of the proposed compositions have specified performance characteristics, including biological destruction.

We use for filling starches have the following physical characteristics: density 1591-1648 kg/m3the humidity of 11%, the content of amylose 29%, grain round shape with an average particle size of 15 μm for corn starch; density 1645 kg/m3, humidity 20%, the content of amylose 27%, grain oval form with a particle size of from 15 to 100 μm for potato starch.

As the polymer binder used product copolycondensation caprolactam, adipic acid and diamine (copolyamide stamps LK-85/15, LK-80/20, LK-93/7) with slania 10-15 g/10 min; the heat Vika under load N 180-185oC. Polymer binder plays the role of the dispersion medium. The surface of the filler is able to actively interact with the polymeric binder, exerting a certain influence on the rheological properties of the compositions and physico-mechanical characteristics of the products. Chemical surface properties of the filler, as a rule, determine the processes occurring at the interface of the polymer - filler. We have chosen the filler and the polymer are hydrophilic and have surface-active centers capable of forming a sufficiently strong hydrogen bonds. Adhesive interaction at the interface polymer - organic filler is an adsorptive interaction between the two bodies. Thus, one of the main processes that determine the properties of filled systems, is the adsorption of the polymeric binder to the surface of the dispersed phase filler.

The choice of the optimal proportions of polymer and filler due to theoretical limit of the filling, which is determined by the strength of the interaction at the phase boundary.

According to the invention as an organic filler, stimulating processinfo acid and diamine (copolyamide stamps LK-85/15, LK-80/20, LK-93/7), uses the starch in the amount of 100 mass parts.

The proposed copolyamids have high physical and mechanical properties, high elasticity, hardness and deformation resistance during processing, have a high water absorption (2.8 to 10.6 per cent), which promotes the biodegradation of finished products for disposal.

Optimal according to the invention is the ratio of starch - product copolycondensation caprolactam, adipic acid and diamine (copolyamide brands AK-85/15, LK-80/20, AK-93/7) as 100:1, 100:3, 100:10 (mass parts).

As a result, when the processing composition by thermoforming obtained products sufficiently durable under operating conditions. At the same time offer the full compositions in comparison with the prototype are processed at lower temperatures (30-40oWith lower than the prototype). In addition, products are formed at lower shear effort, increasing productivity, reducing energy costs.

The present invention is as follows.

Example 1. 100 wt.h. starch mixed with 1 wt.h. product copolycondensation caprolactam, adobenewoemsoftware for 5 minutes, then spray injected a mixture of glycerol and water in an amount of 40 wt.h. in the ratio of 1:1 and stirred for another 10 minutes. The resulting mixture is fed to the extruder for homogenization. The temperature of the melt at the exit of the extruder crosshead 90oC.

The resulting Assembly is cooled by a stream of cold air and cut into granules with a size of 6-8 mm From the obtained pellets in the extruder with a slot die is formed into a tape with a width of 5-10 cm, a thickness of 0.04 to see the temperature of the molding tape on areas 110-110-90oC.

Example 2. The preparation of the composition of example 1. The amount of product copolycondensation caprolactam, adipic acid and diamine 10 wt. including the compositions according to examples and properties are shown in table 1. Titanium dioxide and ultramarine are targeted, functional technological additives and used in the proposed composition in traditional relationships. In the examples given the optimal number.

Biologically erodible thermoplastic composition comprising starch, a polymer, a mixture of plasticizers, characterized in that the composition of the polymer contains a polymer binder is a product of copolycondensation caprolactam, adipic acid and este mixture of plasticizers - glycerin and water, and optionally titanium dioxide and ultramarine in the following ratio, wt. including :

Starch - 100

Glycerin - 20

Water - 20

Product copolycondensation caprolactam, adipic acid and diamine is 1 - 10

Titanium dioxide - 3

Ultramarine - 0,008

 

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