The method of obtaining nitric controlled atmosphere

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended to obtain nitric controlled atmosphere used to get the glass to melt the metal and other industries. The method of obtaining nitric controlled atmosphere comprises a high-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons, low temperature steam reforming of carbon monoxide and subsequent purification of the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor. High-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons carried out from top to bottom in three layers of granular refractory material in the form of grains fractions 10-25 mm, 20-35 mm, 40-90 mm in amounts, respectively, 20-40%, 40-50% and 20-30%, and the material of the largest faction in the bottom layer of the combustion chamber is partially placed in the upper layer of refractory material, and low-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide is carried out in a layer of granulated zinc-chromium-copper catalyst at a ratio of height to radius of the granules of 0.9 to 1.5. The granular catalyst has an inner cone with a ratio of the height of the cone to the radius of 1.1 to 1.6. The invention improves the quality of the protective atmosphere. 1 C. p. F.-ly.

The present invention relates is and to melt the metal and in other industries (metallurgy, and so D. ).

The production of gas protection nitric atmosphere includes the following stages: a high-temperature conversion (combustion) of hydrocarbons mixed with air in the layer of refractory material, low-temperature steam reforming of carbon monoxide in the catalyst bed, the cooling of the combustion products and the subsequent purification of gaseous mixtures of carbon dioxide and water vapor.

A method of obtaining a controlled nitric atmosphere by RF patent 1353725, MKI With 01 3/24, From 01 To 3/24, in accordance with which a high-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons is carried out in two layers of granular refractory material of the nozzle with a specific surface area of 250-350 m2/m3and 50-150 m2/m3in quantities of 60-80% and 20-40%, respectively, and a material with a greater specific surface fall asleep in the frontal part of the reactor. However, this scheme filling of the combustion chamber does not provide a significant increase in lifetime granular nozzle and accordingly the combustion chamber and increasing the degree of purification of gas protection of the atmosphere. The closest to the essence and the achieved result is a method for nitric controlled atmosphere by A. S. the effect by combustion of hydrocarbons with air in the granular layer of refractory material at 1400-1800oWith subsequent steam conversion of the formed carbon monoxide and purification from carbon dioxide and water vapor.

To enhance restorative properties and purification of nitric gas mixture the lower part of the reaction zone stage burning support at a temperature of 100-800oC. the Disadvantage of this method is the insignificant life of the combustion chamber and insufficient cleaning of the protective atmosphere of carbon monoxide.

The main disadvantage of this method and way of analog is that to increase the degree of purification of the gas mixture are improving only one stage of the production process is controlled nitric atmosphere - stage high-temperature conversion (combustion) of hydrocarbons. However, improving the quality of protective atmosphere is ineffective without significantly reducing the residual content of carbon monoxide in the products of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, which is the second stage of the production process gas protection of the atmosphere - stage low-temperature steam reforming of carbon monoxide in the catalyst bed.

The proposed method of producing nitric controlling the carbon monoxide and subsequent purification of the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor. High-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons carried out from top to bottom in three layers of granular refractory material in the form of grains fractions 10-25 mm, 20-35 mm, 40-90 mm, in amounts, respectively, 20-40%, 40-50% and 20-30%, and the material of the largest faction, except for the bottom layer of the combustion chamber, fragmentary placed in the upper layer of refractory material, and low-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide is carried out in a layer of granulated zinc-chromium-copper catalyst at a ratio of height to radius granules 0,9-1,5.

Nitric gas mixture is produced by high temperature conversion of hydrocarbon gases on the surface of the granular refractories different fractional composition according to the height of the combustion chamber with strictly defined temperature distribution from 1400-1800oIn the upper layers, up to 600-800oWith the bottom.

As a layer of refractory material using electro-fused corundum in the form of grains fraction 10-25 mm in the amount of 20-40%; 20-35 mm - 40-50% and corundophilite coarse fraction 40-90 mm in the amount of 20-30%, and the coarse fraction, except for the bottom layer of the combustion chamber, partially located in the upper fine-grained layer by filling it in Central campechuela uniformity of combustion and distribution of gas flow and temperature over the cross section of the chamber, a gradual reduction in temperature along the length of Packed layer in the downward direction, which, in turn, ensures the absence of combustion products of methane and in nitrogen oxides and minimum content (up to 0,00024 %) admixture of oxygen, and several times reduces the possibility of deformation and sintering refractory material, thereby increasing the lifetime of the combustion chamber is from 1 year to 10 years and the turnaround time from 4 months to 1 year or more.

To enhance quality protective atmosphere due to the reduction of carbon monoxide in the products of incomplete combustion (high-temperature conversion of hydrocarbon gases) low-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide is carried out in a layer of zinc-chromium-copper granulated catalyst one fractional composition. The catalyst pellets are cylindrical in shape and the inner cone. The ratio of the height of the cone to the radius equal to 1.1 to 1.6. The ratio of the height of the tablet to its radius is equal to 0,9-1,5. The volume occupied by the catalyst, is 70% of the total volume of the Converter. The use of the catalyst of one fractional composition and geometric shapes and sizes provides minimum resistance in the layer loading, uniform distribution CLASS="ptx2">

Thus, the use of the catalyst granules of such size and shape eliminates the contradiction between the intensity of his work and hydraulic resistance. Its reactivity and mechanical properties remain constant during long-term operation, which allows to increase service life of the catalyst is more than 2 times.

Example.

Natural gas, free from sulfur compounds (if any), and the compressed air in volume ratios from 1: 6 to 1: 9,8 served in a special burner with active air jet, where they complete mixing. Prepared by the gas-air mixture flows from the top down in the front part of the combustion chamber in fragmentary posted by a layer of coarse-grained refractory material and forth in layers electrocorundum nozzles fractional composition of 10-25 mm, 20-35 mm, 40-90 mm

On the surface of the heated grains is incomplete combustion of the gas in the upper layer of the nozzle temperature reaches 1400-1800oC. Then there is a gradual decrease in temperature of combustion products in layers fractions 20-35 mm and 40-90 mm refractory material and at the outlet from the combustion chamber temperature is 600-800oWith, and the content of residual color roducti combustion serves to block the conversion of carbon monoxide, which consists of a Converter, which is a cylindrical vessel with installed evenly over the height of 4 thermocouples to monitor the temperature in the catalyst bed. It is loaded low-temperature zinc-chromium-copper granulated catalyst one fractional composition. Granules of the catalyst have an inner cone with a ratio of the height of the cone to its radius of 1.46. On the layer of the recovered catalyst downward from the combustion chamber is supplied gas mixture with a temperature of 200oWith having the composition (depending on the coefficient of air flow), vol. %:

CO2- 2-10

CO - 5-9

N2- 65-72

H2- 1-6

H2ON - 17-19

Ar - 0,9

ABOUT2is 0.0001-0,0003

In the Converter on the surface of this catalyst is provided by the passage of low-temperature steam reforming of carbon monoxide by the reaction:

CO+H2About>-->2+H2+9.6 kcal

resulting in the increase of hydrogen concentration and full catalytic cleaning gas mixture of carbon monoxide, followed by purification from carbon dioxide and water vapor.

The main part of the converted gas about. %:

H2- 2-15

WITH

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the granular catalyst has an inner cone with a ratio of the height of the cone to the radius of 1.1 to 1.6.

 

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