The method of disposal of low-grade energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation, and utilization of low-potential energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation for implementing the method

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to energy systems. The heating fluid in the output heat exchanger is carried out by supply of air compressed in the low-pressure compressor, then cooled in the output heat exchanger, the compressed air supplied to the high pressure compressor of the gas turbine unit and to the input of the expander, and from the heat exchanger foam type part of the heated coolant in it served in the evaporator-mixer. The low-pressure compressor on the output side of it is connected to the output heat exchanger, the latter is connected to the high-pressure compressor and the expander, and the evaporator-mixer on the input side it is connected to the outlet of the pump. The result is an increase in the effective efficiency of the installation. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to power systems and more specifically to teploenergostroi on the basis of gas-turbine units.

The known method of heating the coolant for hot water heating systems, including heating water in the heat exchange apparatus using a gas-turbine plant (see , for example, DE 4138522, CL F 02 6/18, 27.05.93).

In this same isski associated with the generator, and turbine gas turbine outlet exhaust gas is connected to the heat exchanger water heating system.

Water heating in heat exchangers due to the processes of heat exchange in the interaction of high-temperature gas and water having different temperatures on the contact surfaces. Heating water in the heat exchange apparatus with a surface area of heat transfer is not effective enough and, as a consequence, there are large losses of thermal energy of the gas exhaust stream. In the contact heat exchangers efficiency of heat transfer processes is significantly higher, however, heating of the water in them is possible only to the so-called temperature of the wet thermometer is approximately equal to the boiling temperature of water at a partial pressure of vapor in the exhaust gases. Therefore, the maximum possible temperature of water in contact heat exchangers under atmospheric conditions does not exceed, as a rule, 50-60oWith that does not meet the requirements for hot water heating systems, which by current standards it is expected to reach 120oC.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result I have odvod in the compressor of a gas turbine air compressing it in the past, the actuator of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation free turbine, the drive from the last generator, cooling input stream of coolant flow environment after the turboexpander, the heating part of the heat transfer medium in the evaporator-mixer exhaust gases after the free turbine with the formation of high-temperature gas-vapor mixture, the heating fluid high-temperature steam-gas mixture in heat exchange apparatus of the foam type, the filing of the last carrier in the output of the heat exchanger, the additional heating of the coolant in the latter and the heating medium supply to the consumer (Almasov C. E. , Kravtsov, Y. I. , M. Khabibullin,, gortikov Y. F. , Kosterin C. A. , Barsegov C. L. About one direction increase the efficiency of energy systems on the basis of aircraft gas turbine engines. Izvestiya an. Energy, 4, 1998, S. 92-96).

The above source also described the setting of the utilization of low-potential energy of exhaust gases of a gas turbine plant comprising a gas turbine installation, a free turbine, kinematically associated with the electric and heat pump, heat exchanger foam type with an input heat exchanger, the pump, the output of the Arat foam type and to the turboexpander, the pump is connected by the entrance to the exit of the coolant from heat exchanger foam type and output to the output heat exchanger and mixer-evaporator side of the entrance is connected to the outlet of the exhaust gases from the free turbine and the output side of the heat-exchange apparatus of the foam type.

In the above-described method and installation for its implementation is an opportunity to improve the efficiency of water heating in the contact heat exchange apparatus of the foam type by feeding the input of the high-temperature steam-gas mixture, and also, it is possible by use of a heat pump to cool the coolant inlet heat exchanger foam type and optionally heating the fluid outlet of the heat exchanger foam type through the use of selected heat pump heat. Since the processes in heat exchange apparatus of the foam type occur in conditions of significant thermodynamic non-equilibrium liquid-vapor flow in the mass steam quality may differ significantly from the equilibrium corresponding to the saturation line. An artificial increase in the partial pressure of water vapor in the exhaust of gasses at the entrance to the heat exchanger foam type and temperature, supplied to heat exchanger foam type combined cycle high temperature of the mixture is related to the fact that, on the one hand, the use of heat exchangers foam-type contact heat exchange or, in other words, heat transfer by direct contact of high-temperature vapor-gas medium and the liquid coolant moving in a counter that allows significantly intensify heat and mass transfer processes and significantly improve the efficiency of the heat exchanger, and on the other hand, the use of heat exchangers foam type in heating systems is complicated by the fact that increasing the temperature of the feed in heat exchanger water efficiency is greatly reduced because of heat and mass transfer processes in the froth layer depending on the temperature of the water (coolant) may be associated with a decrease in the steam content in the gas stream, and with its increase. When the water temperature at the entrance of the heat exchanger foam type and outlet thereof, a lower point of dew, the partial pressure of water vapor in a gas-vapor stream is higher than the surface of the water, the condensation of the steam occurs throughout the volume of the contact chamber. When the temperature is in the gas and on the surface of the water will be equal, and when the backflow of the coolant vapor in the lower part of the heat exchanger does not occur. When the final water temperature above the dew point, in the lower zone of the contact chamber is heated evaporation of the water and increasing the steam content of the gases. If the initial water temperature was below the dew point, then the final steam quality will be reduced, otherwise the moisture content in gases will increase, which is highly impractical, since the contact efficiency of the heat exchanger in this case is significantly reduced. This case occurs when the contact device in the heating system without cooling supplied to its input water. Industrial tests were conducted foam heat exchanger system of a gas turbine at a temperature supplied to its input water is about +15. . . 20oWith showed that thermal efficiency reaches 90%.

