The method of producing vinyl chloride

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method for producing vinyl chloride by thermal pyrolysis of dichloroethane. The process involves feeding the pyrogas through the HRSG in a convoy of vintage, above which the output gaseous phase containing vinyl chloride, dichloroethane and hydrogen chloride, and the lower liquid containing tar and coke. Cooling pyrogas carry out the original dichloroethane, which is pre-heated and served in the upper part of the additional distillation column, combined with a recovery boiler. A pair of dichloroethane of the additional distillation column is directed into the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil. Liquid dichloroethane with intermediate plates served in the evaporation zone and overheating by taking it out of the zone and fed into the separator, where a pair of dichloroethane sent to the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace, and liquid dichloroethane in the HRSG. Coming out of the pillar of quenching the gaseous phase after cooling dichloroethane is cooled further by water, which is then applied to the coil, located in the upper part of the convective camera pyrolysis furnace, to obtain the water vapor. In the process of obtaining vinyl chloride d is designed for the chemical industry in obtaining chlorine-containing monomer vinyl chloride from ethylene dichloride.

A known method of producing vinyl chloride by thermal pyrolysis of dichloroethane, followed by quenching of the resulting mixture and the rectification [Application Germany 2925720, MKI C 07 C 21/06]. From the furnace of pyrolysis mixture formed during the decomposition of dichloroethane at a temperature of 480-560oC and a pressure of 1.5-2.5 MPa vinyl chloride and other products, is introduced into the heat exchanger. The last cool liquid and gaseous substances to dramatically reduce the temperature to 120-220oWith (preferably 100-150oC). For this purpose, use, for example, water, mineral oil, diphenyl silicone oil. Further cooling is carried out with application containing more than 50% of dichloroethane mixture, which is injected into the gas stream or in contact with him in counter-flow quenching column. The cooling rate of the gas mixture should be (oWith/s ) 1/4-1/9 (preferably 1/5-1/7) the gas temperature entering the cooling system. The heat extracted from the gas mixture, is used to heat the cube distillation columns. Usually apply a two-stage cooling: at the first stage gas from the furnace is cooled to 120-220oWith the second - to 60-100oC.

The disadvantages of the method against the mu technical solution is the method of producing vinyl chloride by thermal pyrolysis of dichlorethane [Application Germany 3135242, MCI C 07 C 21/06, 17/34], according to which the process is carried out as follows. The gas discharged from the reaction zone of the furnace with a temperature of approximately 500oC and a pressure of 15 at, cooled to 160-200 oWith mixed with dichloroethane. The latter is withdrawn from the quench column with a temperature of 140oC. This dichloroethane contains up to 15% of high-boiling compounds. Then the sin is cooled in a quench column to 130-150oWith simultaneous separation of high-boiling compounds, coke and tar from the reaction gas. Coming on top of the quenching column, a gas containing chloride, dichloroethane and hydrogen chloride, cooled to 90-110 (preferably 100)oWith the condenser of the column with water. When this gets 0.4 tonnes of process steam with a pressure of 1.7 at 1 t of vinyl chloride. Part of the resulting condensate is returned to the quenching column in the form of phlegmy, and the other part together with the gas fed into the heat exchanger. Gas and condensate from the heat exchanger with a temperature of 40-60oWith subjected to rectification in two columns and get hydrogen chloride, vinyl chloride and dichloroethane. Taken from the cube hardening of the column a mixture of high-boiling compounds and tar is distilled in a distillation column. Part of the obtained distillate with nnuu the column in the form of phlegmy. The other part is introduced into the cube quenching column. To control the impurity content of butadiene in the resulting vinyl chloride to ethylene dichloride, returned to the distillation column, periodically add fresh dichloroethane. The latter contains not more than 1400 ppm of chlorine and no more than 40 ppm of iron. Consumption of this dichloroethane is not more than 1 (preferably of 0.05-0.2) mol.% the number of dichloroethane fed to the furnace. This dichloroethane receive, for example, by chlorination of ethylene in the presence of iron compounds.

