Method of monitoring the stability of reference points
(57) Abstract:Usage: when observing the stability of the vertical position of benchmarks intended to make in the nature of design elevations of points, observations of subsidence structures and in other cases, the engineering and surveying practice. The essence of the method is that the stability of the position of the main frame is measured by the results of the observation hive of the three auxiliary reference points (BP), with the same design and conditions of pledging located so that the excess above the main frame (RR) was measured with one station at equality shoulders and distance from the ground to the target beam is not less than 0.3 m, and the stability of the EO is assessed by comparing the excess auxiliary frames on the main frame and, if the excess of each BP PRS same from cycle to cycle, it shows the stability of the auxiliary frames, the main rapper is experiencing vertical movement by an amount equal to the average excess in this cycle, taken with opposite sign. Technical result: improving the quality of geodetic measurements by excluding from them the factors of the external environment and the uncertainty is and can be used for the observation of the stability of the vertical position of the reference points, intended to make in the nature of design elevations of points, observations of subsidence structures and in other cases, the engineering and surveying practice.The prototype is copyright certificate G 01 5/00 SU 1800263 A1 (Y., Sokolov, Kuban agricultural Institute). The essence of the invention is that when the dimension is exceeded, use the rake is made with vertical mirror surfaces, and level with a vertical scale attached to the lens, and after removal of each of samples a1and a2removed additional counts 11and 12the images of the vertical scale, formed by a mirror surface of the respective rail. The advantage of our method is that, excluding the impact of environmental factors and errors of observation affecting the stability of the position of a reference point, the quality of the geodetic measurements.The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of geodetic measurements by the exclusion of these environmental factors and errors of observation affecting the stability of the position of the marker.In Fig.1 is a diagram of the observation; Fig.2 - caesa is the stability of the position of the main frame (RR) is determined by the results of the observation hive of the three auxiliary reference points (BP), with the same design and conditions of burial. The stability of the position of the marker is determined by comparing the excess BP over the PR.Let hOh,iand hk,i- measured excess BP over the PR in elementary and k-m cycles of observations (i=1, 2, 3 - non frames). Formed by the difference
< / BR>If the course change of the excess of each BP over the PR the same from cycle to cycle (Fig.2 to 5), this indicates that their position is stable, therefore, within the accuracy of measurements must comply with the equalityk,1k,2k,3and average excess
< / BR>relative to the initial cycle of observations, taken with the opposite sign, means a change of this value marks the main rapper in k-cycle observations
< / BR>As a BP, you can use metal frames - rods with a length of 1.8 m, laid below the freezing depth of soil and covered with a lid.BP should be placed so that the excess over the PR can be measured with one station at equality shoulders, and the sighting beam must pass over poverhnostbyu h=a-b, whereby when the condition ma=mb=mconcerning.When the observations on the two sides of the slats and at two horizons
< / BR>For the difference of hk-ho= get
< / BR>and its average value will be
< / BR>Limit value when R=0,997 will be equal to
< / BR>Error mconcerningconsists of the following main errors:
1) myin the countdown because of the inaccuracy of the installation axis level in the horizontal position my= 1,5d10-4;
2) mOCD- rounding of reference for rail
< / BR>3) mi- reference from non-compliance with the conditions of the main leveling
< / BR>4) mW- drawing tick marks on the rail (for RN mW=0.50 mm).Taking in these formulas for N3 = 15, V=30xand t=10 mm (intercept Reiki), when the length of the sighting beam d=20 m and d0 will get
my=0.04 mm; mOCD=0,37 mm; mW=0,50 mmThe total mean square error mconcerningwill be equal to
< / BR>Therefore
< / BR>For experimental validation of the proposed method were organized observations on the outskirts of the city of Yoshkar-Ola (Ul. 3. Kosmodemyanskaya, 49) for oligomerizes point EP-2101, he's tall marker - spherical head Metheny, below the depth of soil freezing, three metal marker rod (BP) in length 1.8 m: RUN1 and VR on the edge of the woods in 2-4 m from the carriageway urban roads; BR - on the edge of the clearing. Design BP is given in .For observations used level H3 and 1.5-meter rail RN equipped with hard plumb. Observations were carried out from a permanent station on both sides of the rail when the two horizons of the instrument. The observations are tabulated and shown in Fig.2 - 5.The obtained results confirm the stability of the position of auxiliary frames, because in all cases |max-min|<3= 1,9 mm
The main rapper is experiencing vertical movement, seasonal in nature and may exceed the accuracy of geodetic observations, because in some cases
1. Shadrin A., To the question about the elements of the deformation structures and methods of geodetic observations of them. - Geodesy and aerial photography, 1990.2. Methods and devices for high-precision geodetic measurements in construction/edited by C. D. Bolshakova. - M.: Nedra, 1976. Method of monitoring the stability of reference points, including the definition of excess, in which the product, remove the samples andAnywayse observation hive of the three auxiliary frames - (BP), with the same design and conditions of pledging located so that the excess above the main frame (RR) was measured with one station at equality shoulders and distance from the ground to the target beam is not less than 0.3 m, and the resistance of the main frame (RR) is measured by comparing the excess auxiliary frames above the main frame, and if the excess of each BP over the PR the same from cycle to cycle, it shows the stability of the auxiliary frames, the main rapper is experiencing vertical movement by an amount equal to the average excess in this cycle, taken with the opposite sign.