Obtaining such values of thermal efficiency with the contact device operating in the heating network, requires the use of heat pumps. However, to ensure operation of the heat pump has to spend part of energy, which ultimately reduces the effective efficiency of the installation. Taken from the free turbine gas turbine drive.

Task to be solved by the present invention is directed, is to increase the effective efficiency of utilization of low-potential energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation by eliminating the power take-off from the free turbine to drive the heat pump, reduce the loss of energy of the exhaust stream of a gas turbine and create optimal conditions for heat exchanger foam type.

The task in terms of method of disposal of low-grade energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation is solved due to the fact that the method of disposal of low-grade energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation, including feeding in the low-pressure compressor of a gas turbine air, compressing it in the past, the actuator of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation free turbine, the drive from the last generator, cooling input stream of coolant flow environment after the turboexpander, the heating part of the heat transfer medium in the evaporator-mixer exhaust gases after the free turbine with the formation of high-temperature gas-vapor mixture, the heating fluid high-temperature gas-vapor mixture in calabari coolant in the latter and the heating medium supply to the consumer, the heating fluid in the output heat exchanger is carried out by supply of air compressed in the low-pressure compressor, then cooled in the output heat exchanger, the compressed air supplied to the high pressure compressor of the gas turbine unit and to the input of the expander, and from the heat exchanger foam type part of the heated coolant in it served in the evaporator-mixer.

Installation of utilization of low-potential energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation, the problem is solved due to the fact that the disposal facility of low-potential energy of exhaust gases of a gas turbine plant comprising a gas turbine installation with compressors of low and high pressure, free turbine, kinematically connected with the generator and expander, heat exchanger foam type with an input heat exchanger, the pump, the output heat exchanger and the evaporator-mixer, the input heat exchanger connected to the heat-exchanger foam type and to the turboexpander, the pump is connected by the entrance to the exit of the coolant from heat exchanger foam type and output to the output heat exchanger, and the evaporator-mixer from the sides of the military apparatus of the foam type, while the low-pressure compressor on the output side of it is connected to the output heat exchanger, the latter is connected to the high-pressure compressor and the expander, and the evaporator-mixer on the input side it is connected to the pump outlet.

The use of a heat pump in the technical solution, taken as a prototype, allows you to farm a portion of thermal energy from the inlet of the coolant in the heat exchanger foam type on his way out. The result is the possibility of additional cooling of the heat carrier at the input of the foam heat exchanger and heating the coolant supplied to the consumer. However, enabling this transfer of heat is achieved due to the costs of the energy of exhaust gases, which enter the free turbine, as part of the energy must be spent to drive the heat pump.

In the described setup, which implemented method of disposal of low-grade energy of exhaust gases of a gas turbine, all the energy received from the free turbine is spent on electricity, and activation energy of the compressed air in the expander allows larger the od of the free turbine allows greater than that of the prototype, some of the energy spent on electricity. In addition, in the described method and set its implementing managed to achieve a more balanced use of produced gas turbine energy. Additional heating of the fluid is produced in the output heat exchanger, the compressed and heated air from the low-pressure compressor. In the output heat exchanger, the compressed air is cooled and only after that he enters the turboexpander, where it is even more cooled in the expansion process. The result is the ability to simultaneously monitor and manage several operating parameters of a gas turbine, namely the temperature of the compressed air supplied to the high-pressure compressor, the temperature of the coolant supplied to the consumer, the temperature of the compressed air supplied to the expander and, as a consequence, the temperature of the air supplied to the input heat exchanger for cooling the coolant, which enters the heat exchanger foam type, which in turn allows you to create optimal conditions for it to work. While the removal of the coolant after the heat exchanger penolong apparatus foam type. As you can see, in the described way of working and set its implementing managed to achieve exceptions PTO from the free turbine to drive the heat pump, flexible regulation of the heat fluxes at the reduction of unproductive losses of energy, which allowed us to increase the effective efficiency of a power plant based on gas turbine engine.

The drawing shows a schematic diagram of the installation, utilization of low-potential energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation.

Setting the recovery of low-grade energy of exhaust gases of a gas turbine includes a gas turbine installation 1 compressors 2, 3 low and high pressure, free turbine 4, kinematically connected to a generator 5 and the expander 6, the heat exchanger 7 foam type with an input heat exchanger 8, the pump 9, the output heat exchanger 10 and the evaporator-mixer 11, the input heat exchanger 8 is connected to the heat-exchanger 7 foam type and the expander 6, the pump 9 is connected by the entrance to the exit of the coolant from heat exchanger 7 foam type and output to the output heat exchanger 10, and the evaporator-mixer 11 on the input side it is connected to the output. compressor 2 low pressure side exit is connected to the output of the heat exchanger 10, the latter is connected to the compressor 3 high pressure to the expander 6 and the evaporator-mixer 11 on the input side it is connected to the output of the pump 9. From the entrance into the compressor 2 low pressure gas turbine unit 1 sequentially installed air cleaning systems 12 and noise control 13, before the free turbine installed gas-dynamic stabilization system pressure 14 and Luggage additional heated gas 15, and on the output side of gaseous medium from the heat exchanger foam type 7 can be installed britholite 16.

The method of disposal of low-grade energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation is as follows.

Atmospheric air is taken from the surrounding the environment and passing the air cleaning system 12 and noise control 13, is supplied to the compression in the compressor 2 low pressure gas turbine 1, and then compressed and heated during the compression process, the air is directed to the output heat exchanger 10 for additional heating of the coolant (usually water) before submitting it to the consumer, for example in the system of water is SOR 3 high pressure gas turbine plant 1, and the other part of the cooled compressed air flows into the expander 6. At the same time the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation 1 actuate free turbine 4 is driven by the last generator 5 and the cooled compressed air expands in the expander 6, further cooled and withdrawn from the expander 6 mechanical energy from the expansion of compressed air can also be directed to drive the generator 5. Cooled to a low temperature air from the expander 6 is directed in the input heat exchanger 8 for cooling the coolant (in the case of water heating system water from this system) before entering the heat exchanger foam type 7, and the exhaust gases after the free turbine 4 are received in the evaporator-mixer 11. In recent simultaneously pump 9 is part of the heated coolant from the heat exchanger 7 of the foam type. In the process of mixing in the evaporator-mixer 11 of the coolant and exhaust gases is formed of high-temperature gas-vapor mixture, which is supplied from the evaporator-mixer 11 in the heat exchanger 7 foam type for heating flowing from the input of the heat exchanger 8 of the heat carrier. Of the heat exchange apparatus is grave before serving the consumer and the part of the carrier, as mentioned above, is fed into the evaporator-mixer 11.

This invention can be used wherever necessary the production of electric and thermal energy, for example, as a stand-alone teploelektrogeneratsiya in places where there is no centralized electricity and heat supply.

1. The method of disposal of low-grade energy of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation, including feeding in the low-pressure compressor of a gas turbine air, compressing it in the past, the actuator of the exhaust gases of the gas turbine installation free turbine, the drive from the last generator, cooling input stream of coolant flow environment after the turboexpander, the heating part of the heat transfer medium in the evaporator-mixer exhaust gases after the free turbine with the formation of high-temperature gas-vapor mixture, the heating fluid high-temperature steam-gas mixture in heat exchange apparatus of the foam type, the filing of the last carrier in the output of the heat exchanger, the additional heating of the coolant in the latter and the heating medium supply to the consumer, characterized in that that the heating fluid in the output heat exchanger is carried out by feeding in n is, the air supplied to the high pressure compressor of the gas turbine unit and to the input of the expander, and from heat exchanger valuable type part of the heated coolant in it served in the evaporator-mixer.

2. Setting the recovery of low-grade energy of exhaust gases of a gas turbine plant comprising a gas turbine installation with compressors of low and high pressure, free turbine, kinematically connected with the generator and expander, heat exchanger foam type with an input heat exchanger, the pump, the output heat exchanger and the evaporator-mixer, the input heat exchanger connected to the heat-exchanger foam type and to the turboexpander, the pump is connected by the entrance to the exit of the coolant from heat exchanger foam type and output to the output heat exchanger, and the evaporator-mixer on the input side it is connected to the outlet of the exhaust gases from the free turbine and the output side of the heat-exchange apparatus of the foam type, characterized in that the low-pressure compressor on the output side of it is connected to the output heat exchanger, the latter is connected to the high-pressure compressor and the expander, and the evaporator-mixer on the input side it is connected to the outlet of the pump.

 

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