The way the regulation of the transport of heavy metals and nitrates in the system soil-plant

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of crop production, namely the means of the regulation of metabolic processes in plants, and can be used in agriculture for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, as well as in scientific research in the study of physiological processes in plants. Plants treated with diphenylacetone (FMD) and difeniltiomochevinoi (DFCM) at a dose of 10-20 g/ha of Legumes and cereals is treated in the phase of flowering and vegetable for 5-10 days before harvest. The use of the invention allows to obtain ecologically pure agricultural products with minimal cost. 4 Il., 7 table.

The invention relates to the field of crop production, namely the means of the regulation of metabolic processes in plants, and can be used in agriculture, as well as in scientific research in the study of physiological processes in plants.

It is known the use of N,N-diphenylacetone (FMD) and N,N-diphenylthiophene (DFTM) as growth regulators plant [1,2].

Currently a very topical problem of producing organic agricultural products. In soil and urea in certain phases of plant growth [3,4].

As the prototype used a method of processing plants with urea in the phase of tillering [3].

However, urea is not always effective and sustainable reduction of heavy metals and nitrates in plants.

The researchers had to develop a way to obtain a sustainable and more effective reduction of heavy metals and a significant reduction of nitrates in plants, for which it is proposed to use N,N'-diphenylacetone (DFM,12H12N2O )

and N,N'-definitionaudio (DFTM, C12H12N2S )

for processing plants.

Legumes and cereals contaminated with heavy metals territories processed FMD and DFTM flowering at a dose of 10-20 g/ha Vegetable crops for reduction of nitrates processed FMD and DFTM for 5 to 10 days before harvest at a dose of 10-20 g/ha

The method is as follows.

The study was conducted outdoors on plants of barley varieties "TRUMPF", the corn varieties "Stirling", peas grade "Excellent", vegetable crops (beet dining room, radish, spinach) different varieties. For the experiments we used solutionmodel lateral migration of heavy metals and mineral fertilizers. As fertilizer before sowing was made (NPK 1) - urea double superphosphate, K2SO4at doses of 8 mg/100 g soil for each battery. As an analogue of urea was introduced into the soil at a dose of 4 mg/100 g soil (NPK 2) or 60 kg urea per 1 ha, i.e., two times less compared with the control. Cadmium was introduced into the soil at the rate of 10 and 50 mg, and lead at the rate of 100 and 500 mg per 1 kg of soil. Plants of each group were treated with aqueous solutions of FMD or DFTM using sprinklers in the rate of 10-20 g/ha in the phase of tillering, flowering and milky stage for legumes, cereals and for 5-10 days before harvest for vegetable crops. The treatment was carried out once in different phases of the growing season. The repetition of three experiments. After maturing legumes and cereals dried, determined the content of cadmium and lead in the roots and aboveground parts of the plant by using a spectrophotometer Perkin - ELMER. The content of nitrates in vegetable crops were determined using membrane filters on ionomer "120.1". The invention is illustrated by the following examples and figures.

In Fig.1 and 2 shows the effect of different doses of FMD on the content of cadmium (1) and lead (2) in the aerial parts of plants of barley depending on the dose of cadmium and lead is the cost of the nitrate content in roots of red beet on the processing time (before harvest) plant FMD.

In Fig.4 shows the results of research of influence of various doses of FMD on the nitrate content in roots of red beet. The processing plant produced 10 days before harvest.

Example 1. The study was conducted on barley varieties "TRUMPF". The conditions of the experiment described above. The results are presented in table. 1.2 and Fig. 1.2.

As can be seen from the table. 1 and 2, the greatest effect of reducing the concentration of heavy metals in above-ground parts of plants is achieved by processing plants FMD and DFTM in the flowering phase.

Example 2. The trial was carried out according to the scheme, similar to example 1. As object of research used the corn varieties "sterling". Corn is a plant WITH a4-type in contrast to barley, which is a plant WITH a3type. Processing plants FMD was performed only in the flowering phase. The results of the analysis are presented in table. 3.

Example 3. The trial was carried out according to the scheme similar to examples 1,2. As object of research used legumes - peas grade "Excellent". Processing plants was performed only in the flowering phase. The results are presented in table. 4.

The results of the experiments presented in the table. 1-4, indicate that not what leads to a significant reduction of heavy metals (cadmium, the lead) in the aboveground part of plants. A similar effect on the entry of heavy metals in plants has derived diphenylacetone - diphenylthiophene. Significantly less effect on the intake of cadmium and lead in comparison with FMD and DFTM has a lower dose applied to soils nitrogen fertilizer. The results of the analysis of the impact of FMD depending on the dose on the content of heavy metals in the plant shown in Fig.1,2, suggest that the optimal dose of the regulator is 10-20 g/ha Thus the application of the above method allows a significant extent (about 2 times) to reduce heavy metals in crops and to get quality products contaminated with these compounds territories.

Example 4. The experiment was carried out on vegetable crops (beetroot, radish and spinach) according to the scheme described in the method, without introducing heavy metals into the soil. In this example, investigated the impact of FMD and DFTM on the content of nitrates in vegetable crops and processing plants of these substances was performed for 5-10 days before harvest. As a prototype, as in the examples above used different doses of nitrogen fertilizer is urea.

The research results presented in Fig.3,4 show that the greatest effect on the reduction of nitrates in root crops vegetable crops is achieved when processing plant FMD and DFTM for 5-10 days before harvest.

In addition to the above results, a study was conducted of the impact of FMD on the harvest of cereals, legumes and vegetable crops (dining and sugar beet).

The research results are summarized in table. 6 and 7.

Are given in table.6 the results indicate that FMD has a stimulating effect on the yield of cereals in terms of soil contamination with heavy metals. Thus, processing plants DFM allows not only to obtain better quality products, but also a higher yield.

The results presented in table. 7 shows that FMD is not only increases the yield of vegetables, namely, in addition to the reduction of nitrate (table.5) the observed increase in sugar content in the roots.

The use of the invention allows to obtain ecologically pure agricultural products with minimal cost.

Sources of information

1. Patent UK 2114112, class a 01 N 47/28, 1983.

2. Patent USSR 1702564, class a 01 N 47/28, 1991.

3. Heavy metals in the system soil - plant.- M., 1997, S. 184-185.

4. Nitrates and quality of crop products.- Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1991, S. 130-131.

The way the regulation of the transport of heavy metals and nitrates in the system soil-plant, including processing plants biologically active substance, characterized in that the biologically active substances are used urea derivatives of General formula

< / BR>
where R= O (N, N'-diphenylmethane) or R= S (N, N'-diphenylthiophene),

and processing plants carried out by spraying aqueous solutions of urea derivatives in the preparation consumption 10-20 g/ha flowering for legumes and cereals and 5-10 days to harvest for vegetable crops.

 

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