Friction-planetary gear with oblique washer and a continuously variable transmission on the basis of

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of engineering. Friction-planetary gear with oblique washer contains the input 1 and output 2 shafts associated with the output shaft 2 through the bearing 6 and the face of the Cam 7 a forward tilting washer 5 with the fixing device from rotation, mounted on the input shaft 1 drag the friction plate 3 and the body of the rolling elements 4 for connection of the disk 3 with the washer 5. Based on these friction-planetary mechanism may create a continuously variable transmission. Expanded Arsenal of tools that converts movement with continuously adjustable gear ratio. 2 C. and 10 C. p. F.-ly, 13 ill.

The invention relates to the field of General engineering, is designed to transmit rotation from one shaft to another with both regular and smoothly changing gear ratio, and can be used in drives of machines and mechanisms of the widest destination.

Known mechanism freewheel with axial offset zaklinivayuschey balls (see Kozhevnikov, S. N. and other Mechanisms. M. , "engineering", 1976 , pp. 414-417). The mechanism is a coupling rigidly mounted on the control shaft and is made with gussets on the Ricky, which zakladivaetsa during the rotation of the drive shaft in one direction and freely rotate when it is rotating in the opposite direction. This mechanism transmits the rotational movement without changing speed and in one direction only.

Known friction-planetary mechanism Kuznetsova with a scythe washer (see I. And II Artobolevsky, Mechanisms in modern engineering. So 5, M. , "Nauka", 1981 , page 324), which is a continuously variable transmission. The mechanism includes an input shaft connected to a crank. Movement of the crank is transmitted to slash the puck with the body rolling - roller, which presses a wedge ring to a stationary conical surface, giving the puck complex spatial swinging movement. From washers behind the scenes with the slide motion is transmitted fork mounted on the driven shaft. Movement of the plug along the shaft, you can change the height of the slide and change the number of revolutions per minute of the driven shaft. This mechanism has a very complex structure, and, consequently, low reliability. The presence of multiple transmission links, especially friction pair wings - slide, dramatically reduces the efficiency of the mechanism. The transmission is limited transmitted power, because it does not solved the problem of creating pressure usesto signs with the first object of the invention, taken as a prototype for friction-planetary mechanism.

Known friction drag mechanism continuously variable transmission with two disks (see II Artobolevsky I. I. Mechanisms in modern engineering. So 5, M. , "Nauka", 1981 , page 314). The axis of the input and output shafts of the transmission are shifted relative to each other. On both shafts planted friction front discs, between which is located the body of the antifriction - roller, rotating around its own axis and having the ability to move along this axis. Its final drive ratio is determined by the ratio of the distances from the axes of rotation of the discs to the points of contact of the roller with the disks. Despite the seeming simplicity of the design such programs have many limitations. The mechanism consists of two transmission links from the disk to the body rolling and rolling elements to the drive and both link - friction gear. Therefore, such a mechanism has drawbacks inherent to all friction transmission. First, it is necessary to create a high pressure effort of the parts to each other, especially when the transmission of large capacity. This requires the creation of additional clamping mechanisms with adjustable force at the wear on moving parts, which results in a bulky machines. M. , "Higher school", 1994 , S. 177-178). The presence of slippage when the overload limits the field of use of the broadcast. This device is taken as a prototype for a continuously variable transmission.

Thus, the object of the invention is to provide a simple, reliable and transmitting high power mechanism with smooth change of gear ratio. When one of the nodes of this mechanism, namely the friction-planetary mechanism, can be used as an independent transmission of high power with a constant gear ratio. The technical result achieved by the invention is that the friction-planetary mechanism with oblique washer automatically appears and adjustable clamping force to the rolling body, which increases the capacity and efficiency of the engine and a continuously variable transmission as a whole. The technical result for the continuously variable transmission is also expanding Arsenal of tools that converts movement with continuously adjustable transmission ratio.

To solve the problem of the friction-planetary gear with oblique washer, as the prototype contains input shaft, body rolling, interacting with a scythe swash plate, provided with ustroystva shaft fixed drag friction disk, interacting with the body rolling, and oblique washer is connected with the output shaft through the bearing and the mechanical Cam.

This mechanism has a simple structure and high transmission capacity, due to the practical absence of proskills ivania body roll. Indeed, in this mechanism, the clamping force of the rolling elements on the friction disk is created automatically by the mechanical Cam. The gear ratio of the mechanism u = n1/n2constant and equals 2.

If necessary, you can design according to the principle of the transfer mechanism with a different gear ratio. For this purpose on the front of the friction disk and the surface of the tilting washer made raceways such a profile that the contact area of the rolling elements with the raceways are located at different distances from the axis of rotation of the rolling body.

For rolling elements made in the form of a ball, for performing the above conditions, at least one of the raceways must have two areas of contact with the body rolling - ball.

Body rolling can be made in the form of a stepped roller, while the roller is in contact with the raceways on the front friction disc and slash who I am ball outer ring part with the raceway, at least one of the interacting parts: windshield friction disk or a scythe swinging washer, perform elastically movable relative to the workpiece, the device appears a new quality. With a sharp increase of the load in the mechanism automatically going to change the gear ratio, i.e., the mechanism will be resistant to overloads.

The same result can be achieved by other means. To do this, drag friction disk seated on the input shaft with the possibility of axial movement limited by the elastic element. The raceway on the front friction disc has two zones of contact with the body rolling is performed on a separate annular elements which are pressed to contact each other with elastic inserts and United with the front friction disc with the possibility of a shift in the radial direction through the clutch Oldham or parallel crank.

Based on the above-described friction-planetary mechanism may create a continuously variable transmission. Such transmission, as the prototype contains the gear unit with input and output shafts, with two disks on them and with the body rolling between the disks, as well as the CSOs windshield friction disc to the point of contact of the rolling body with him. Unlike the prototype, the transmission mechanism is in the form of a friction-planetary mechanism with oblique washer under item 1, in which the drag friction disc is connected to the input shaft via a drive mechanism between parallel axes, allowing the change of the distance between the axes. In addition, the friction disc contains a node that allows the drive to perform satellite-planetary movement about the axis of the input and output shafts. On oblique tilting the washer is made track for retaining the rolling elements. Node a smooth speed change is made in the form of the device, shifting the axis of rotation of the friction disc relative to the axis of the input and output shafts in the radial direction.

The drive mechanism between the parallel axes of the satellite node, the planetary movement of the front friction disc and the shifter to the axis of rotation of the friction disk in the radial direction can be performed in a variety of versions of specific performance.

The drive mechanism between the parallel axes can be made in the form of a cardan transmission, or a clutch Oldham.

The satellite node, the planetary movement of the front friction disc contains enshrined in corpori bearing, in which is fixed to the shaft of a windshield of the friction disk.

The shifter axis of rotation of the front friction disc in a radial direction is developed in two versions. In the first embodiment, it is made in the form of at least one hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder, barrel and piston which is attached to the outer and inner bearings. According to the second variant, the device comprises two parallel coaxial disk mounted in the outer bearing unit with rotating them relative to each other. Each disc is made with an angle to the radius of the slot, and the inclination of the slots in one of the disk opposite to the inclination of the slots in the other drive, so that the slots overlap. At the point of intersection of the slits placed inner bearing planetary gear,

The invention is illustrated graphics of Fig. 1 presents a General view of the friction-planetary mechanism with oblique washer of Fig. 2 is a view of a wedge ring from above, and Fig. 3, 4 shows the body of the rolling - ball interacting with the raceways on the front friction disc and oblique tilting the washer. In Fig. 5 presents the same, but with the body rolling - roller. In Fig. 6 and 7 depict the mechanisms that are resistant to overload emotionsa diagram of a continuously variable transmission with shaft drive transmission as one of the nodes. In Fig. 10 separately shows the coupling of Oldham. In Fig. 11 shows the design of the site, providing satellite-planetary movement of the friction drive, with hydraulic or pneumatic drive for smooth change of gear ratio. Fig. 12 explains the principle of operation of a node of a smooth change of gear ratio on the basis of two disks with slots, Fig. 13 depicts a top view of the disc slot.

Friction-planetary gear with oblique washer contains the input and output shafts 1 and 2. On the input shaft 1 is fixed drag friction disk 3, interacting with the body of the roller 4. Body rolling 4 also interacts with a scythe swash plate 5. Washer 5 through the bearing 6 and the face Cam 7 is connected with the output shaft 2. The entire mechanism by means of bearings 8 and 9 fixed in the housing, representing two flange 10, is pulled between the rods 11. Oblique tilting washer 5 on the outer circumference has projections 12 located between terminals 11 (see Fig. 2). These projections do not allow the washer 5 to perform a rotational movement and prevent its oscillatory swinging movement along an axis. In Fig. 3, the raceway 13 on the front friction disc 3 has two zones of contact with the body rolling - ball 4. P is s And - A1 ball 4 is less than the distance r2from the axis of rotation of the ball 4 to the zone of its contact with the oblique plate 5. In Fig. 4 raceways 13 and 14 on both the interacting parts 3 and 5. Body rolling can be stepped roller (see Fig. 5). In this case, the roller stage 15 of smaller diameter in contact with one of the raceways, for example, with the raceway 13 on the friction disk 3. Then step 16 of larger diameter it will be in contact with the raceway 14 on the other interacting parts. Symbols r1and r2it also marked the distance from the zone of contact of the rolling elements with parts 3 and 5 to the axis of rotation of the rolling body. In Fig. 6 external annular part 17 of the friction disk 3 with the raceway 13 it is made elastically movable relative to the friction disc 3. Mobility is provided by a bend 18. It should be noted that the same can be accomplished outer annular portion of the oblique tilting washer 5 or the outer ring raceways on both parts 3 and 5. In the figures these options are not shown.

In the mechanism of Fig. 7 drag the friction plate 3 is fixed in the hollow shaft 1 by means of the spline 19. Splined connection 19 transmits rotation from the shaft 1 to diment, in particular, the spring 20 pressing the friction plate 3 to the body of the roller 4. The raceway on the front friction disc 3 has two contact zones 21 and 22 with the body of the roller 4. These zones are located on a separate annular parts 23 and 24. Items 23 and 24 are tightened to each other by a ring spring 25 and is fixed on the front friction disc 3 via coupling of Oldham 26, which provide rotation of the rings 23 and 24 together with the disk 3, but allow them to make a small move along the radius of the disk 3. The zone of contact of the ball 4 with the front friction disc 3 is moved along the surface of the ball by changing the distance r1to the axis of rotation of the ball.

In the continuously variable transmission based on the friction-planetary mechanism (see Fig. 9) of the input shaft 1 is connected with the front friction disc 3 by means of the drive mechanism between parallel axes, allowing the change of the distance between them. In Fig. 9, the actuator is made in the form of a cardan transmission, consisting of two cardan axles 27 and 28, the drive shaft 29 with the spline connection 30. The mechanism of the PTO transmission transmits motion from the input shaft 1 to move it relatively to the shaft 31 of the front friction disc 3. This same function can be performed and the mechanism of the so-called the s, perpendicular to each other. On the shaft 31 is planted inner bearing 32 of the satellite node, the planetary movement of the friction disk 3. The outer bearing 33 of this node is fixed in the housing (case shown the symbol). For smooth speed changes continuously variable transmission by changing the distance between the axis of rotation of the friction disc 3 and the point of its contact with the body rolling 4 to shift the friction disk 3 in the radial direction from the axis OO1. The site that provides this function can be performed on the basis of hydro or pneumatic actuator (see Fig. 11). It contains two cylinders 34, to which is fixed the inner bearing 32 with the shaft 31 of the front friction disc 3. The piston rods 35 secured to the inner race of the outer bearing 33. When the supply of the working fluid in the drive system of the piston 35 will move relative to the cylinder 34 by moving the inner bearing 32 along the outer radius of the bearing 33.

The node offset frontal disk 3 in the radial direction can be performed as shown in Fig. 12. It consists of two parallel coaxial disk 36 and 37 fixed in the outer bearing 33 can be rotated friend now in the discs opposite (see Fig. 13). At the intersection of the slots 38 and 39 is an inner bearing 32 with the shaft 31 of the front friction disc 3.

The remaining structural elements of the friction-planetary mechanism remains in the continuously variable transmission unchanged. The only exception is a mandatory requirement for the raceway 14 at an oblique tilting washer 5. This track should have such a profile to securely hold the body of the roller 4 at offset friction disk 3. The fixing unit oblique washer 5 from rotation in Fig. 9 and 12 made in the form of an articulated lever mechanism 40.

Work of the device is as follows. During the rotation of the input shaft 1 friction-planetary gear (Fig. 1) rotates together with it its friction disk 3. While the body of the roller 4 rotates around its own rotation axis A-A1, involved in satellite motion on a circle of radius R for fixed raceway on oblique washer 5. The stillness of the raceway is provided with protrusions 12 and the rod 11, which do not allow the washer 5 to rotate (see Fig. 2). Angle position of the washer 5 leads to the fact that the ball 4 is constantly so low to the surface of a windshield of the friction disk 3 without additional frigimelica figure from the left to the extreme right. Oblique washer 5 will make half of its swinging movement and, acting through the thrust bearing 6 on the face of the Cam 7, turn it half a turn. Thus, the proposed mechanism has a gear ratio u = n1/n2= 2. In the proposed mechanism the first transmission link is friction, the second planetary, and the third Cam. The combination of the Cam and friction gear allows you to use pinch efforts face Cam 7 as adjustable clamping forces to the friction element.

A gear mechanism in which the contact area of the rolling body 4 with the front friction disc 3 and the oblique plate 4 are located at different distances from the axis of rotation of the rolling elements, is other than 2, gear ratio (Fig. 3, 4, 5). Gear ratio friction-planetary gear u depending on the ratio of the distances r1and r2is defined as u= 1+r1/r2and can be more than 2 (when r1more r2), and less than 2 (when r1less than r2).

The mechanisms depicted in Fig. 6 and 7, have the ability to adapt to stresses. Under the action of normal design loads the body of the rolling - ball ulozhenie ball marked with the number 4. If it appears on the output shaft overload slippage occurs, the ball 4 is shifted in the azimuthal direction by the angle and position 4. When the ball moves up and takes the position indicated in Fig. 6 by the dashed line. Thanks to the elastic properties of the ring section 17 of the frontal disk 3, the area of contact of the ball 4 with the front friction disc 3 is shifted from point b toward point C in Fig. 6. Accordingly, the distance r1from the contact zone to the rotation axis A - A1 ball 4 is increased up to a radius of the ball, increasing the gear ratio and the transmission load. When reducing congestion annular area 17 and area of contact of the ball with the front friction disc is returned to its original position, and the gear ratio becomes the old value.

A similar property of adaptation to overload, but in a wider range possesses the mechanism of Fig. 7. Here also, when an overload situation occurs, the frontal disk 3 is lifted up, allowing the ball 4 to be displaced at an angle . The possibility of axial movement of the disk 3 is provided splined connection 19 and a spring 20. The contact zone 21 and 22 of the ball 4 with the front disk 3 are located on a separate co at offset ball 4 change their position in the radial direction. Ring spring 25, a sliding annular parts 23 and 24 to each other, form a raceway for ball 4. In this contact zone 21 and 22 is also moved along the surface of the ball by changing the gear ratio of the mechanism. Its final drive ratio is u = 1+r1/r2where r1variable, dependent on load.

Continuously variable transmission of Fig. 9 and 13 operates as follows. The rotation of the drive shaft 1 through the drive transmission is transmitted parallel to the shaft 31 of the front friction disc 3. While its disk 3 except for rotational movement about its own axis together with the shaft 31 and the bearing 32 will also make satellite motion in the outer bearing 33 about the axis OO1input 1 and output 2 shafts. Body rolling - ball 4 will roll on the raceway 14 radius R2 on the oblique washer 5. Relative to the windshield of the friction disc 3 bulb 4 will move along the circle of radius R1. The gear ratio of the mechanism is u = R2/R1, and depends on the ratio of the radii R1 and R2. The radius R1 can be smoothly changed by moving the shaft 31 in the radial direction. In the transmission of Fig. 9 the shaft 31 moves together with the inner bearing 32 with dvizhenie shaft 31 is effected by rotation of the two disks 36 and 37 relative to each other. Thus the point of intersection of the slots 38 and 39 will be displaced along the radius, and show a shaft 31 with a bearing 32, is placed at the intersection of the slots.

Thus, a new clutch, the planetary gear mechanism with high efficiency, high transmit power with small dimensions and simple design. On the basis of the friction-planetary mechanism developed new schematic diagram of a continuously variable transmission, implemented in several versions.

1. Friction-planetary gear with oblique washer containing an input shaft, body rolling, interacting with a scythe swash plate, provided with a device it is fixed against rotation and having a connection with the output shaft, characterized in that the input shaft is fixed drag friction disk that interacts with the body rolling, and oblique washer is connected with the output shaft through the bearing and the mechanical Cam.

2. Friction-planetary mechanism under item 1, characterized in that on the front friction disc and oblique tilting the washer is made raceways such a profile that the contact area of the rolling elements with the raceways are located at different distances from the axis of rotation of those is in the form of a ball, and at least one of the raceways has two zones of contact with the ball.

4. Friction-planetary mechanism under item 2, characterized in that the body of the roller made in the form of a stepped roller in contact with the raceways on the front friction disc and oblique tilting the washer surfaces of the steps having a different diameter.

5. Friction-planetary mechanism under item 1, characterized in that the body of the roller made in the form of a ball, the outer annular part with a raceway therein, at least one of the parts: windshield friction disk and a scythe swinging washer made progorodnoe regarding the details.

6. Friction-planetary mechanism under item 1, characterized in that the body of the roller made in the form of a ball, its friction disk seated on the input shaft with the possibility of axial movement limited by the elastic element and the raceway on the front friction disc has two zones of contact with the body rolling is performed on a separate annular elements which are pressed to contact each other with elastic inserts and United with the front friction disc by means of the coupling of Oldham or parallel crank, providing the opportunity stocky mechanism with input and output shafts, with two disks on the shafts and with the body rolling between the disks and the host of a smooth change of speed of rotation of the output shaft by changing the distance from the axis of rotation of the input friction disc to the point of contact of the rolling elements with it, characterized in that the gear mechanism is in the form of a friction-planetary mechanism under item 1, in which the drag friction disc is connected to the input shaft via a drive mechanism between parallel axes, allowing the change of the distance between the axes of the friction disc contains a node that allows the drive to perform satellite-planetary movement about the axis of the input and output shafts, on oblique tilting the washer is made track for retaining the rolling elements, and the node a smooth speed change is made in the form of the device, shifting the axis of rotation of the friction disc relative to the axis of the input and output shafts in the radial direction.

8. Continuously variable transmission according to p. 7, characterized in that the drive mechanism between the parallel axes made in the form of a cardan transmission.

9. Continuously variable transmission according to p. 7, characterized in that the drive mechanism between the parallel axes made in the form of clutch Oldham.

10. God friction disc contains fixed in the housing outer bearing, with the inner holder which can be moved along the radius of the associated inner bearing, which is fixed to the shaft of a windshield of the friction disk.

11. Continuously variable transmission according to p. 10, characterized in that the device shift the axis of rotation of the front friction disc in a radial direction is made in the form of at least one hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder, barrel and piston which is attached to the outer and inner bearings.

12. Continuously variable transmission according to p. 10, characterized in that the device shift the axis of rotation of the front friction disc in a radial direction contains two parallel coaxial disk mounted in the outer bearing unit with rotating them relative to each other, each disc is made with an angle to the radius of the slot, and the inclination of the slots in the disks and opposite the slits intersect at the point of intersection of the slits placed the inner bearing with the shaft of a windshield of the friction disk.

 

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