The catalytic composition, enhancing the combustion of fuel, the fuel mixture using this composition and a method of burning fuel

 

(57) Abstract:

Describes the composition, enhancing the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, such as LPG - liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel fuel, containing a catalyst of metal oxides, dispersed in a liquid organic medium that is compatible with the fuel. The catalyst contains a mixture of chromium oxide Cr2O3and oxide of cobalt Co3ABOUT4and liquid organic media as solvent contains a solvent of Stoddard. Describes a fuel mixture containing the catalyst metal oxide filler selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal and transition metal, and a carrier solvent of Stoddard together with at least one high-temperature grease, surface-active agent and emulsifier for dispersing the catalyst in a solvent and the specified fuel. Also described is a method of burning fuel with these catalytic compositions. The technical result is an almost complete combustion of the fuel to reduce emissions associated with incomplete oxidation, and at lower temperatures to prevent formation of NOx. 3 S. and 7 C. p. F.-ly.

Description of relevant technologies

The applicant previously released an additive that increases combustion, particularly suitable for carburising LPG-burning systems for internal combustion engines, such as engines for forklift trucks and the like. This additive (additive) known under the trademark CGX-4. This product contains a mixture of high-temperature lubricant, such as light oil with a high flash point of at least one detergents or surface-active substance and at least one emulsifier, including polar solvent, such as one or more alcohols, in an acceptable organic medium such as a solvent of Stoddard.

Also known catalytic composition, enhancing the combustion of fuel containing at least one catalyst metal oxide filler, dispergirovannoyj catalyst metal oxide filler in the solvent and fuel when added to the last (U.S. patent N 5266082, IPC C 01 L 1/12, publ. 1993). According to the said patent as a hydrocarbon fuel used gasoline, and as a solvent in known compositions used kerosene. In the mentioned patent also described fuel mixture that includes the specified well-known catalytic composition, and method of burning fuel.

Using known catalytic compositions for such fuels like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is problematic due to the fact that LPG is very different from gasoline in many ways, having including a much lower density and much lower viscosity. These distinctive characteristics of LPG cause some difficulty when suspendirovanie therein particles of metal oxide in comparison with gasoline. In particular, the fine catalytic particles of oxide of metal fall out of solution or for a short time, for example for 24-48 hours, stratified in LPG, whereas the particles of oxide of the metal remain dispergirovannykh in gasoline for a long period of time due to the higher density and viscosity of gasoline. The inability to disperse LPG fine particles of metal oxide is a significant problem in commercial terms, since it is not the mu usually before distribution of LPG is stored for a long period of time and/or large stationary tanks. LPG fuel is very different from gasoline because it burns at a much higher temperature, for example, normally the temperature of combustion of LPG is 1600-1700oC, whereas the temperature of combustion of gasoline is usually below 1500oC. higher in comparison with gasoline, the combustion temperature of LPG is the result of several factors, including higher specific heat LPG, as well as the fact that LPG combustion is steam, and gas - liquid. This difference is also very significant from a practical commercial standpoint, since at temperatures above 1500oWith adverse selection, including oxides of nitrogen (NOx), are formed in much larger quantities.

The invention

The invention represents an improvement additives CGX-4enabling a more complete oxidation of the fuel in the combustion process compared to the additive CGX-4to increase energy output and reduce emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate mesogenic hydrocarbons and the like and enables the combustion process is more stable at lower temperatures, reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx).

With at least one catalyst metal oxide filler dispersed in a liquid organic medium that is compatible with the hydrocarbon fuel. Preferably, the catalyst of the metal oxide contains at least one oxide of the alkali earth metal or oxide of the transition metal, and most preferably, the catalyst of the oxide of the metal selected from the group consisting essentially of chromium oxide, magnesium oxide, manganese oxide, cobalt oxide, iron oxide and mixtures thereof. Organic medium preferably contains a solvent of Stoddard. The composition preferably also contains a surfactant, emulsifier, such as a polar organic solvent, and high-temperature grease.

Oxide (oxide) metal acts as a catalyst for the combustion of hydrocarbon fuel, and adding even in very small quantities, for example 1-50 parts per million parts effective in achieving almost complete oxidation of fuel and reduction of pollutant emissions caused by incomplete oxidation.

Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbon fuel with oxide (oxides) metal according to the invention has associated with them a great Teplova is to use a lower temperature of combustion and minimizing atmospheric emissions of NOx.

According to the invention it is also proposed a method of burning hydrocarbon fuels, including connection stage hydrocarbon fuel dispersion of the catalyst metal oxide filler in liquid organic media that are compatible with the hydrocarbon fuel, and the combustion of the United hydrocarbon fuel and catalytic dispersion at a maximum temperature below 1500oC. Preferably, the catalyst of the metal oxide includes at least one oxide of the transition metal and the oxide of the alkali earth metal and, most preferably, the catalyst metal oxide filler selected from the group consisting essentially of chromium oxide, magnesium oxide, manganese oxide, cobalt oxide, iron oxide and mixtures thereof; the organic carrier includes at least one solvent of Stoddard, and catalytic dispersion comprises a surfactant, a polar organic solvent and high temperature grease, when the combustion process is carburising the combustion process in the internal combustion engine.