SUBSTANCE: device for introducing information correction into readings of electronic aviation devices has angle of rotation optic converter made in form of modulating disc linked with handle for introduction of correction, optical radiator and two photoreceivers shifted by one forth of step of modulator. Angle of rotation optic converter is made of two conjugated bushings, one of which is motionless and the other one is made for turn. Plate provided with two photoreceivers and optic radiator is fixed at the end of motionless bushing. Optic radiator is mounted in center of plate in front of edge of light-conducting cylinder made of opal glass. Cylinder is introduced into axial hole of modulating disc which has outer diameter to be fixed at the edge of turning bushing. Conic ring-shaped mirror is made in turning bushing. Bigger diameter of the mirror is turned to photoreceivers.
EFFECT: reduced sizes of correction signal former.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: evaluating altitude profile of object.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has distance sensor and deviation unit. Distance sensor is provided with radiating transmitter and receiver. Altitude profile of object is evaluated in data processing device using output data of distance sensor and respective deviation angles of transmitted light beams. Deviation unit is provided with transmission optics and actuating facility. Transmission optics is periodically set in deviation motion by means of actuating facility. Receiving optics is disposed in front of receiver. Radiation axes of transmitted and received light beams are located at certain distance from each other.
EFFECT: enhanced immunity to external disturbing factors.
30 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in measuring the vertical acceleration and indicated barometric altitude by means of static pressure sensor; vertical velocity is obtained through integration of difference of vertical acceleration and acceleration correction; barometric altitude is obtained through integration of difference of vertical velocity and velocity correction; difference between calculated barometric altitude and indicated barometric altitude is used for calculation of said corrections; vertical velocity is multiplied by unitless multiplier equal to ratio of air temperature by standard atmosphere calculated by magnitude of barometric altitude to measured temperature of air.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determination of barometric altitude and vertical velocity under off-standard conditions of flight.
FIELD: the invention refers to aviation technique.
SUBSTANCE: the mode envisages measuring of vertical acceleration and with the help of a sensor of static pressure- the indicated barometric altitude. The values of the vertical speed are received by way of integrating a vertical acceleration, the values of the barometric altitude - integrating a vertical speed with the calculation of corrections of acceleration and speed. The difference between computed and indicated barometric altitudes with calculation of delays in the pneumatic tract of static pressure is used for computing mentioned corrections using coefficients. The atmosphere is sounded no more than 3 hours before flight tests which are carried out on regimes consisted of sectors of horizontal flight, climbing and lowering. At that vertical acceleration, indicated barometric altitude, reference vertical speed and geometric altitude of a flying vehicle are synchronously measured. Using these parameters the model values of vertical speed and barometric altitude are computed on the basis of Kalman's filters and coefficients are optimized minimizing the criterion of quality: the mean value of the square of an error or the maximum value of the module of an error of defined magnitude. The delay in the pneumatic tract is defined by calculation of pressure and temperature of air at the present altitude.
EFFECT: increases accuracy of definition of vertical speed and barometric altitude of the flight.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: geodetic instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has reference member, cylindrical yoke, collimator, electric motor, pentaprism, unit for setting inclination of axis of rotation of pentaprism and vertical circle. Laser is placed into cylindrical yoke. Reference member has base and frame. Unit for setting inclination of axis of rotation of pentaprism is made in form of set of hinge parallelograms. System has two cranks with parallel units. Cranks are fastened to top plank of frame by means of shafts. Top plank of frame is made U-shaped. Cylindrical yoke is mounted in parallel to units of cranks. Optical center of pentaprism is disposed at extension of straight line to cross the points where cranks are fastened to frame. Two pairs of connecting rods are connected by hinges with cranks and cylindrical yoke. Sector gear is disposed onto shaft of axis of rotation of one crank. Worm is mounted onto base for interaction with sector connecting rod. Vertical circle is mounted onto axis of rotation of one crank.
EFFECT: simplified design; improved reliability; improved precision of results.
FIELD: controlling and measuring equipment engineering, possible use for performing leveling operations in mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: laser with collimator are positioned on axis of observation tube before its objective. Diameter of body does not exceed size of aperture of objective of pipe with relation of these dimensions no more than 1/4. collimator contains one flat-convex lens with spherical aberration. On optical axis of lens semiconductor laser is positioned. Laser is rigidly held with shift relatively to lens focus.
EFFECT: possible determining of horizontal position of controlled object with required precision.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: experimental geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: hydrostatic level comprises two parallel connecting pipes whose ends are connected with the hydrostatic vessels filled with liquids having different coefficients of thermal expansion and indicators of liquid level in the hydrostatic vessels.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measurement of excesses in leveled points, especially when taking measurements under undesired conditions like vibration, shading, fluxes of non-uniform heated air etc. Flexible thread is suspended between leveled points. Thread is pulled by built-in vibrator; load is freely suspended at roller, which roller fixes point of maximal sag. Section between point of suspension of load and marked center of thread is measured. Excess is measured from formula of h=2Δl√1-(L/l)2, where L is projection of length of thread l onto horizontal plane and Δl is section between point of maximal sag and central part of thread.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved precision of measurement of location of maximal sag; simplified calculation of excesses.
FIELD: measuring equipment, in particular, devices for high-accuracy measurement of excesses, as well as for monitoring of the points of the engineering structures and production equipment by combination of the methods of hydrodynamic and hydrostatic leveling.
SUBSTANCE: the device has dynamostatic systems installed on the preset horizontal with monitored vessels communicating in them, as well as one measuring vessel installed on a fixed point in the system located on the lower horizon. One of the monitored vessels installed on the fixed horizon is provided with an additional level indicator, whose other end is fixed to the base of the monitored vessel of the system installed on the preset upper level. The vessels are filled with liquid and separated into two equal sections: the main and the auxiliary ones, communicating only in liquid through a port in the bottom part of the vessel. The liquid level indicators are located in the upper part of the main sections of the monitored vessels, the indicators are installed at a similar distance from their bases. The air spaces of the auxiliary sections of the measuring and monitored vessels are connected to the additional pressure unit by pipe-lines of a similar length and diameter. Pressure equalization in the main and auxiliary vessels, as well as increase of pressure in the auxiliary section of the vessels, are effected with the aid of the respective valves.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurements and simplified construction.
FIELD: geodesic measuring equipment, possible use for controlling measurement results during geodesic operations.
SUBSTANCE: method for controlling geodesic measurements includes performing additional measurements of control marks of target rod, comparison of results and determining of weight of single measurements. Base parameters of target rod Urod are compared, which characterize mutual position of control marks, with their computed values Upract on basis of measurement results, commensurate with system measurements, while one of control marks is combined with sighting target, and weight of single measurement Piezo is estimated on basis of absolute value of difference (Upract-Urod). Target rod for controlling geodesic measurements includes horizontal and vertical bars, on which four control marks are mounted at fixed distances from each other. One mark is combined with the center of horizontal bar and with base of vertical bar. Other ones are mounted on free ends of bars. Control marks are made in form of deflectors.
EFFECT: increased precision and increased trustworthiness of measurements due to expanded functional capabilities of control means.
2 cl, 1 dwg