Method of desalinating saline water and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used in industrial, agricultural water supply, as well as in irrigated agriculture in the desalination of saline water. The method involves continuous spray amorgianos water under variable angle to the horizontal plane, forming pellets of ice, ice array and obtaining fresh water from its melting. The process of numerazione carried out at constant temperature control and perform in the parameters area, limited established a relationship between the degree of disintegration of the jet into droplets and the current temperature. Increasing the angle of inclination of the stem of the sprinkler apparatus is produced as height growth zamorajivanie array of ice. Monitor the temperature of the upper zamorajivanie layer of ice and its subsequent adjustment is made by changing the speed of rotation of the shaft of the sprinkler system. The process of numerazione ice masses are in the parameters area, limited established a relationship between the temperature of the upper zamorajivanie layer of ice and salinity of sea water. The device includes nanism angle barrel sprinkler system, the control system. The device is equipped with a mechanism to control the diameter of the nozzle, measuring complex, a device for measuring the height of the array of ice and flight path of the jet, temperature sensors, ice, air temperature sensor, the information-Advisory system (ISS) for information processing and heating water conveyance elements. The invention allows to simplify the process of desalination by reducing the number of controlled parameters. 2 S. and 4 C. p. F.-ly, 1 table, 2 Il.

The invention relates to methods and techniques of desalination natural freezing and can be used to process mineralized natural and anthropogenic water, including wastewater industry and agriculture.

There is a method of desalinating seawater and brackish water, including spray amorgianos water, forming pellets of ice, ice block, and obtaining fresh water defrosting unit, in which in order to reduce the duration of the process splashing amorgianos water is continuous, and pellets of ice form with the content inside them amorgianos water, whereby the diameter of the droplets can be chosen according to the following savieri freezing salt water,oC; V - wind speed, m/s; L is the heat of fusion of salty ice, kcal/kg; i - intensity of precipitation drops, kg/m2h; d - diameter of water droplets, mm (SU, author's certificate N 1130531 A. IPC3C 02 F 1/22, F 25 C 1/02. Method of desalinating seawater and brackish water // Sosnovsky A. C. , Hodakov Century, Declared 08.04.82 published 23.12.84).

The disadvantages of this method include the complexity of the procedure of its implementation, due to the need of measurement in process numerazione ice array (block) diameter of droplets, the height of their fall, intensity of rain, the thickness of the ice shell drops, and the proposed mathematical relationship that describes the necessary conditions for carrying out the method obtained in relation to the motion of a single drop of rain in the frosty air (A. Sosnovskiy Century Icing in the torch artificial rain as a method of use of water and climatic resources. - The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree K., H. - M. : IG an SSSR, 1984, S. 20) and did not accurately reflect real phenomena in the decay of free turbulent jets. This dependence does not take into account the education process sprinkling spectrum drops of different diameters, which is what acesse decay in different parts of its flight trajectory; variable intensity of precipitation drops of rain along the length of the rain torch; the effect of wind on the above parameters of rain. In this connection there is uncertainty in the choice of the values of the diameter of the droplets, the height of their fall and intensity of rain, characterizing the entire rainfall torch as a whole and, therefore, cannot be guaranteed the required efficiency of the desalination process. As part of the operations of the method does not provide temperature control zamorajivanie ice. The requirement of a way to keep it above -5oC is crucial for the implementation of the desalination process, because in this case more than 95% of salts are in solution (Saveliev A. B. the Structure, composition and properties of sea ice cover and freshwater reservoirs. - M. : Publishing house of Moscow state University, 1963, S. 542) and will be filtered outside of the array of ice.

Also known unit sprinkler amaraiwadi ADN-80, designed to accelerate the building of the thickness of the ice cover of water on plotbase, for the construction of ice crossings, dams, winter airfields and includes a floating base - metal sealed housing mounted on four wheels, an engine AND MB internal combustion engines, water pump, suction system, Napo Prov. a device of the suction pipe, mover to move the unit (the Unit sprinkler amaraiwadi ADN-80. Technical description and operating instructions. - Volgograd: Volgograd pilot plant irrigation techniques, 1987, S. 52. Testimony N 27449 on industrial design Unit sprinkler amaraiwadi". - M. : the USSR State Committee on matters of inventions and discoveries, 1988).

Unit ADN-80 is not designed for the desalination of saline water, has no mechanism to control the diameter of the nozzle of the sprinkler system and does not contain a system for temperature control zamorajivanie ice.

These method and Assembly are adopted by us as the nearest analogues.

The invention consists in the following.

The task in terms of way, which directed the claimed invention, the desalination of saline water by natural freezing with more simple in comparison with the known method, the conditions for implementation by reducing the number of controlled parameters (diameter of a droplet, the height of their flight, the intensity of the rain and others ), are subject to substantial variability in length rain torch, and the introduction of the new integrated indicator of efficiency is the securitization of sea water; use the established regularities of the necessary changes of the degree of disintegration of the jet into droplets H/d, where H is the water pressure, d is the diameter of the nozzle, depending on the temperature t; the introduction of a sequence of operations on the choice of H/d, the angular speed of rotation of the barrel sprinkling apparatus , the angle of inclination of the barrel sprinkler system, providing stage-by-stage optimization process numerazione and desalination of water depending on the temperature of the air, temperature and height of the array of ice.

The task of the device, which directed the claimed invention - a device for implementing the method of desalinating saline water.

The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the invention is to simplify the process, increase the productivity and efficiency of the method of water desalination natural freezing using flare ice formation.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that according to a known method for desalination, providing continuous spray amorgianos water under variable angle to gorizontalnoi into droplets when the temperature of the air, form pellets of ice form ice massif and get fresh water from its melting, in which according to the invention the process of numerazione ice masses is carried out at a constant current control of the air temperature outside the influence of rain torch and perform in the parameters area bounded by the following dependence:

H/d = 1138,4 - 12675,8 t-1, (1)

where t is the temperature,oC; the increase of the tilt angle of the barrel of the device is produced as height growth zamorajivanie array to maintain a constant height of fall of the drops of rain from the highest point of the trajectory of the spray to the surface of the array; provide measurements of temperature of the upper zamorajivanie layer of ice and its subsequent adjustment is made by changing the speed of rotation of the barrel sprinkler system, and the process of numerazione ice masses are in the parameters area bounded by the following dependence:

< / BR>
where tlthe temperature of the top layer of ice arrayoC; maboutthe salinity of sea water, kg/m3; k is the proportionality coefficient, kg/(m3deg); measuring the temperature of the upper layer zamorajivanie ice perform at several points, including the area of the maximum intensity of the spirit on the 5oC in the range -5. . . - 20oC and 10oC in the range -20. . . -53oC, and when the angle of inclination of the barrel sprinkler system and/or the speed of its rotation.

The dependence (1) is obtained by fitting the experimental data for the frosting artificial ice masses during the formation of water-ice mixture in the torch rain with 50% ice.

Requirement (2) is derived by theoretical analysis of the relationship between temperature and phase composition of the water-ice mixture under sprinkler irrigation in the frosty air (Sosnowski A. C. Characteristics of the process of water desalination flare when the freezing ice. - Materials of glaciological studies. M : IG an SSSR, 1987 (1988), vol. 61, S. 143 - 149).

Due to the fact that the method involves the formation of granules of ice content in them amorgianos water when the condition (1), control and maintain the temperature zamorajivanie layer of ice on demand (2) by regulating the speed of rotation of the barrel sprinkler system, maintaining a constant height of fall of the drops from the highest point of the flight path of the jet to the surface zamorajivanie array as it grows as a result of changes in tilt angle of the barrel tehnicheskie result.

To implement this method of desalinating saline water a device.

The above technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that in the known device for freezing the water in the frosty air, including the pumping unit, the spray device with the barrel and nozzle, the mechanism of the tilt angle of the barrel, the mechanism of the rotation shaft at a different speed, which according to the invention the device is provided with a mechanism to control the diameter of the nozzle, measuring the complex is electrically connected with the device for measuring the height of the array of ice and flight path of the jet, the temperature sensors of ice and air temperature sensor, the latter is located at a distance of not less than 0.5 R from the device outside the rain torch, the information-Advisory system for information processing and heating water conveyance elements.

Due to the fact that the device is equipped with mutually associated (through the operator and the system control device) measuring the complex mechanism of regulation of the diameter of the nozzle, mechanism for varying the speed of rotation of the barrel, the mechanism of angle rivet the effective height of the trajectory of the jet, achieved the above technical result.

The analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that applicants are not detected analogues characterized by signs, identical to all the essential features of the claimed invention.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the requirement of "novelty" by applicable law.

To verify compliance of the claimed invention to the requirement of "inventive step" applicants conducted an additional search of the known solutions in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features from the nearest similar features of the claimed invention, the results of which show that the claimed invention is not necessary for the expert in the obvious way from the prior art because the prior art, certain applicants have identified no impact envisaged the essential features of the claimed invention transformations to achieve a technical result.

Therefore, the claimed invented the buy is illustrated by drawings.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic structural diagram of the device.

In Fig. 2 - circuit design based device delestraint sprinkler installation type DTTs.

Information confirming the possibility of realization of the invention is as follows.

The claimed method is implemented as follows.

Method of desalinating water provides a continuous spray saline water in the frosty air, the formation of granules of ice content within them amorgianos water, ice array and obtaining fresh water from its melting. The process of numerazione ice masses performed in the parameters area bounded by the following dependence:

H/d = 1138,4 - 12675,8 t-1,

when monitoring and maintaining the temperature of the upper layer (5 - 10 cm) of ice array (tl):

< / BR>
where k is a proportionality coefficient equal to 18.2 kg/(m3hail). Temperature control zamorajivanie layer of ice in the array is performed by changing the speed of continuous rotation of the barrel sprinkler apparatus within 0.01 < <0,033 with-1and when discrete rotation of 0.01 < < 0,083 with-1. The speed of rotation of the barrel decrease in the temperature. The effect of temperature regulation zamorajivanie ice provide due to changes in the degree of ventilation rain torch, which causes a decrease or increase of the liquid phase in the freezing drops of rain. As numerazione array of ice tilt angle of the barrel of the device increases from 28 to 60oto maintain a constant height of fall of the drops from the highest point of the trajectory of the spray to the surface of the array. Temperature control of the upper layer of the array of ice carry out at several points, for example, on the grid (a x b), provided the control of tlin the zone of maximum intensity of the rain, have to delestrogen sprinkling machines at a distance of 0.7 R from the apparatus, where R is the range of the jet. The temperature of the ice is measured when the temperature of the air on the 5oC in the range -5. . . -20oC and 10oC in the range -20. . . -53oC, and when the angle of inclination of the barrel sprinkler system and/or the speed of its rotation.

The proposed method is carried out by a device which includes a pumping unit 1, consisting of a power unit 2, for example, internal combustion engine, and pump 3 running fence saline water in the device and with the regulation of the diameter of the nozzle 5, the speed of rotation of the shaft 6, the angle of inclination of the barrel 7 sprinkler apparatus 4, the measurement unit 8 is electrically connected with the temperature sensors, ice 9, the air temperature sensor 10, a device for measuring the height of the array of ice and flight path of the jet 11, the information-Advisory system 12 for processing information, the system management device 13, which is serviced by the operator 14; heating system water conducting elements of the device (not shown). The device may be formed in the stationary or mounted on self-propelled chassis (Fig. 2).

The device operates as follows.

After selecting the site for numerazione ice array - planned location with a one-sided bias in the direction of withdrawal of brine and connect the device to a water source with known mineralization m0install the air temperature sensor 10 at a distance of not less than 0.5 R from the device outside the coverage of rain torch and temperature sensors zamorajivanie ice 9 in the area of the rain torch, evenly and, preferably, at a distance of 0.7 R from the device. With the help of the sensor 10 and the measurement of complex 8 provide measurements and nepr is the Information-Advisory system 12 according to the temperature calculates using formulas (1) to the desired value of H/d and at a known pressure pump H recommends that the operator 14 and the diameter of the nozzle d. The operator by means of control device 13 and through the mechanism of regulation of the diameter of the nozzle 5 sprinkler apparatus 4 sets the nozzle with the selected value of the diameter; using the mechanism 7, attached to the stem of the sprinkler apparatus of the minimum angle of - 28oand the mechanism 6 is the average speed of rotation of the barrel sprinkler system, equal to 0.02 s-1with continuous rotation and 0.04-1when discrete rotation of the barrel. Further, the device turns on and carries out the process of the winter rainfall within pre-selected sector (up to 270o).

After start-up device unit 11 is fixed to the maximum height of the trajectory of the jet. When the sensor 9 is covered by a layer of ice thickness of 5-10 cm, perform the measurement of its temperature at several points with subsequent averaging of the information-Advisory system 12. If the condition (2) is performed, the rotation speed of the shaft is not adjusted. If not, using the mechanism 6, the rotation speed of the shaft increases if necessary to lower the temperature of ice or decrease if necessary to increase it. The size of the adjustment is controlled by the sensors 9 and must be in the range of 0.01 < &Le completion of the above described operations of the temperature sensors of the ice 9 is retrieved from the array, density not exceeding 500 - 600 kg/m3. From (2) that when the desalination of large amounts of water (>1000 m3) with salinity of 35 kg/m3sufficient for practical purposes the effective implementation of the proposed method, the temperature zamorajivanie ice should be maintained within -2. . . -5oC.

The process of numerazione array of ice in the selected mode continues as long as the temperature does not change with respect to its value at the time of start installation on 5oC in the temperature range -5. . . -20oC, 10oC in the temperature range -20. . . -53oC and/or height of the array will increase by 10% from the previously measured maximum height of the trajectory of the jet.

Further the above described cycle of operations is repeated until the complete pattern of ice according to the following scheme: 1) measurement of the air temperature; 2) determination required for the measured temperature of the diameter of the nozzle and its mounting on the trunk of a sprinkler system; 3) placement of temperature sensors ice 9 in the area of the proposed action rain torch; 4) measurement of height nevrogennogo array of ice; 5) setting the angle of inclination of the barrel, providing stored in the previous cycle of the array of ice; 6) installation of medium speed trunk sprinkler system; 7) start-up and operation of the device; 8) temperature measurement zamorajivanie ice; 9) adjust the speed of rotation of the barrel sprinkler system; 10) removing the temperature sensors of ice; 11) control the dynamics of the temperature and height of the array of ice.

When the execution of the proposed method during the formation of the array of porous ice its salt content is reduced to 10 - 12 times in comparison with initial salinity of sea water. Further demineralization of ice and obtaining fresh water occurs as a result of melting of the array.

Example. The frosting array of ice were performed experimental sprinkler installation, created on the basis of the Grad-1" (JSC "Irrigation engineering", Volgograd) when the air temperature -5,3. . . -18,9oC when the wind speed of 1.6. . . 2.8 m/s For 48 hours of net time of installation was created an array of artificial porous ice with a height of 5.3 m, with dimensions in plan 62,5 x 46,2 m, volume 2113 m3ice with a density of 460. . . 570 kg/m3. Temperature zamorajivanie ice was maintained in the range -2. . . -5oC. the table shows the salinity and chemical composition of sea water, ice on Mme positive average daily air temperatures during this period 166,6oC (ice 2).

Just when the melting of the array was obtained 1115,0 m3water with an average salinity of 0.5 g/L.

Consider method 1 MJ consumed primary energy allows you to get fresh water 57.5 kg, which is more in comparison with distillation 7.2. . . 22,5 times, electrodialysis - 3.3 times, reverse osmosis - 2.0 times (Kolodin M. C. Economics of desalination. - M. : Nauka, 1985, S. 128).

Thus, the above data confirm that the implementation of the use of the claimed invention the following cumulative conditions:

method and means embodying the claimed invention in its implementation, are intended for use in industrial, agricultural water supply, as well as in irrigated agriculture in the desalination of saline water;

for the claimed invention in the form as it is described in the independent clause following claims, confirmed the possibility of its implementation using the above described in the application or known before the priority date tools and techniques;

the tool embodying the claimed invention in its implementation, is able to achieve perceived by the applicant technical applicability under current law.

1. Method of desalinating saline water with continuous spray amorgianos water under variable angle to the horizontal plane, with variable angular velocity of rotation of the barrel sprinkler system and a variable degree of disintegration of the jet into droplets depending on the air temperature, the formation of pellets of ice, ice array and obtaining fresh water from its melting, characterized in that the process numerazione ice masses is carried out at a constant current control of the air temperature outside the influence of rain torch and perform in the parameters area, limited addiction

N/d= 1138,4-12675,8 t-1,

where H is the water head;

d is the diameter of the nozzle;

t - temperature,oC.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the increase of the angle of inclination of the stem of the sprinkler apparatus is produced as height growth zamorajivanie array to maintain a constant height of fall of the drops of rain from the highest point of the trajectory of the spray to the surface of the array.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that provide measurements of temperature of the upper zamorajivanie layer of ice and its subsequent regulation of the producers who will be in the parameters area limited addiction

< / BR>
where tlthe temperature of the top layer of ice arrayoC;

m0the salinity of sea water kg/m3;

k - coefficient of proportionality.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the temperature measurement of the top layer zamorajivanie ice perform at several points, including the zone of maximum intensity of rain, with subsequent averaging, and the temperature of the ice is measured while changing the current of air temperatureoWith in the range of -5. . . -20oWith 10oWith in the range of -20. . . -53oC.

5. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the temperature measurement of the top layer zamorajivanie array perform when the angle of inclination of the barrel sprinkler system and/or the speed of its rotation.

6. Device for the desalination of saline water, including pumping units, sprinkler apparatus with the barrel and nozzle, mechanism for varying the speed of rotation of the barrel, the mechanism of the tilt angle of the barrel sprinkler system and control system, characterized in that it is provided with a mechanism to control the diameter of the nozzle, measuring complex, electrically connected with the device for metering the, the information-Advisory system for information processing and heating water conveyance elements.

 

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