The method of obtaining nitric controlled atmosphere
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended to obtain nitric controlled atmosphere used to get the glass to melt the metal and other industries. The method of obtaining nitric controlled atmosphere comprises a high-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons, low temperature steam reforming of carbon monoxide and subsequent purification of the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor. High-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons carried out from top to bottom in three layers of granular refractory material in the form of grains fractions 10-25 mm, 20-35 mm, 40-90 mm in amounts, respectively, 20-40%, 40-50% and 20-30%, and the material of the largest faction in the bottom layer of the combustion chamber is partially placed in the upper layer of refractory material, and low-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide is carried out in a layer of granulated zinc-chromium-copper catalyst at a ratio of height to radius of the granules of 0.9 to 1.5. The granular catalyst has an inner cone with a ratio of the height of the cone to the radius of 1.1 to 1.6. The invention improves the quality of the protective atmosphere. 1 C. p. F.-ly. The present invention relates is and to melt the metal and in other industries (metallurgy, and so D. ).The production of gas protection nitric atmosphere includes the following stages: a high-temperature conversion (combustion) of hydrocarbons mixed with air in the layer of refractory material, low-temperature steam reforming of carbon monoxide in the catalyst bed, the cooling of the combustion products and the subsequent purification of gaseous mixtures of carbon dioxide and water vapor.A method of obtaining a controlled nitric atmosphere by RF patent 1353725, MKI With 01 3/24, From 01 To 3/24, in accordance with which a high-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons is carried out in two layers of granular refractory material of the nozzle with a specific surface area of 250-350 m2/m3and 50-150 m2/m3in quantities of 60-80% and 20-40%, respectively, and a material with a greater specific surface fall asleep in the frontal part of the reactor. However, this scheme filling of the combustion chamber does not provide a significant increase in lifetime granular nozzle and accordingly the combustion chamber and increasing the degree of purification of gas protection of the atmosphere. The closest to the essence and the achieved result is a method for nitric controlled atmosphere by A. S. the effect by combustion of hydrocarbons with air in the granular layer of refractory material at 1400-1800oWith subsequent steam conversion of the formed carbon monoxide and purification from carbon dioxide and water vapor.To enhance restorative properties and purification of nitric gas mixture the lower part of the reaction zone stage burning support at a temperature of 100-800oC. the Disadvantage of this method is the insignificant life of the combustion chamber and insufficient cleaning of the protective atmosphere of carbon monoxide.The main disadvantage of this method and way of analog is that to increase the degree of purification of the gas mixture are improving only one stage of the production process is controlled nitric atmosphere - stage high-temperature conversion (combustion) of hydrocarbons. However, improving the quality of protective atmosphere is ineffective without significantly reducing the residual content of carbon monoxide in the products of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, which is the second stage of the production process gas protection of the atmosphere - stage low-temperature steam reforming of carbon monoxide in the catalyst bed.The proposed method of producing nitric controlling the carbon monoxide and subsequent purification of the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor. High-temperature conversion of hydrocarbons carried out from top to bottom in three layers of granular refractory material in the form of grains fractions 10-25 mm, 20-35 mm, 40-90 mm, in amounts, respectively, 20-40%, 40-50% and 20-30%, and the material of the largest faction, except for the bottom layer of the combustion chamber, fragmentary placed in the upper layer of refractory material, and low-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide is carried out in a layer of granulated zinc-chromium-copper catalyst at a ratio of height to radius granules 0,9-1,5.Nitric gas mixture is produced by high temperature conversion of hydrocarbon gases on the surface of the granular refractories different fractional composition according to the height of the combustion chamber with strictly defined temperature distribution from 1400-1800oIn the upper layers, up to 600-800oWith the bottom.As a layer of refractory material using electro-fused corundum in the form of grains fraction 10-25 mm in the amount of 20-40%; 20-35 mm - 40-50% and corundophilite coarse fraction 40-90 mm in the amount of 20-30%, and the coarse fraction, except for the bottom layer of the combustion chamber, partially located in the upper fine-grained layer by filling it in Central campechuela uniformity of combustion and distribution of gas flow and temperature over the cross section of the chamber, a gradual reduction in temperature along the length of Packed layer in the downward direction, which, in turn, ensures the absence of combustion products of methane and in nitrogen