The aim of the invention is to obtain increased combustion catalytic additives for hydrocarbon fuels, such as LPG (liquefied petroleum the m case, when the fuel contains a significant amount of impurities, such as unbound water, propylene, long-chain hydrocarbons, etc.

Another aim is to increase the combustion additives for hydrocarbon fuels, significantly reduce or eliminate harmful emissions, usually caused by incomplete oxidation, reducing the emissions of NOx.

Another aim is to promote the combustion of additives, which can be easily and economically obtained and connected with hydrocarbon fuels.

Another purpose is to provide a method for burning a hydrocarbon fuel in conjunction with increasing combustion additive to reduce harmful emissions associated with the completeness of oxidation, and reducing the formation and release of NOx.

A detailed description of the preferred embodiments

Increasing the combustion catalyst according to the invention contains at least one metal oxide and, preferably, at least one oxide of the alkali earth metal or oxide of the transition metal from the group comprising chromium oxide, magnesium oxide, manganese oxide, cobalt oxide, iron oxide and mixtures thereof. These oxides the Directors, since these compounds not only promote complete oxidation of hydrocarbons, but also allow for the combustion process at lower temperatures, which are not favorable for the formation of NOxand have good thermal stability.

The oxidation process in the traditional flaming combustion of fuels such as LPG, is a homogenous reaction occurring in the volume of the gas phase. With the introduction of the catalyst in the combustion process, is also heterogeneous oxidation on the catalyst surface. By selecting a suitable catalyst can lower the activation energy necessary for the occurrence of heterogeneous catalytic reactions, to a level much less than that required for pure homogeneous combustion process. For example, for lung burning hydrocarbon fuels such as propane, the activation energy acatalasemia homogeneous oxidation reactions is approximately 25 to 50 Kcal/g-mol, while for heterogeneous catalytic oxidation reaction, it is approximately 11-15 Kcal/g-mol. Acceptable reaction rate heterogeneous (catalytic) oxidation can be achieved by tempera catalytic) reactions.

In the catalytic combustion reaction in the initial part of the burning layer is mainly catalytic and its speed is regulated by the rate of surface reaction. For reinforcement of the catalytic reaction gas temperature and the surface and the rate constant of surface reaction (which increases exponentially with increasing temperature) quickly becomes so large that the rate of transfer of reactants to the catalyst surface becomes the governing factor in the catalytic reaction. Then the total rate of heterogeneous reactions is governed by the rate of mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The rate of release of energy in the regulated mode of mass transfer is usually set to a value lesser than that achieved in traditional (non-catalytic) flares. At high enough temperatures, which rapidly achieved in the combustion process, homogeneous reactions are initiated in addition to heterogeneous catalytic reactions, then the combustion process rapidly nearing completion, and achieved a speed of energy release comparable to traditional torches.

When using the catalyst of the metal oxide according to the invention can wasp the ri is quite low inlet temperatures and at low equivalent ways, such as a result of which the combustion process and output temperature of the emissions from the combustion process are quite low, so that the formation of NOxis minimized, however, the combustion reaches almost 100% completeness, resulting in the observed minor compared to the incomplete oxidation of the emissions.

Using experimental catalytic combustion, oxides of the alkaline earth metal is magnesium and transition metals chromium, manganese, cobalt, iron and their mixtures gives the best catalytic results. Of these the most active catalyst was a binary mixture of chromium oxide and cobalt oxide (Cr2ABOUT3- Co3O4), which gave full conversion/oxidation of very poor fuel mixtures LPG and the equivalent ratio equal 0,196, at low inlet temperatures below 850oC. it Was found that this catalyst mixture is suitable for a very wide area equivalent relations and inlet temperatures during the combustion of LPG; at the same time when using this catalyst, the rate of release of NOxnever exceed 0.11 g per kilogram of fuel. Tanno systems burning LPG, including systems using previously known to increase the combustion additives of the Applicant.

When using the described oxides of alkaline earth metals and transition metals combustion in some cases was complete, and in other cases, incomplete. In those cases in which it was achieved complete combustion, the emission level of NOx, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were very low. The concentration of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were so low that they were detected by gas chromatography, and the rate of release of NOxwas always lower than 0.11 g per kilogram of fuel.

In cases where the combustion was incomplete, usually due process under conditions of kinetic or massoperenosa regulation/restrictions, the main contaminant was unburned hydrocarbons. In some cases, when the weekend temperatures were high and the combustion was incomplete, was observed a small amount of carbon monoxide. Quantified emissions of NOxalways been very low and, as it was found to depend strongly on temperature, but did not exceed 0.11 g per kilogram of fuel.