The main disadvantage of this method is not sufficiently rational use of high-grade (high-temperature) heat of the reaction gases and the deposition of coke and tar on the plates and in the reboiler of the distillation column.

The task of the invention to provide vinyl chloride by pyrolysis of dichloroethane with a more rational and full use of the heat of the reaction gases.

The problem is solved by the proposed method of producing vinyl chloride by pyrolysis of dichloroethane, comprising cooling the obtained pyrogas and feeds it into the column quenching for separating a gaseous phase containing vinyl chloride, hydrogen chloride and dichloroethane, and about the second mixture from the column quenching direct cooling with obtaining condensate partially vozvrashenie as phlegmy in column quenching, and the remaining part of the condensate together with the gas phase is injected into consistently located distillation columns for separation of hydrogen chloride, vinyl chloride and dichloroethane. High-boiling cubic fraction from the column quenching is directed to the selection of her dichloroethane returned to the process, and removing resinous.

According to the proposed method, the cooling of the pyrogas is carried out in a recovery boiler, in which the upper part is connected with the additional distillation column, in the upper part of which serves original preheated in the heat exchanger-the heat exchanger through heat recovery from the column quenching the gaseous phase dichloroethane, which, after rectification in additional distillation column served in the furnace of pyrolysis vapors dichloroethane of the additional distillation column is directed into the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil and liquid dichloroethane with intermediate plates served in the evaporation zone and overheating with his conclusion from this zone and fed into the separator, where a pair of dichloroethane sent to the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace, and the liquid in the boiler. Coming out of the pillar of quenching the gaseous phase through the heat exchanger-utilizarea water, supplied then the coil upper part of the convective camera pyrolysis furnace by removing water vapor, and then in the third heat exchanger-a heat exchanger for transferring heat supplied him in the air,which is then sent to the burner burning gaseous or liquid fuel pyrolysis furnace.

The amount of liquid dichloroethane taken with intermediate plate for additional distillation column and fed to the evaporation zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil, pick up, so that the amount of liquid phase at the outlet of the evaporation zone amounted to 1-50 % of the applied amount of dichloroethane.

In addition, under the proposed method cubic liquid from the column hardening display system clarification for the Department of dichloroethane vapor from the liquid phase containing the resin and coke, and a couple of dichloroethane is sent to distillation column. The system includes clarification tank, the pump and the evaporator, through which waste liquid columns hardening is ignored with a linear speed of not less than 10-100 m/s, which allows to reduce by 4-5 times compared with the prototype of a number of high-boiling compounds and resins in the bottom liquid of the column quenching subjected to rectification.

The process of thermocatenulatus 480-520oWith the vinyl chloride and hydrogen chloride.

Phase pyrolysis of dichloroethane includes oven pyrolysis, column tempering pyrogas, node condensation of vapours from the top of the column, the node clarification of VAT quenching column, distillation column, intended to highlight faction dichloroethane returned to the process, and the fraction of high-boiling by-products, sent for incineration.

The proposed method differs from the known fact that the cooling of the pyrogas is carried out in a recovery boiler, in which the upper part is connected with the additional distillation column, in the upper part of which serves the original, pre-heated in the heat exchanger-the heat exchanger through heat recovery from the column quenching the gaseous phase dichloroethane, which, after rectification in additional distillation column served in the furnace of pyrolysis vapors dichloroethane sent to the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil and liquid dichloroethane with intermediate plates, served in the evaporation zone and overheating with his conclusion from this zone and fed into the separator, where a pair of dichloroethane sent to the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace, and the liquid in the boiler, vyhodyaschaya, served in the second heat exchanger-a heat exchanger for heating water, which is then channelled into the coil upper part of the convective camera pyrolysis furnace by removing water vapor.

Thus, the amount of liquid dichloroethane taken with intermediate plate for additional distillation column and fed to the evaporation zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil, pick up, so that the amount of liquid phase at the outlet of the evaporation zone was 1-50% of the applied amount of dichloroethane.

Gaseous phase columns quenching after heat-exchanger heating the water fed into the heat exchanger-a heat exchanger for heating air supplied then the burner combustion pyrolysis furnace.

Cubic liquid from the column quenching passed through a system of clarification, including the tank, pump and evaporator, with at least 10-100 m/s for separating the liquid phase containing the resin and Cox, dichloroethane vapor directed into a distillation column, after which the resulting dichloroethane return in the process.

The drawing shows a scheme for vinyl chloride by thermal pyrolysis of dichloroethane by the proposed method. Dichloroethane-rectified content at of the three cameras - radiant, transient (shock) and convective United by a common frame, chimney, mounted in the side walls of the furnace burners, duct systems and the supply of fuel to the burners, and also located inside the furnace coil. The latter is divided into several zones.

Located in the convection chamber of the furnace portion of the coil is a heating zone dichloroethane, where it is heated to a temperature of 215-245oWith, and is fed to the evaporation zone. In a shock chamber is the portion of the coil, which is a zone of overheating and where a pair of dichloroethane to overheat 320-370oC. Located in the radiant chamber portion of the coil is reactionary. It is the process of pyrolysis of dichloroethane.

It is known that the coke formation occurs with appreciable velocity at the contact of liquid hydrocarbons with a metal surface heated to a temperature above 300oC.

Pyrolysis of dichloroethane is carried out at a temperature of 320-370oWith input and 480-520oWith the outlet and the inlet pressure of 20-25 kg/cm2and the output 14-20 kgf/cm2the reaction zone.

The reaction gases of the pyrolysis temperature 480-520oWith fed into the boiler utilizat organicheskikh products (200-300o(C) by heat pre-heated to 140-150oWith dichloroethane. The boiler is a device in which the pyrolysis gas passes at high speed (30-35 m/s) through a pipe immersed in the layer of liquid dichloroethane. The upper part of the boiler is connected to the additional partitioned plates or filled by the nozzle column of DK-1. In this column is fed to the rectification pyrolysis of dichloroethane. As phlegmy uses heated to 150oSource dichloroethane, served on the top plate of the column.

Calculations show that in these conditions the recovery boiler heat pyrogas enough for evaporation to 40% filed additional distillation column dichloroethane. The obtained vapor-liquid mixture from the boiler is directed into the furnace of pyrolysis.

The rational portion of the coil in the convection chamber of the furnace used to produce steam in the amount of up to 7.2 t/h with a pressure of 12 kg/cm2.

Of the additional distillation column liquid dichloroethane sent to the evaporation zone and overheating of the coil and then into the separator, where a pair of dichloroethane together with pairs of dichloroethane is of iraiza, not containing condensed organochlorine products, is injected into the bottom of the quenching column K-1. There shall bubbling gas through the liquid layer to quickly reduce the temperature up to 170-200oC. gas-vapor mixture is subjected to purification from gone hardening liquid drops on the failed plates and then subjected to rectification in the upper part of the column by contact with flowing phlegm on the plates or the nozzle. Temperature phlegmy support within 50-80oC, and the temperature of the cube column - 170-200oC. In the distillation of the products of pyrolysis allocate the major part of the high-boiling organic and chlorinated organic by-products and resin, going from the column with kubovy stream.

Coming on top of the column K-1 gaseous mixture not containing coke and tarry, with a temperature of 160-170oServed with first counterflow heat exchanger-a heat exchanger TU-1, where it is cooled fed to the pyrolysis of dichloroethane. The dichloroethane is heated up to 140 - 160oC and sent to the additional distillation column DK-1. This allows not to use coolant from the heating source dichloroethane to a temperature of 140-160oC.

provide the second counterflow heat exchanger-a heat exchanger TU-2, in which the cooling gas-liquid mixture is performed with the boiler water. The latter is heated up to 100-140oWith and then served in the convection chamber of the furnace of pyrolysis of P-1 for water vapor.

Liquid-vapor mixture of pyrolysis products coming out of the second heat-exchanger TU-2, separated into gaseous and liquid streams.

Further cooling to 50-70oWith a gaseous mixture by condensation of the main part of dichloroethane and significant parts of vinyl chloride is carried out in a heat exchanger T-1, the cooling which can be created using supplied to the combustion burner in the furnace of pyrolysis fuel gas or air.

The cooled liquid from the last two heat exchangers TU-2 and T-1 is directed in the reflux tank E-1, from which part of the liquid fed into the top of the quench column K-1 as phlegmy, and the remaining part of the liquid is directed to the separation in the column allocation hydrogen chloride K-3.

Neskondensirovannyh gas stream from the heat exchanger T-1 fed into the heat exchanger T-2, which is cooled by the cooled gaseous hydrogen chloride, is withdrawn from condenser T-6 columns highlight of hydrogen chloride K-3. Paroi the threat from the tank E-2 is directed to the separation in a distillation column allocation hydrogen chloride streams.

CBM product columns hardening To-1 containing coke, resinous products and high-boiling side components to display in the tank E-3. The content of dichloroethane as the product is 80-85%.

For the selection of the cubic product of column K-1 coke and tar, and also the fraction of dichloroethane returned to the process, use clarification. CBM product from the tank E-3 with pump N pump 1 with a linear speed of 10-100 m/s through the evaporator T-3 type "pipe" for heating the circulating mixture to boiling point. For this purpose, use a heating steam pressure of 1.2 MPa. Vapor-liquid mixture from the evaporator T-3 return to tank E-3, where the extender installed above the tank, separating the vapor phase from the liquid. Vapour phase, not containing coke and tar products, is served in a distillation column K-2. A liquid containing a resin and a coke from the tank E-3 periodically taken for incineration.

Distillation column K-2 is used to obtain the fraction of dichloroethane returned in the process.

Ê-2 is equipped with a reboiler T-5. Cubic liquid of the column, enriched high-boiling by-products, sent for incineration.

Gas is holding over 90% of dichloroethane, send in the reflux tank E-4, where part of the liquid serves to flamerobin K-2 column. Another part of the liquid sent to the column separation of vinyl chloride and unreacted during pyrolysis of dichloroethane K-4. There also serves cubic liquid from the reboiler T-7 column K-3. Ê-4 equipped with a condenser T-8 and boiler T-9.

Example: in accordance with the proposed process, the original dichloroethane in the number 55,1 t/h pre-heated to a temperature of 145oWith the heat exchanger-the heat exchanger TU-1 due to the heat of the reaction pyrolysis gas emerging from the column quenching K-1, and serves for irrigation in the upper part of the boiler KU-1, representing a partitioned / tube sheet plates of the distillation column DK-1. In this column is fed to the rectification pyrolysis of dichloroethane. Obtained by evaporation of the last pair is sent to the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil.

Supplied in a column of DK-1 dichloroethane contains up to 0.6 wt.% high-boiling impurities. Coming on top of the column in the amount of 21.3 t/h pair dichloroethane contain 0.3 wt. % of high-boiling compounds. With the third plate on top of the column DK-1 assign 38,2 t/h of liquid dichloroethane, which is than necessary in the convection chamber of the furnace of pyrolysis. Leaving this zone vapor stream dichloroethane is introduced into separator s-1, where 33,3 t/h vapor dichloroethane served in the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil and 4.9 tons/h of liquid dichloroethane returned to the HRSG HRSG-1.

Thus, in the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil R-1 serves 54,6 t/h of evaporated dichloroethane with a temperature of 370oC and a pressure of 20 kgf/cm2. The reaction gases of the pyrolysis temperature of 510oC and a pressure of 18 kg/cm2is sent to the HRSG HRSG-1, with passage of which the temperature of the gases is reduced to 290oC. pyrolysis Gases pass at a speed of 30 m/s through a pipe immersed in dichloroethane. The temperature reduction is due to the heat pyrolysis gases heated to 150oWith dichloroethane.

The cooled pyrolysis products that do not contain condensed chlorinated organic products, is served in the lower part of the quench column K-1. This guide 0.5 t/h of liquid dichloroethane from the bottom of the boiler. Due to ozonation through the layer of liquid products of pyrolysis cooled to a temperature of the bottom liquid - 180oC. gas-vapor mixture is subjected to purification from gone hardening liquid drops on three problemaatikaga the phlegm. Temperature phlegmy support 60oC.

Coming on top of the column K-1 gaseous mixture not containing coke and tarry, with a temperature of 162oWith served in a counter-current heat exchanger-a heat exchanger TU-1, where it is cooled fed to the pyrolysis of dichloroethane to a temperature of 155oC. Dichloroethane in the number 55,1 t/h heated up to 145oC and sent to the additional distillation column DK-1.

Liquid-vapor mixture of pyrolysis products after the first heat-exchanger TU-1 is directed in the second counterflow heat exchanger-a heat exchanger TU-2 for cooling to 135oWith by heating to 120oWith the supplied boiler water.

Further cooling to 60oWith a gaseous mixture of pyrolysis products from the condensation of the main parts of dichloroethane and significant parts of vinyl chloride is carried out using air in the heat exchanger T-1. Part of the heated thus air is used for combustion of fuel gas in the burners of the furnace of pyrolysis.

The fluid from the heat exchangers TU-2 and T-1 is directed in the reflux tank E-1. From the tank E-1 22.5 t/h of liquid served in the upper part of the column as phlegmy, and the remaining portion of the liquid output is C heat exchanger T-1 is directed to the heat exchanger T-2, which is cooled cooled to a temperature of minus 25oWith gaseous hydrogen chloride supplied from the collector phlegmy columns highlight of hydrogen chloride. The obtained vapor-liquid mixture from the heat exchanger T-2 is sent to the tank E-2, in which the mixture is separated into gas and liquid phases. Both phases of capacity served after discharge pressure up to 1.3 MPa separation in the column allocation hydrogen chloride streams.

CBM product quenching column K-1, containing 9.2 % coke, resinous products and vysokosidyaschih side components, continuously output in tank E-3 in the amount of 1370 kg/h of the Liquid from the tank E-3 with a pump pumped at a speed of 40 m/s through a pipe of the evaporator T-3 type "pipe in pipe", where heating of the circulating mixture to a temperature of 136oC. the Pressure at the pump's discharge support to 0.5 MPa. Heating is carried out by heating with steam pressure of 1.2 MPa. Vapor-liquid mixture from the evaporator is returned to the tank E-3, where the extender installed above the tank, separating the vapor phase from the liquid.

Concentrated product containing resin and a coke from the tank E-3 periodically take to burn in number, on average, 150 kg/cinego selection of high-boiling impurities.

Ê-2 feature / tube sheet plates. The amount of steam flowing in the column totals 5620 kg/h Temperature of the top of the column is 85oC. the temperature in the bottom part of support at 118oC. ê-2 is equipped with a reboiler T-5, which serves the heating steam. Its bottom liquid of the column is directed to the combustion in the amount of approximately 220 kg/h

The gaseous product leaving the top of column K-2, is directed to cooling and condensation in the heat exchanger T-4. The product temperature at the exit of the heat exchanger is 10oC. the Condensate, which is a fraction containing more than 90% of dichloroethane, served in the capacity of E-4, where it will flamerobin column K-2 in the amount of 5400 kg/hour, About the same dichlorethane fraction of the capacity of the E-4 is fed to the column selection of vinyl chloride K-4.

About 7 kg/h of a gaseous product consisting of inertol, hydrogen chloride and vinyl chloride, is directed to sanitary column or burning.

Table 1 presents the comparative results of the technological mode for two types of node quenching pyrolysis gases:

option 1 - prototype;

option 2 - offers alnost in the second embodiment are given to the size, specified in the prototype.

In both cases there is a complete selection of products of pyrolysis coke and tar together with kubovy the product of the quenching column.

However, in the proposed process are disposed of 3.7 Gcal/h of high-potential and 2.9 Gcal/h heat, while in the prototype utilized only 2.1 Gcal/h of heat. As a result, when the implementation of the proposed process get 11.7-t/h of evaporated dichloroethane and 3.1 t/h of water vapor pressure of 1.2 MPa. For comparison, in the process carried out on the prototype, receive only 4 t/h of water vapor pressure of 0.17 MPa.

Using system clarification of VAT quenching column gives the opportunity to reduce more than 4.3 times compared to prototype a number of high-boiling compounds and resins in the power of the column selection and high-boiling resinous K-2 and thus greatly facilitate the operation mode of the column.

The method of producing vinyl chloride by thermal pyrolysis of dichloroethane, followed by cooling of the pyrogas and feeding it to the column quenching for separating high-boiling compounds from the gaseous phase containing vinyl chloride, dichloroethane and hydrogen chloride, padave phlegmy, and feeding another part of the condensate with steam phase in the distillation column for separation of hydrogen chloride, vinyl chloride and dichloroethane, with a selection from the cube hardening of the column a mixture of high-boiling compounds and resinous, by distillation in a distillation column for separation of a fraction enriched with ethylene dichloride and returned to the process, and removal of resin, characterized in that the cooling of the pyrogas is carried out in a recovery boiler, in which the upper part is connected with the additional distillation column, in the upper part of which serves original preheated in the heat exchanger-the heat exchanger through heat recovery from the column quenching the gaseous phase dichloroethane, which, after rectification in additional distillation column served in the furnace of pyrolysis vapors dichloroethane of the additional distillation column is directed into the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace coil and liquid dichloroethane with intermediate plates served in the evaporation zone and overheating with his conclusion from this zone and fed into the separator, where a pair of dichloroethane sent to the reaction zone of the pyrolysis furnace, and liquid dichloroethane in the boiler, leaving the column quenching gaseous Teploobmennik-exchanger for heating water, then channelled into the coil upper part of the convective camera pyrolysis furnace by removing water vapor.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the quantity of liquid dichloroethane taken with intermediate plate for additional distillation column and fed to the evaporation zone of the coils of the furnace of pyrolysis, are selected so that the amount of liquid phase at the outlet of the evaporation zone amounted to 1-50% of the applied amount of dichloroethane.

3. The method according to PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that the gaseous phase columns quenching after heat-exchanger used to heat water, is fed into the heat exchanger-heat exchanger, change to heat the air supplied then the burner combustion pyrolysis furnace.

4. The method according to PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that the cubic liquid from the column quenching passed through a system of clarification, including the tank, pump and evaporator with at least 10-100 m/s for separating the liquid phase containing the resin and the coke from the vapor dichloroethane sent to distillation column, after which the resulting dichloroethane return in the process.

 

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40, 9 tbl, 3 dwg, 31 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing vinyl chloride monomer and to a catalyst sued in catalytic preparing vinyl chloride monomer from flows comprising ethylene. Method for preparing vinyl chloride from ethylene is carried out by the oxidehydrochlorination reaction. Method involves combining reagents including ethylene, the source of oxygen and chlorine in the catalyst-containing reactor at temperature 350-500°C and under pressure from atmosphere to 3.5 MPa, i. e. under conditions providing preparing the product flow comprising vinyl chloride and ethylene. Catalyst comprises one or some rare-earth elements under condition that the atomic ratio between rare-earth metal and oxidative-reductive metal (iron and copper) is above 10 in the catalyst and under the following condition: when cerium presents then the catalyst comprises additionally at least one rare-earth element distinctive from cerium. Ethylene is recirculated from the product flow inversely for using at stage for combining reagents. Invention proposes a variant for a method for preparing vinyl chloride. Also, invention proposes variants of a method for catalytic dehydrochlorination of raw comprising one or some components taken among ethyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,2-trichloroethane in the presence of catalyst. Catalyst represents the composition of the formula MOCl or MCl3 wherein M represents a rare-earth element or mixture of rare-earth elements taken among lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, praseodymium, dysprosium, samarium, yttrium, gadolinium, erbium, ytterbium, holmium, terbium, europium, thulium and lutetium. The catalytic composition has the surface area BET value from 12 m2/g to 200 m2/g. Invention provides simplifying technology and enhanced selectivity of the method.

EFFECT: improved conversion method.

61 cl, 8 tbl, 32 ex

FIELD: chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of chlorinated ethylene derivatives, in particular, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene by the dehydrochlorination reaction of corresponding chlorinated ethane derivatives. The process is carried out in the presence of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, catalyst of interphase transfer relating to polyglycols and an extractant-promoter representing mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons of the general formula: CnH2n +2-xClx wherein n = 10-30; x = 1-7 with molecular mass 250-305 Da and the chlorine content is 24-43% followed by isolation of end substances by the known procedures. As a catalyst of interfase transfer the method uses polyethylene glycols in the amount 0.0001-1% of the mass of the parent chlorinated ethane derivative. Extractant-promoter is used in the amount 1-10% of the mass of the parent ethane derivative. The mole ratio of chlorinated ethane derivative to sodium hydroxide = 1:(1.15-5) at the concentration of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution 5-35 wt.-%. Invention provides the development of the complex method for synthesis of chlorinated ethylene derivatives from chlorinated ethane derivatives, among them, from depleted reagents of the method or waste of corresponding industry, and increasing yield of end products.

EFFECT: improved method of synthesis.

7 cl, 1 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of vinyl chloride by the liquid-phase dehydrochlorination process of 1,2-dichloroethane. As reagent for the liquid-phase dehydrochlorination process of 1,2-dichloroethane the method involves using alcoholic solutions of quaternary ammonium salts of the general formula: [R1-R2-R3-R4N]+OR- wherein R1-R2-R3 mean (C1-C4)-alkyl; R3-R4 mean propenyl, β- or γ-chloropropenyl; R means (C1-C4)-alkyl, benzyl synthesized by electrolysis of corresponding quaternary ammonium salts in electrolyzers with ion-exchange membranes. Invention provides the development of wasteless, highly efficient, ecologically pure technology of synthesis of vinyl chloride and simplifying a method for synthesis of vinyl chloride based on decreasing temperature and pressure in carrying out the process.

EFFECT: improved method of synthesis.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; apparatuses for production of the chlorinated allyl.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the reactor for production of the chlorinated allyl intended for realization of the method of production of the chlorinated allyl by the direct gaseous phase chlorination of the propylene. The reactor includes the closed circuit of circulation of the reaction gases, the devices of injection of the source propylene and chlorine, the device of the forced circulation of the part of the reaction gases and the device of withdrawal of the other part of the reaction gases. At that the closed circuit of the reaction gases circulation forms the jet pump, which includes in series connected the reception chamber, the mixing chamber and the diffuser, and the pipe of the circulation circuit connecting the outlet of the diffuser with the appropriate inlet of the reception chamber of the injector and acting as the main reaction zone of the ideal displacement with the presence time of 0.7-0.9 s, in which the scatter of the temperatures does not exceed ±10°С. The reception chamber contains the nozzles used as the devices for injection of the source propylene and chlorine. The jet pump ensures fulfillment of the concerted functions: introduction of the streams of the source propylene and chlorine, which are the working injecting streams; the forced circulation pump with the repetition factor of 5-10 of the reaction gases stream, which is the injected stream; the high-velocity mixer and the preheater of the source reactants in the mixing chamber due to the strong turbulence during (0.01-0.04)s, which is formed by the combination of the nozzles of the injected gases at the arrangement of the nozzle/ nozzles of the chlorine coaxially to the main nozzle of the propylene arranged on the shaft of the mixing chamber. The technical result of the invention is, that the presented design of the reactor allows to increase the selectivity of the process of production of the chlorinated allyl.

EFFECT: the invention provides, that the presented design of the reactor allows to increase the selectivity of the process of production of the chlorinated allyl.

1 ex, 1 dwg

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