oxides and minimum content (up to 0,00024 %) admixture of oxygen, and several times reduces the possibility of deformation and sintering refractory material, thereby increasing the lifetime of the combustion chamber is from 1 year to 10 years and the turnaround time from 4 months to 1 year or more.To enhance quality protective atmosphere due to the reduction of carbon monoxide in the products of incomplete combustion (high-temperature conversion of hydrocarbon gases) low-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide is carried out in a layer of zinc-chromium-copper granulated catalyst one fractional composition. The catalyst pellets are cylindrical in shape and the inner cone. The ratio of the height of the cone to the radius equal to 1.1 to 1.6. The ratio of the height of the tablet to its radius is equal to 0,9-1,5. The volume occupied by the catalyst, is 70% of the total volume of the Converter. The use of the catalyst of one fractional composition and geometric shapes and sizes provides minimum resistance in the layer loading, uniform distribution CLASS="ptx2">Thus, the use of the catalyst granules of such size and shape eliminates the contradiction between the intensity of his work and hydraulic resistance. Its reactivity and mechanical properties remain constant during long-term operation, which allows to increase service life of the catalyst is more than 2 times.Example.Natural gas, free from sulfur compounds (if any), and the compressed air in volume ratios from 1: 6 to 1: 9,8 served in a special burner with active air jet, where they complete mixing. Prepared by the gas-air mixture flows from the top down in the front part of the combustion chamber in fragmentary posted by a layer of coarse-grained refractory material and forth in layers electrocorundum nozzles fractional composition of 10-25 mm, 20-35 mm, 40-90 mmOn the surface of the heated grains is incomplete combustion of the gas in the upper layer of the nozzle temperature reaches 1400-1800oC. Then there is a gradual decrease in temperature of combustion products in layers fractions 20-35 mm and 40-90 mm refractory material and at the outlet from the combustion chamber temperature is 600-800oWith, and the content of residual color roducti combustion serves to block the conversion of carbon monoxide, which consists of a Converter, which is a cylindrical vessel with installed evenly over the height of 4 thermocouples to monitor the temperature in the catalyst bed. It is loaded low-temperature zinc-chromium-copper granulated catalyst one fractional composition. Granules of the catalyst have an inner cone with a ratio of the height of the cone to its radius of 1.46. On the layer of the recovered catalyst downward from the combustion chamber is supplied gas mixture with a temperature of 200oWith having the composition (depending on the coefficient of air flow), vol. %:
CO - 5-9
H2ON - 17-19
Ar - 0,9
In the Converter on the surface of this catalyst is provided by the passage of low-temperature steam reforming of carbon monoxide by the reaction:
resulting in the increase of hydrogen concentration and full catalytic cleaning gas mixture of carbon monoxide, followed by purification from carbon dioxide and water vapor.The main part of the converted gas about. %:
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.
FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.
EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.
EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with petrochemical industry, in particular with a method of catalytic preliminary reforming of the hydrocarbon raw materials containing higher hydrocarbons. The method provides for the indicated hydrocarbon raw materials gating through a zone of a catalyst representing a fixed layer containing a noble metal on magnesia oxide (MgO) and-or spinel oxide (MgAl2O4) at presence of oxygen and water steam. The technical result is a decrease of a carbon share on the catalyst.
EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease a carbon share on the catalyst.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.
EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.
12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.
10 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries; methods of production a synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the methods of production of a synthesis of gas and may be used in chemical, petrochemical, oil refining and other industries. The method of production of synthesis gas using a vapor or a vapor-carbon dioxide conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous raw material provides for purification of the hydrocarbonaceous raw material from sulfuric compounds, its commixing with steam or with steam and carbon dioxide with formation of a steam-gas mixture. The catalytic conversion of the steam-gas mixture is conducted in a reactor of a radially-spiral type, in which in the ring-shaped space filled with a nickel catalyst with a size of granules of 0.2-7 mm there are the hollow spiral-shaped walls forming the spiral-shaped channels having a constant cross section for conveyance of a stream of the steam-gaseous blend in an axial or in a radially-spiral direction. At that into the cavities of the walls feed a heat-transfer agent to supply a heat into the zone of reaction. The invention ensures intensification the process.
EFFECT: invention ensures intensification the process.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex