The method of obtaining iodized salt
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a method for production of iodized table salt. The method involves iodized sodium chloride raw material, which is used as natural deposits of rock salt, and salt is carried out at its underground dissolution of iodine-containing solvent in the process of salt production, or construction of underground repositories in deposits of rock salt with the formation of iodinated sodium chloride brines with subsequent evaporation of their natural natural lake basins with getting iodized sporting salt, the iodine-containing solvent use natural iodine-containing water. The method allows to obtain iodized table salt, suitable for long-term storing, preserving the original properties. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 5 Il. 3 table. The invention relates to a technology for obtaining alkali metal halides, in particular the production of iodized salt, and can be used as a method of recovery from brines generated in the process of the construction of underground repositories in me is raging in accordance with GOST 13830-91 by additive of potassium iodide with a stabilizer, sodium thiosulfate in dry salt /GOST 13830-91. Salt. General technical conditions. / Mass fraction of iodine in a mixture with sodium chloride (23,0 11,5)10-4%. The product is not subject to long-term storage due to the loss of properties Jodorowsky component. Production of iodized salt is limited by the capacity of the equipment for the production of NaCl.Other known methods for producing iodized table salt provides similar processing of edible crystalline salt Jodorowsky additives, such as anhydrous potassium Iodate /patent RF N 2115337, IPC And 23 L 1/237, publ. 1998 /, a mixture of solutions of potassium iodide and sodium thiosulfate /patent RF N 1664747, IPC 01 D 3/04, publ. 1991 /, a mixture of iodide of potassium with calcium carbonate /patent RF N 1504218, IPC 01 D 3/04, publ. 1989 /.However, these additives are unstable during storage of salt, so that over time iodized salt loses its healing properties.Closest to the present invention is a method comprising obtaining salt from halite raw materials one of the known methods, the drying of the selected product with subsequent salt iodization dry or wet method /A. A. Furman and others Common with the La N 0 and N 1. As jodorowski substance use potassium iodide with stabilizer is sodium thiosulfate. The wet method is to process the salt solution jodorowski substances with the addition of the stabilizer and thorough stirring of the mixture. The number of input jodorowski substance is 0.05-0.1% of the mass of salt.In the dry method, the salt previously prepared concentrate of a mixture of sodium chloride, potassium iodide and sodium thiosulfate, which is then distributed in 1 t of salt.Produced according to this technology, the products, despite the use of stabilizers, over time, lose their original properties, and its output is limited by the volume of supply of salt or power of producing this salt equipment.In the proposed method solves the problem of obtaining iodized salt from natural deposits of rock salt in its underground dissolution in the process of production or construction of underground repositories in salt formations.The result of this task is to obtain food iodized salt, suitable for long-term storage, appropriate Medical and biological requirements and sanitary and the ohms of the finished product. The method also provides for the possibility of obtaining suitable for long-term storage of iodized table salt with natural and other iodine-containing solvents salt.To achieve the technical result of the exercise iodized sodium chloride raw material and drying the selected product.Distinctive features of the proposed method iodization of salt from the above known, the closest method are used as sodium chloride raw materials of natural deposits of rock salt, iodized which is carried out at its underground dissolution of iodine-containing solvent in the process of salt production, or construction of underground storage in its reservoirs method with the formation of sodium chloride brines with subsequent evaporation of iodized salt brines under natural conditions in natural lake basins with getting iodized sporting salt.Another hallmark of this method is that as the iodine-containing solvent in the underground dissolution of rock salt is used, in particular, natural iodine-containing water.Natural evaporation of brines may be held in areas with hot dry climate with a predominance of evaporation over precipitation in 5 or more times. The topography of the site chosen should allow the least amount of excavation work to equip the platform for raising brine, that is, the region should, if possible, to have closed in the plan and reduced in relief form hollow, ravine, etc.During the whole technological cycle carry out environmental monitoring of natural objects. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of the squares of the evaporation must protect aquifers from contamination, distribution of brine in the square near the conduction evaporation and hit him in the groundwater.The concentration of the evaporating brine from 60 to 300 g/l SC, zinc, arsenic), nutritional value and microbiological parameters meets the requirements for food products.By dissolving rock salt in the brine assumes substantially all the soluble components of the breed, including iodine compounds. The total content of these compounds in the brine is determined by their number to dissolve the rock salt and the solvent. The use of iodine-containing natural water as a solvent allows the natural evaporation of such brines to obtain high-quality iodized salt with large output, suitable for long-term storage.Evaporation of the construction of the brine in the natural lake basins maintained by its filtering in bedrock. All calculations associated with the loss of brine, and hence the amount of charging of salt, is performed on the basis of water-salt balance.The source data for calculation of the natural evaporation of brine are:
the time of the construction of underground tank for gaznefteprodukt;
the feed rate of the solvent and selection brine;
- meteorological data on precipitation, evaporation, temperature, in the SS="ptx2">Environmental monitoring in the process of formation, accumulation and evaporation of the construction of the brine is implemented by creating a system hydroalcoholic wells and gauging stations on the basis of which conduct geophysical, hydrogeological and geochemical studies to determine the effect of the natural evaporation of brine on the state of environment (groundwater and soils).The method is illustrated by the scheme shown in Fig. 1.In Fig. 2 shows the first natural lake basin (lake Idic).In Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section in Fig. 2.In Fig. 4 is a cross-section in Fig. 2.In Fig. 5 shows a second natural lake basin (lake kaeasor).In the construction of underground reservoir 1 (Fig. 1) the dissolution of rock salt 2 through borehole 3 in line 4 in the well pump iodine-containing solvent, extracting the earth's surface sodium chloride construction of the brine with a concentration of 60 to 300 g/l, which recolorado 5 is sent to the natural lake bed 6, where they perform the natural evaporation of the construction of the brine. Prodoljitel is 3, the volume of the injected brine, and climatic conditions. In the process of natural evaporation of brine in natural lake basin 6 is a self-charging salts with the formation at the bottom of the hollow high-quality, usable large party of iodized salt.The method is illustrated by the following examples of specific performance.Example 1.At the Astrakhan gas-condensate field, where the construction of underground reservoir 1 for storing petroleum, natural gas and products of their processing, in the process of dissolution deposits of rock salt 2 (Fig. 1) formed by the construction of the brine with a concentration of from 60 to 300-305 g/l NaCl. In this area there is a shortage of fresh water, and the solvent salt 2 use pre-treated industrial wastewater Astrakhan gas processing plant and river water Buzan, in which pre-injected iodine compounds based 18-22 mg of iodine in 1 l of water and the pipeline 4 is injected into drilled in deposits of rock salt 2 well 3. When dissolved salt 2 deposits gradually formed a cavity in the form of an underground reservoir 1. Accumulated brine to cassimere use lake Idic, represented in plan in Fig. 2. Hollow 6 equip protective dam, in different points of the hollow drill gidroobladnannya well. According to their Genesis lake Idic is a remnant of the former lake, which is a currently dry depression with well-defined shoreline. Reset and natural evaporation of the construction of the brine in it produce with the development of an underground cavity 1. The determining factors in this process are the performance of the water in the well 3, surface brine surface 6 lake, its depth, climatic and geological and hydrological conditions of the area.Upon reaching saturation (317 g/l NaCl) on the surface of the brine formed salt crystals, which, settling on the bottom of the lake Idic form therein a salt Deposit. During the natural evaporation of brine to produce performance monitoring of the brine in the lake (concentration, chemical composition), hydrochemical regime of the aquifer, the salinity of the surface soil, promoting front prefiltermessage brine in the aquifer through geophysical methods.For the implementation of environmental the ordinary soil and examine them at the macro and micro - component composition.By dissolving rock salt remain in the form of insoluble impurities sulfates and carbonates of magnesium, calcium and zinc. They focus on the bottom of the underground tank 1 (Fig. 1). Due to this there is the release of brine from undesirable impurities. In addition, the deposition of sulfate from the brine occurs in winter when low temperatures are already in recolorimage on the way from the site of the construction of underground storage 1 lake drive 6. Thus, in the result of the combined effect of these factors is the purification of the construction of the brine and, consequently, improve the quality of sporting salt.Table 1 presents the composition of the charging of salt lake Idic. After evaporation of the brine all the waters of lake Idic filled sporting salt in the form of reservoir reservoir capacity reservoir which reaches into the deepest part of the lake 0,8-0,9 m Just lake Idic received (together with rainfalls) 627876 m brine concentration of 220 g/l NaCl. During the period of the natural evaporation within 3 years is filtered 203670 m brine, evaporated 395400 M. the remainder of the brine by the end of the 5th year amounted 28806 m Number of sporting salt in the waters of the lake are determined by topage the 0 t salt.In Fig. 3 and 4 schematically shows the distribution of salt on grades in the form of longitudinal and transverse sections of the image in Fig. 2. For this example, the prevalence of salt reserves higher and first grade is more than 90% of its reserves.During the development of the salt reservoir lake sporting salt is subjected to drying electric heating devices and store on shelf platforms with canopies.Received iodized table salt is a crystalline solid white (possibly with shades of grayish, yellowish and bluish colors), without other mechanical impurities.Table 2 shows the physico-chemical characteristics of the charging of salt lake Idic in comparison with the standards of GOST 13830-91. According to the chemical analysis of the obtained salt by about 99,0% consists of iodized halite with a minimum content of impurities and meets the requirements of GOST.Check charging salt for radioactivity showed that the activity levels of strontium-90 is less than 13,510-12CI/kg, cesium-137 is less than the 5.2 Bq/kg, potassium-40 is less than 3.5 Bq/kgThe content of toxic elements in sporting salt does not exceed standards, ASS="ptx2">Example 2.Receiving iodized salt carried out as described in example 1. Reset and natural evaporation of the construction of the brine produced in natural lake basin (Fig. 1) lake kaeasor located in the district of the Astrakhan gas condensate field. In Fig. 5 in plan showing the lake kaeasor. According to their Genesis, it is similar to the lake Idic mentioned in example 1.According to observations of the natural evaporation in the lake kaeasor for 6 years found that additional contamination to the lake territory does not occur. Observations include measurements of the levels of the brine in the lake and groundwater in hydroalcoholic wells. Precipitation and evaporation from the water surface measured at the nearest to the lake the weather station. Prior to the filling of lake kaeasor construction brine topographic plan of the bowl of the lake (Fig. 5) get numeric and graphical dependency square brine mirrors in the volume of the bowl of the lake from the level of the brine in it. Using the balance sheet liability method of calculation to determine the amount of the evaporated brine and filtration losses. The performance of the receipt of iodized brine evaporation of orthotitanate injection construction of the brine in the lake kaeasor was 33000 m3/month. The results of the calculation of the natural evaporation of brine in the lake showed that at the end of the 6th year of evaporation in the bowl of the lake remains 664000 m3brine concentration of 315 g/l NaCl.The layer thickness of deposited salt lake kaeasor for a specified period of time - more than 20 cm in an area of 500,000 m2. The amount of salt in this layer is 354496 so Loss of brine through the filter 748330 m3.Example 3.The way iodization of salt carried out as described in examples 1 and 2. The difference is that in order to accelerate the evaporation of the construction of the brine generated during the construction of underground reservoir 1 (Fig. 1) rock salt 2 and the continuity of the process of its dissolution, alternately connect recolored 5 to two natural lake basins 6 Idic and kaeasor. This improves the ecological situation in the region. Resetting the construction of the brine in the lake Idic and kaeasor produce alternately as filling out bowls of these lakes. The performance of the receipt of the brine evaporation is determined from the total volume of the brine, the time of construction of underground water tank 1. In this example, the performance of the receipt of the article is 0 m3in a month, in lake Idic - 30000 m3brine per month. Just both lakes pumped for the period of construction of the tank 13906000 m3the brine. The results of the calculation of the natural evaporation of the construction of the brine in the lake kaeasor showed that by the end of the 5th year of evaporation in the bowl remains 664000 m3brine concentration of 315 g/l, and in the lake Idic - 176000 m3brine concentration of 317 g/l salt. This forms a layer of salt with a capacity of more than 20 cm in lake kaeasor in an area of 500,000 m2and in the lake Idic square 300000 m2.The amount of salt formed in this reservoir the lake kaeasor is 354496 t, and the lake Idic - 174404 so the Total mass of salt is iodized 528900 so Loss of brine by filtering on the lake kaeasor are 748330 m3on lake Idic - 486390 m3the brine.Example 4.For iodization of salt carry out the same operation as in examples 1-3. The iodine-containing solvent salt 2 (Fig. 1) in the process of the construction of underground water tank 1 water use Absheron aquifer.Table 3 shows the chemical composition of water Absheron aquifer is sodium chloride with mineralization 22-35 g/l, regional gasanalysis, toxic trace elements such as heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cr and others ), the radionuclide at the level of the background. According to table 3, it follows that these waters are environmentally friendly solvent salt.Environmental environmental monitoring provides performance monitoring of hydrochemical state of the aquifers, the brine in the bowl of the lake basin 6 (Fig. 1) and salinization. Considered in this and climatic factors (precipitation, air temperature, direction and strength of prevailing on the territory of the winds, and so on ).By dissolving rock salt in the brine assumes substantially all the soluble components of this breed, including iodine. The total iodine content in the brine is determined by the amount of the salt rock and the solvent. When the content of 1.7 mg iodine/kg salt, occurring on the territory of the Astrakhan gas condensate field, and 18 mg/l in water Absheron aquifer concentration of iodine in the brine is 12 mg/L. After evaporation of the brine at a temperature of 25-28oC get sporting salt content of iodine equal to 30 mg/kg Mass fraction of iodine according to GOST 13830-91 is (23,011,5)10-4% that Perissa to the requirements of GOST, requirements for iodized salt.Data of x-ray analysis of the product produced indicate the occurrence of iodine in the crystal lattice sporting salt, making it unlike trademarks of iodized salt manufactured in the form of a mechanical mixture of NaCl with Jodorowsky additive, firmly holds the iodine is introduced together with the solvent, and is subject to long-term storage without losing its consumer properties. 1. The method of obtaining iodized salt, including salt sodium chloride raw material and drying the product, characterized in that sodium chloride raw materials used natural deposits of rock salt, iodized which is carried out at its underground dissolution of iodine-containing solvent in the process of salt production, or construction of underground repositories in deposits of rock salt with the formation of iodinated sodium chloride brines with subsequent evaporation of their natural natural lake basins with getting iodized sporting salt.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as the iodine-containing solvent use natural iodine-containing water.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex