Cutter for machining

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of metal working machine, CNC multi-pass cutting, in particular for engraving with the rotation of the cutter when doing drawings on metallographic forms used in the manufacture of products with a high degree of protection against forgery. The cutter has a shank and a pyramidal working part, limited flat front, main and auxiliary rear surfaces forming the top of the working part, and an optional rear surfaces, one edge of the pyramidal working part made in the form of the main cutting edge of the main angle of taper, and the other as an auxiliary cutting edge, cutting angle 0oand the cross-section of the working part has the form of a scalene polygon. To expand the scope of the cutter and reducing the complexity of its sharpening virginiarismedia rear surfaces are located with an equal angle to the axis of the shank, the lead angle of taper is made less than 70oand the said polygon belonging optional rear surfaces made shorter side belonging to the main rear surface. 3 S. and 8 C. p. F.-but for multipass planing, in particular for engraving with the rotation of the cutter when traversing a curved path grooves with a width of 0.02 mm and a depth of 0.015 mm in progress pictures on metallographic forms used in the manufacture of printed products with a high degree of protection against forgery.

Known cutter according to the book of A. F. diffidently and other Diamond tools in engineering, motor cycle", 1959, 130-132 C., Fig. 63 for manual engraving of the drawings, having a shank and a working portion in the form of a regular four-sided pyramid, in which two edges are cutting edges with front-angle - 45o. This geometry of the working part accelerates the growth of cutting forces and friction in the cutting zone, which reduces the durability of the cutter.

In another known cutter (see ibid) for manual engraving of the drawings, having a shank and a working portion in the form of an irregular triangular pyramid, in which one face is the front surface and parallel to the axis of the shank, and the other two in the rear, inclined to the axis of the shank and formed them an edge inclined to the axis at an angle 55o. The disadvantage of the cutter is the inability to handle them grooves with a relatively small radius of curvature that limits the scope PI on the machine.

The closest proposal on technical merits (prototype) is the cutter for machining according to GOST 13288-76 the USSR, having a shank and a pyramid with the top of the working part, containing a flat front and main, auxiliary and optional rear surface, one edge is the main cutting edge of the main angle of taper, the other edge of the auxiliary cutting edge, the rake angle is zero, and the cross-section of the working part has the form of a scalene polygon. Front and main and auxiliary rear surface are vershinodarasunsky.

However, the known cutter has the following disadvantages:

- height cross-section of the working part is larger than its width, resulting in the cutter cannot be processed areas of the grooves with a relatively small radius of curvature and with a kink in the plan, which limits the scope of the cutter;

in the process of sharpening the cutter in one orientation of the first handle one virginiamassey surface, for example, the main back, and then when a different orientation auxiliary rear surface; such permutation cutter reduces the accuracy of the combination of its vertices with the axis of the shank, i.e., changes.

Addressed by the proposal, the task of expanding the scope of the cutter and reducing the complexity of its sharpening.

For this purpose, the cutter for machining, having a shank and a pyramid with the top of the working part, containing a flat front and main, auxiliary and optional rear surface, the front surface passes through the axis of the shank, the cross section of the working part has the form of a scalene polygon, one edge is the main cutting edge of the main angle of taper, the other auxiliary cutting edge and the rake angle is zero, according to the proposal virginiarismedia rear surface of ravnoudaleny to the axis of the shank, is the main angle of taper is less than 70oand in the above-mentioned polygon belonging optional rear surface side of the shorter side belonging to the main rear surface.

The front surface of the cutter may pass through the axis of the shank, additional rear surface can be vershinodarasunsky and educated their ribs are each inclined to the axis of the shank at a smaller angle than the main cutting edge and the axis of the shank may be held or the us to the bisector of the angle between the cutting edges, very bisector inclined to the axis of the shank at an angle equal to half the difference of the values of the main and supplementary angles in plan and formed an additional rear surfaces of the ribs are each inclined to the said bisector at a smaller angle than the main cutting edge.

In one embodiment, the main angle equal 90othat is the main angle of taper is less than 90oand it bisentina plane is also the plane of symmetry of the working part, with the front and rear main surface can pass through the axis of the shank.

In Fig. 1, 2, 3 presents the proposed cutter for machining a V-shaped grooves, the views from the side, front and top;

In Fig. 4 - section a-a in Fig. 1;

In Fig. 5, 6 - section B-B In Fig. 2 (rotated);

In Fig. 7, section G1-G1, G2-G2, G3-G3, G4-G4in Fig. 3 (rotated);

In Fig. 8 section D1-D1, D2-D2, D3-D3in Fig. 3 (rotated);

In Fig. 9 is a circuit processed by the cutter groove;

In Fig. 10, 11, 12 - cutter-milling cutter V-shaped grooves, the views from the side, front and top;

In Fig. 13 - section e-E in Fig. 10;

In the section f-F in Fig. 14;

In Fig. 18, 19, 20 - cutter for processing trapezoidal grooves, the views from the side, front and top;

In Fig. 21 - section K-K in Fig. 19;

In Fig. 22, 23, 24 - cutter for machining grooves of rectangular profile, the types of side, front and top;

In Fig. 25 - section L-L of Fig. 22;

In Fig. 26 - section M-M in Fig. 24 (rotated).

The cutter (Fig. 1, 2, 3) includes a shank 1 and a pyramidal working part 2 is formed flat front 3, and 4 main, auxiliary 5 and an additional 6, 7 rear flat surfaces that converge in the top 8. Two ribs of the working parts are the main 9 and 10 auxiliary cutting edges.

The cross-section of the working part 2 (Fig. 4) has the form versatile, in particular, asymmetric Pentagon with sides 11-15 belonging surfaces 3-7, respectively, and the height "h" cross-section at least half of its width "b". Surface 3 is, in particular, through the axis 16 of the shank. Edges 9, 10 are main and sub 1the corners in the plan, and the edge 9 is inclined to the axis 16 at an angle whose value is determined by the expression = 90-. The position of the surface 4 is defined by the main rear angle or lead angle of taper , EIT is 5).

The position of the surface 5 is defined auxiliary rear angle1or auxiliary angle of taper1(Fig. 6). The angles of taper1and11in the cross-section of the working part 2 for edges 9 and 10 respectively shown in Fig. 4. The surface of 4-7 ravnoudaleny to the axis 16 at an angle (Fig. 7) defined by the cross section of these surfaces normal to him axial planes G1-G1, G2-G2, G3-G3, G4-G4(Fig. 3). Formed surfaces 6,7 ribs 17, 18, 19 each inclined to the axis 16 at an angle (Fig. 8) defined by the cross section passing through the edges of the axial planes of the D1-D1, D2-D2, D3-D3, and the angle is less than angle .

After installing the caliper machine with high speed spindle and CNC, providing the tools move in the X, Y, Z, C, the cutter operates as follows.

For machining grooves in the shape of the letter G (Fig. 9) V-shaped profile established in the said spindle drill bit pre-execute conical holes 20, 21, 22 at the points 23, 24, 25 of the centerline 26 of the contour of the groove. Holes 20, 21 are located at the ends of the groove and the hole 22 in the corners of the grooves. Combine ordikhani line 26 at a point 23. Lower the cutter into the hole to the depth of the groove. Putting it on a trajectory that coincides with the line 26, the plane of the groove with maintaining the perpendicularity of the surface 3 to the trajectory at any point by rotating the cutter about an axis 16 and stop it at the point 25. Turn the cutter in the hole 22, the plane of the groove to stop at the point 24 and withdraw the cutter from the groove.

In contrast to the first described in the second embodiment of the cutter (Fig. 10, 11, 12) top 27 is displaced relative to the axis 28 of the shaft 29 by the value of "e", and the cross-section of the working portion 30 is a view, in particular, symmetrical Pentagon (Fig. 13).

The cutter can operate in the following way:

or Zentrum holes 20, 21, 22 and planes all the groove;

or Zentrum hole at one end of the groove and preserue the groove, moving to her other end.

Unlike the first in the third embodiment of the cutter (Fig. 14, 15, 16) 31 main and auxiliary rear surface 32 to form a rib 33 between the top 34 of the cutter and the point 35 of intersection with the edge of the ribs 36 formed by additional surfaces 37, 38 which, therefore, do not participate in the formation of peaks 34. Because of this cutter has a reinforced cage is you "h1" to the width "b" is increased (Fig. 17) due to the increase in height that provides increased strength of the cutter. Surfaces 37, 38 is inclined to the axis 40 of the shank 41, in particular, under the same angle as the surfaces 31, 32.

The scope of the cutter - planing grooves straight, without kinks, with a small curvature.

Unlike the first to fourth embodiment, the execution of the cutter (Fig. 18-21) forming the top 42 home 43, 44 auxiliary, additional 45, 46 of the rear surface of ravnoudaleny to the bisector 47 of the angle between the cutting edges 48, 49. The bisector 47 is inclined to the axis 50 of the shaft 51 at an angle equal to half the difference of the values of the main and auxiliary1angles in the plan. Normal to the bisector 47 section is a symmetrical Pentagon with sides 52-56, belonging to 57 front and rear 43-46 surfaces.

The cutter is involved in the processing of the grooves in the shape of the letter G, but trapezoidal profile. For this purpose the spindle, set the drill bit and perform them with a hole in one end of the groove, replace the spindle drill on the cylindrical end milling cutter, put it in the hole to the depth of the groove is milled groove before each is s full profile.

Unlike the first to fifth embodiment of the cutter (Fig. 22, 23, 24) front 58 and 59 main and auxiliary 60 rear surface of the main form 61 and 62 auxiliary cutting edges, and the edge 63. The edge 62 and the edge 63 of ravnoudaleny to the axis 64 of the shank 65. The surface 59 is made flat and passes through the axis 64, the lead angle of taper is less than 90oand it bisentina plane M-M is also the plane of symmetry of the working part 66, which cross-section has the form of an isosceles triangle with equal sides 67, 68 (Fig. 25). The edge 61 coincides with the axis 64, and the angle is equal to 90o. Surface 60 is inclined to the axis 64 at an angle (Fig. 26).

Unlike cutter according to the fourth variant cutter is involved in the processing of the grooves in the shape of the letter G, but a rectangular profile. To do this, enter the cutter in a pre-milled groove and plane finally named her sides. When this front cutting angle is always positive.

Thus, due to the fact that virginiarismedia rear surface, unlike the prototype, ravnoudaleny to the axis of the shank when the shank of the cutter on the rear surfaces not required to change the position of the axis of the shank and deamcast sharpening. This increases the accuracy of the alignment of the top of the cutter with the axis of the shank, and thus the precision machined parts, which further expands the scope of its application. By reducing more than twice the height of the cross-section of the working part to the width of the cutter can be scraped grooves with a relatively small radius of curvature and kinks in the plan, which also extends the application of the cutter.

Angle values ,1,1are the source for calculating angles1,1,11,,1,2,3(Fig. 2-7), the order of calculation which may, if desired, be presented in addition.

1. Cutter for machining, having a shank and a pyramidal working part, limited flat front, main and auxiliary rear surfaces forming the top of the working part, and an optional rear surfaces, one edge of the pyramidal working part made in the form of the main cutting edge of the main angle of taper, and the other as an auxiliary cutting edge, cutting angle 0oand the cross-section of the working part has the form of a scalene polygon, wherein versioon the 70oand the said polygon belonging to the additional rear surfaces of the shorter sides belonging to the main rear surface.

2. The cutter under item 1, characterized in that the front surface passes through the axis of the shank.

3. The cutter under item 2, characterized in that the additional rear surface pass through the top of the working parts, and each formed by edges inclined to the axis of the shank at an angle smaller than the main cutting edge.

4. The cutter under item 3, characterized in that the axis of the shank passes through the vertex of the working part.

5. The cutter under item 3, characterized in that the top of the working part is displaced relative to the axis of the shank.

6. Cutter for machining, having a shank and a pyramidal working part, limited flat front, main and auxiliary rear surfaces forming the top of the working part, and an optional rear surfaces, one edge of the pyramidal working part made in the form of the main cutting edge of the main angle of taper, and the other as an auxiliary cutting edge, cutting angle 0oand the cross-section of the working part has the form of the versatile beechtree angle between the cutting edges, which is inclined to the axis of the shank at an angle whose value is chosen equal to half the difference of the values of the main and supplementary angles in the plan, the lead angle of taper is made less than 70oand the said polygon belonging to the additional rear surfaces of the shorter sides belonging to the main rear surface.

7. The cutter under item 6, characterized in that the front surface passes through the axis of the shank.

8. The cutter under item 6 or 7, characterized in that the additional rear surface pass through the top of the working parts, and each formed by ribs inclined to the said bisector angle smaller than the main cutting edge.

9. The cutter under item 8, characterized in that the axis of the shank passes through the vertex of the working part.

10. Cutter for machining, having a shank and a pyramidal working part, limited flat front, main and auxiliary rear surfaces forming the top of the working part, and an optional rear surfaces, one edge of the pyramidal working part made in the form of the main cutting edge of the main angle of taper, and the other in the form of auxiliary cutting cu is the first angle of taper - 90owhile working part is located symmetrically with respect to bisecting plane of the main angle of taper.

11. The cutter under item 10, characterized in that the front and rear main surfaces pass through the axis of the shank.

 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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EFFECT: improved design of cutter.

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