To connect the AC is estoya organic medium, compatible with hydrocarbon fuel. For LPG catalytic metal oxide filler can be thoroughly dispersed in the solvent of Stoddard and, preferably, in a solvent (the solvent) of Stoddard together with high temperature grease, detergent or surface-active substances and polar solvent, such as alcohol. To achieve optimum combustion conditions required only a very small amount of catalyst metal oxide filler. Adding to the hydrocarbon fuel catalyst metal oxide filler in the amount of 1 to 50 parts, and most of 10-30 parts per million of parts can be achieved a complete or almost complete oxidation/combustion of fuels at low inlet temperatures and small equivalent relations, when the emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, especially, and NOxreduced, and the energy output for the selected number of fuel increases. Fine powders of metal oxides can be dispersed in the solvent of Stoddard. When the dispersion of powders of metal oxides in CGX-4proper dispersion of a powder of oxide of the metal in the organic environment contribute detergents/surfactants wesr>can be added to the dispersion of the catalyst(s) of the metal oxide containing 0.5-5 wt. % powder of oxide of the metal in the solvent of Stoddard, in the ratio of 3 to about 5. % dispersion at about 95-97. % CGX-4. Catalytic increasing combustion modified additive then connect with a hydrocarbon fuel, such as LPG, in the ratio of 0.5 to 2.0 fluid ounces of 10.0 gallons (0,39 - and 1.56 ml of the additive per 1 liter of fuel). Although there may be added a higher concentration of catalyst(s), they are not further improve the characteristics of combustion, at the same time Doroga obtaining catalytic additives.

The additive is miscible and compatible with LPG fuel, and is easily connected to it by a simple injection of the appropriate amount of additive into the fuel tank of LPG, for example, pouring 1 ounce (up 29.6 ml) in a tank of 10 gallons (37.85 l), pouring tank 55 gallons (208,2 l) tank for 70,000 gallons (about 265000 l), etc.

The additive according to the invention is particularly effective when used with gasoline LPG fuel system in internal combustion engines. The additive is also effective when used with other fuels, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oil and so on , and in the other, increasing the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas containing at least one catalyst metal oxide filler dispersed in a compatible fuel liquid organic medium comprising a solvent and emulsifier for dispersing the catalyst metal oxide filler in the solvent and fuel when added to the latter, characterized in that as the oxide of the metal of the specified catalyst contains a mixture of chromium oxide Cr2O3and oxide of cobalt Co3O4and liquid organic media as solvent contains a solvent of Stoddard.

2. The catalytic composition under item 1, characterized in that the catalyst metal oxide filler is connected to the fuel in a ratio of 1-50 parts per million parts.

3. The catalytic composition under item 1, characterized in that the catalyst metal oxide filler dispersed in the said liquid organic medium in a ratio of less than 1.0 wt. %.

4. The catalytic composition under item 1, characterized in that the said organic liquid medium further comprises at least one high-temperature lubricant and a surfactant.

5. The catalytic composition according to p. 4, Auteuil grease light oil with a flash point, at least 204oC.

6. The catalytic composition under item 1, characterized in that the said catalyst metal oxide filler is connected to the above-mentioned fuel ratio of 10-30 parts per million parts.

7. The catalytic composition under item 1, characterized in that it is connected to the above-mentioned fuel in sufficient quantity to reach the target of emissions of NOxfuel combustion is equal to or less than 0.11 g / kg fuel LPG.

8. The fuel mixture of fuel and dispersion of the catalyst metal oxide filler in liquid organic media that are compatible with the fuel, and the specified catalyst of the metal oxide contains at least one oxide selected from the group consisting of the oxide of the alkali earth metal and transition metal oxide, and the liquid organic medium contains a solvent and emulsifier for dispersing the catalyst metal oxide filler in the solvent and the specified fuel, wherein the fuel specified mixture contains liquefied petroleum gas, and the liquid organic medium as solvent contains a solvent of Stoddard.

9. The fuel mixture under item 8, characterized in that the title is substance, 1-3 about. % of emulsifier and solubilizer of the Stoddard - the rest.

10. The method of combustion of liquefied petroleum gas, including the stage of connection of the fuel dispersion of the catalyst metal oxide filler in liquid organic media that are compatible with the fuel and the combustion fuel and the above dispersion at a temperature below 1500o, Characterized in that the aforementioned catalyst of the metal oxide includes at least one oxide selected from the group consisting of oxide of alkaline-earth metal and transition metal oxide, and called organic media includes, mainly, the solvent of Stoddard and emulsifier for dispersing the catalyst metal oxide filler in the solvent of Stoddard and fuel.

 

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