The method of obtaining electrical energy from the renewable biomass and device for implementing the method (variants)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method for producing electrical energy from biomass, while in module creation biomass produced biomass, in the inverter module, the biomass is gasified in a hydrogen-containing crude gas from the crude gas in the module enrichment of the crude hydrogen and the supply module of the cleaned fuel gas is obtained electric energy. By appropriate plant nutrition, fertilizers creates biomass, poor ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride. Combustible purified gas creates a current in the at least one PEM fuel cell, while the operating temperature of the fuel cell, the water content of the purified gas fuel and the fuel pressure clean gas are coordinated with each other to ensure optimal current density. 2 C. and 8 C. p. F.-ly, 2 Il.

The invention relates to a method and system for generating electrical energy from regenerative created from plant biomass; however, the Converter generates a hydrogen-containing crude gas from the raw gas in the processing plant for raw gas is formed combustible sight of udaetsya electrical energy. Biomass can be produced from plants grown for the purpose of generating energy. Biomass can also be formed from plant waste. The reduction in REM means "membrane replacement protons" and/or "polymer electrolyte membrane", which is synonymous. Fuel cells PEM are the basic construction polymer membrane with porous catalytic electrodes on both sides of the membrane. Due to this, on one side of the membrane formed by the cathode, and on the other side of the membrane - anode. The cathode and the anode is supplied with cathode and anode chambers. In the anode chamber is fed hydrogen-containing fuel gas, and the hydrogen is oxidized at the anode in the proton. Protons have a high mobility in the polymer membrane and move to the cathode, where supplied to the cathode, for example, oxygen is restored to the water. As the polymer membrane is electrically insulating, the result of this process with the electrodes can be removed constant current which, if necessary, can be converted to an alternating voltage network. More information about PEM fuel cells, see, for example, in Handbook of fuel cells Fuel Cells, a Handbook"is CNY source "Departament of Energy (DOE), November 1992, DE 93000009". In the known method from biomass first get methanol. Then the methanol Converter turns into a hydrogen-containing crude gas. Then install the enrichment of the crude gas from the crude gas formed is removed when converting carbon monoxide. A purified fuel gas, substantially purified from carbon monoxide, is directed to fuel cells PEM. The disadvantage of this method is that first of biomass is necessary in complex ways to form methanol, which is lost as carbon monoxide, having a heat of combustion, and that, in particular, does not apply modular design with coordination and regulation of the operating parameters of the various modules.

The basis of the invention the goal of the project is to create a method that better uses the energy contained in biomass, and works reliably with a long life, as well as a system for implementing this method.

To solve this problem the invention proposes a method for generating electrical energy from regenerative created from plant biomass, in particular from plants4creating year-round biomass, and the biomass is created in the module on the gas, this module enrichment of the crude gas from the crude gas formed cleaned fuel gas with high hydrogen content and the flow module of the clean fuel gas is obtained electric energy with the following combination of characteristics:

a) in the module creation biomass by plant nutrition, appropriate fertilizers creates biomass, poor sulphur and chlorine,

(b) Converter module has at least one alltimecase transducer, the transducer steam as the gasification means, while the residence time of the biomass and/or raw gas in the Converter, as well as the pressure and the temperature in the Converter is regulated so that the data contained in the biomass alkaline compounds can be removed from the Converter with the resulting ash, and formed as an intermediate product resin gasified in the Converter, mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen,

c) in the module enrichment of the crude gas formed cleaned fuel gas containing oxides of carbon, less than 1%,

d) fuel purged gas flow module creates with the at least one fuel cell Area cleaned fuel gas are coordinated with each other to ensure high power density.

Plants WITH4are plants, which during fotosintesis conversion bind four carbon atoms from carbon dioxide. Year-round plants are plants, which form a distinct root system and grow for several years. Year-round plants WITH4differ in that the conversion of carbon dioxide into biomass is particularly effective that the specific yield is particularly high and that, in particular, requires less fertilizer. The latter is in the framework of the invention of particular importance, as a result, fewer fertilizers can significantly reduce the content in the biomass of harmful compounds of sulfur, chlorine and alkali compounds. The creation module biomass represents agricultural cultivation area, which is cultivated biomass in compliance with the sign). The creation module biomass has, preferably, a granulating device. Alltimecase called a transducer, which is required for the reactions of gasification heat introduced from the outside. The residence time of the biomass and/or raw gas in the Converter can be easily adjusted by selecting and matching the flow rate of water vapor, the working pressure is the sign of d) you can also easily set by experiments. The higher operating temperature of the fuel cell requires a higher water content in the purified gas fuel to maintain the polymer membrane in a fairly wet. However, due to the reduced heat of combustion of fuel purged gas. Reduced heat of combustion of fuel purged gas can be compensated by increasing the pressure of fuel purged gas. The coordination of the parameters according to the sign of d) can also occur with regard to the content of carbon monoxide in the purified gas fuel, if the characteristic (C) generally occurs any significant amount of carbon monoxide. The power density is higher, the lower the concentration of carbon monoxide in the purified gas fuel. The high content of carbon monoxide can offset the higher operating temperature of the fuel cell. The operating temperature of the fuel element must always remain below the temperature of the glass membrane.

In a preferred embodiment of the method of the plant Dobroudja without the use of ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride. Due to this, the content of sulfur and chlorine in the biomass is very low. You can also reduce the content of potassium, but only in small range.

oC and a pressure of 1.5 to 5 bar, preferably 3 bar. The residence time of biomass in the Converter is chosen so that the resin content in the raw gas does not exceed 0,1%. Under such operating conditions the raw gas does not contain harmful impurities resin and alkaline compounds. Under optimum conditions of operation of the Converter tar may even be reduced below 0.5 ppm. Of particular importance is the fact that formed during biomass gasification resin in its quantitative and qualitative composition differs from tar formed during coal gasification. Resin, formed during biomass gasification, allow yourself easier to decompose, respectively, to gasify in the Converter. In addition, in the Converter and/or in the piping module of the Converter is not slagging or sticking of the material due to the presence of alkaline compounds. However, since the raw gas can take in small quantities containing alkaline compounds fine dust, this dust can be removed from the crude gas through the filter device, such as a cyclone filter.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention in conversions the relationship of the masses of steam/biomass less than 0.3. However, you can work and the mass ratio of steam/biomass more than 1.3. Then the ratio of the volume of hydrogen/carbon monoxide exceeds 3. The formation of the cleaned fuel gas is in both cases in the module enrichment of the crude gas through alternate recovery of oxidized metal sponge crude gas and the subsequent oxidation of reduced metal sponge with water vapor. As the spongy metal is used preferably sponge iron. You can also use other base metals, such as zinc or Mangan. When restoring oxidized metal sponge recovery is due to the oxidation of hydrogen to water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. The oxidation of sponge metal water vapor occurs hydrogen. As a result, in this embodiment of the invention occurs cleaned fuel gas, which consists of hydrogen and water vapor and contains almost no other components. The presence of water vapor in the cleaned fuel gas is undesirable because the PEM fuel cell is necessary to bring the water to keep wet polymeric membrane. Naturally, the water content in the fuel is the iMER execution of the invention, the Converter creates a raw gas with a volume ratio of hydrogen/carbon monoxide more than 3 due to the choice of the mass ratio of steam/biomass more than 1.3, in this case the formation of fuel purged gas in the module enrichment of raw gas produced by the fuel enrichment purified hydrogen gas, at least to 99% by volume using PSA method with at least two absorption reactors and fuel the cleaned gas water vapor is added in the quantity required for operation of the fuel cell PEM in long mode. Designation PSA means the absorbance due to the pressure fluctuations". In the method PSA through the first absorption reactor is passed the raw gas under high pressure. When the hydrogen in the raw gas on the basis of its chemical-physical properties of absorbed much worse than others, usually polar components. The result from the first absorption reactor goes cleaned fuel gas with the specified content of hydrogen. The second absorption reactor, worked before in this way is uncompressed in the direction opposite to the flow, with out unwanted absorption components of the raw gas. If necessary, the second absorption reactor can then be washed, for example, purified fuel gas. Absorption reactors made of predpochtitel the influencers in addition to hydrogen, it is necessary to add water vapor to prevent drying of the polymer membrane fuel cell PEM. If the Converter operates according to this exemplary embodiment, at a temperature of 750oC and a pressure of 3 bars creates the raw gas with approximately 0.29% of methane, about 18% carbon monoxide, about 20% carbon dioxide and about 62% water vapor. Even if the Converter are equilibrium reactions, the methane content, as a rule, does not exceed 7% (gas content is given everywhere in % volume). Of particular importance is negligible content of methane, resulting in good removal of energy and making it possible to avoid complex separation of methane. If you must do this, you can use a simple installation of separation of methane with small sizes. Option run on p. 6 of the claims is characterized by a particularly low content of methane in the raw gas. It is not more than 7%, usually much less.

All examples of the process according to the invention are distinguished by the fact that due to the modular construction and connection of the modules in the system can coordinate the management of, respectively, the adjustment of parameters of work is ing and regulation, on the one hand, between the conversion module and the module enrichment of the crude gas and, on the other hand, between the module enrichment of the crude gas flow module. Due to this, the current flowing in the module in terms of its technical regulation largely not associated with the receipt of raw gas in the Converter. In the example of execution according to p. 6 claims metallic sponge also serves as intermediate storage. In the example of execution according to p. 7 claims for violations of communication in the sense of technology regulation can be provided additionally in the module enrichment of the crude gas, the hydrogen storage of conventional design. In the method according to the invention operates with improved efficiency. The energy content of the biomass is used optimally.

The subject of the invention is also a system to implement the method according to the invention in accordance with p. 8 or 9 claims.

Below the invention is illustrated only on the examples of execution represented in the drawings, which show:

Fig. 1 system to implement the method according to the invention and of the method according to the invention with absorption reactors in the module enrichment of the crude gas.

System to implement the method according to the invention according to Fig. 1 and 2 in its fundamental building contains module 1 creating biomass conversion module 2 with at least one alltimecase Converter 3, module 4 enrichment of the crude gas flow module 5 with at least one PEM fuel cell 6. Within the module create a biomass 1 a device for granulating 7. In the framework of the Converter unit 2 is provided, at least, the metering device 8 for dispensing biomass and one filter device (9) for separating from the crude gas of fine dust. In alltimecase Converter 3 through the piping of water vapor 10 is supplied water vapor necessary for optimal biomass gasification quantity. When this water vapor is brought to the desired temperature by means of heat exchangers 11 and 12. The heat exchanger 11 works from the heat of the raw gas. The heated water vapor in the heat exchanger 12 is produced by burning part of the cleaned fuel gas and/or gaseous wastes from module 4 enrichment of the crude gas. Naturally, the waste gases after combustion, if necessary, cleaned to the cleaning Umbro 14, and the anode 15 and the cathode 16. Fuel purged gas in the anode chamber 17 is directed to the anode 15. The cathode is a cathode chamber 18, through which are passed oxidizing agent, for example oxygen of the surrounding air. Through pipe 19 gaseous waste flow module 5 is given to water, water vapor, respectively, practically free of environmentally harmful substances. To the anode 15 and the cathode 16 is connected to the Converter 20 for a regular AC network.

In the example of execution according to Fig. 1 module enrichment of the crude gas 4 contains at least two reactor 21 with metal jaws 22. In the exemplary embodiment the metal sponge 22 are metal sponges. Module 4 enrichment of the crude gas through pipeline 27 water vapor is connected to the pipeline 10 supply of water vapor. Pipelines and switching valves for alternating oxidation, respectively, recovery reactors with metal tips are included, as shown in the diagram.

In the example of execution according to Fig. 2 module 4 enrichment of the crude gas contains at least two absorption reactor 23. They are equipped with a molecular sieve 24. There are, at least, one is the extent to which the cleaned gas in the device 27 of the regulation pressure and humidity respectively cleaned fuel gas is brought to the required pressure and water content.

Corresponding to the invention the method can be implemented using the two examples in Fig. 1 or 2. In the module, create a biomass 1 creates biomass by year-round growing plants WITH4. The plants are fertilizers containing ammonium sulphate and potassium chloride, and from plant biomass contains small amounts of sulfur and chlorine. This biomass in a granulating device 7 is formed into pellets. Thus formed biomass is gasified in the inverter module 2 in a hydrogen-containing crude gas. Converter module 2 operates with at least one alltimecase Converter 3, the Converter 3 is fed steam as the gasification means. The residence time of the biomass and/or raw gas in the Converter 3, and the pressure and the temperature in the Converter 3 is regulated so that originate from biomass alkaline compounds can be removed together with the resulting ash from the transducer 3, and connects to the quantity of the intermediate product resin was mainly gazifitsirovano in the Converter 3. Ash is removed from the Converter 3 through the ash outlet 28.

Preea. The residence time of biomass in the Converter 3 is regulated so that the resin content in the raw gas is less than 0.5 ppm. The crude gas after separation of the transported along fine dust containing alkaline substances in the filtering device 9 is applied to the module 4 enrichment of raw gas for the formation of fuel purged gas. In the module enrichment of the crude gas formed cleaned fuel gas with high hydrogen content and the content of oxides of carbon of less than 5 ppm. From the cleaned fuel gas flow module 5 turns electrical energy. Receiving current from the cleaned fuel gas is produced by using at least one PEM fuel cell 6, while the operating temperature of the fuel cell 6, the water content of the purified gas fuel and the fuel pressure clean gas are coordinated with each other in order to obtain the optimal power density.

The system according to Fig. 1 can operate so that the Converter 3 is formed of the crude gas is approximately equal to hydrogen and carbon monoxide by selecting the mass ratio of steam/biomass less than 0.3. From this raw gas in the module enrichment neojidannoi sponge 22 of the crude gas and the subsequent oxidation of reduced iron sponge 22 water vapor. This method works particularly preferable from the energy point of view, because, among other things, requires little steam.

In the system of Fig. 2 in the Converter 3 generates the raw gas with a ratio of hydrogen/carbon monoxide more than 3 due to the choice of the mass ratio of steam/biomass more than 1.5, while the formation of combustible purified gas in module 4 enrichment of the crude gas produced by enrichment with hydrogen fuel purged gas, at least up to 90% using PSA method with at least two absorption reactor 23. The PSA approach allows to increase the enrichment of hydrogen to 99.9% and above. The device 27 of the regulation pressure, and humidity in the cleaned fuel gas is added to water vapor in an amount necessary for continuous operation of the fuel cell PEM 6.

1. The method of obtaining electrical energy from the renewable biomass produced from plants, in particular formed from a year-round plants, linking during photosynthesis four carbon atoms from carbon dioxide biomass, conversion module to produce a hydrogen-containing crude gas from the crude gas in the module enrichment of the crude gas to form a combustible the historical energy characterized in that the biomass create module create biomass, and the biomass is gasified in the inverter module 2 in a hydrogen-containing crude gas to form a combustible purified gas with high hydrogen content of the crude gas in the module enrichment of the crude gas, in module 1 creating biomass by plant nutrition, appropriate fertilizers create biomass, poor sulphur and chlorine, and the Converter module 2 operating at least one alltimecase Converter 3, served steam as the gasification means and the residence time of the biomass and/or raw gas in allochemical Converter 3, and the pressure and temperature in allochemical Converter 3 is adjusted, when it is contained in the biomass alkaline compounds can be removed from allostericheskie Converter 3 with the resulting ash, and formed as an intermediate product resin is gasified in allochemical Converter 3 in the raw gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and in module 4 enrichment of raw gas purified form an ignitable gas containing oxides of carbon, less than 1% and cleaned fuel gas flowing mopre this operating temperature of the fuel cell 6 polymer electrolyte membrane, the water content of the purified gas fuel and the fuel pressure clean gas negotiate with each other to provide a high power density.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the plants Dobroudja fertilizers, do not contain ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that allosterically Converter 3 is made in the form of the reactor with the vortex layer and operates at a temperature of 650-900oWith, preferably 750oC and a pressure of 1.5 to 5 bar, preferably 3 bar.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the residence time of biomass in allochemical Converter 3 is adjusted so that the resin content in the raw gas is less than 0.1%.

5. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that simultaneously transported with untreated gas containing alkali dust removed from the crude gas through the filter device 9.

6. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-5, characterized in that allochemical Converter 3 form a crude gas with an equal volume of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by selecting the mass ratio of steam/biomass less than 0.3, with obrazovatelnaya oxidized metal sponge 22 of the crude gas and the subsequent oxidation of reduced iron sponge 22 water vapor.

7. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-5, characterized in that allochemical Converter 3 form a crude gas with a volume ratio of hydrogen/carbon monoxide more than 3 due to the choice of the mass ratio of steam/biomass more than 1.3 and the formation of combustible purified gas in module 4 enrichment of raw gas produced by the alternate recovery of oxidized metal sponge 22 of the crude gas and the subsequent oxidation of reduced iron sponge 22 water vapor.

8. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-5, characterized in that allochemical Converter 3 form a crude gas with a volume ratio of hydrogen/carbon monoxide more than 3 due to the choice of the mass ratio of steam/biomass more than 1.3 and the formation of combustible purified gas in module 4 enrichment of raw gas produced by the enrichment of hydrogen fuel purged gas, at least to 99% by volume, using the method of absorption due to the pressure fluctuations with at least two absorption reactors 23, cleaned fuel gas add water vapor in the quantity necessary for continuous operation of the fuel cell 6 polymer electrolyte membrane.

9. Ustralian module 2 for biomass gasification with steam in the hydrogen-containing crude gas, module 4 enrichment of raw gas for the formation of the crude fuel gas purified gas containing mainly hydrogen and water vapor, characterized in that the module 4 enrichment of the crude gas contains at least two reactor 21 with metal jaws, preferably the reactors with iron jaws with pipe 27 for supplying water vapor, as well as pipelines and switchable valves for alternating oxidation, respectively, the recovery of metal jaws 22 in the reactor 21 with metal jaws, and with running module 5 with at least one fuel element 6 polymer electrolyte membrane to produce electrical energy.

10. The device for implementing the method according to p. 8 module 1 create biomass for the formation of biomass conversion module 2 for biomass gasification with steam in the hydrogen-containing crude gas module 4 enrichment of raw gas for the formation of the crude fuel gas purified gas with a hydrogen content not less than 99% by volume, characterized in that the module 4 enrichment of the crude gas contains at least two absorption reactor 23, at IU is I alternate purification of the crude gas in one of the absorption reactor 23 under pressure, accordingly, for washing other absorption reactor 23 through decompression, as well as flow-through module 5 with at least one fuel element 6 polymer electrolyte membrane to produce electrical energy from the cleaned fuel gas before the fuel element 6 polymer electrolyte membrane has a device 27 of the fuel moisture purified gas.

 

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