Two-star marine collimator sexton and method for simultaneous observation of a pair of light with the imposition of their images
(57) Abstract:Two-star marine collimator Sexton used on ships and vessels to determine where the observation of the heavenly bodies. This visual pipe covered with a grid of threads in a field of view wide-angle eyepiece in the form of mutually perpendicular vertical and horizontal threads that intersect on the optical axis. In front of the lens device is equipped with two beam splitter to create three optical channels. One channel has a measuring prism with a reading device, the second channel includes a collimator with a sinker, a company that designs in the field of view eyepiece grid of threads, which is exactly superimposed on the grid eyepiece when the sighting plane of the device lies in the plane of the vertical weight. The third channel with angle lens creates an image that accurately superimposed on the image of the first channel, when the index reading device at zero. Simultaneous observation of a pair of light with the imposition of their image suggests a preliminary calculation of the angular distance between the target to the observation of a pair of light, for the reading device the calculated values and perform observations with reference to the new zero-point INIA second luminary. While retaining the mesh strands of the collimator, exactly superimposed on a grid of threads of the eyepiece or the grid eyepiece, keep in the middle between the extreme positions of the grid collimator and the average time world time measurement register on the chronometer. Then on the known and measured values, calculate the latitude and longitude of places. Technical result: simplification of observations, increasing the efficiency and accuracy of definition. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to nautical astronomy and can be used to determine the coordinates designated by the observation of the stars.Existing manual astronavigation devices perform observations of single stars by measuring their heights relative to the visible sea horizon. To perform a task, you must observe during the evening or morning twilight several bodies at the same time (within 4-10 minutes) or in the daytime to observe the Sun with the interval between observations about two hours. Because the devices do not have devices to hold the plane vertical, it is necessary to apply different methods of swinging of the tool, which leads to errors and difficult. These devices are of bad podderzivau B. I. Nautical astronomy. Textbook for high schools. 3rd ed. Rev. and ext. M: Transport. 1986).Monitoring with astrocoeniidae Magomedov not associated with the visible sea horizon, it has a device for holding verticals and can be highly computerized. However, it does not provide sufficient efficiency determine the place, as it requires observations at least two pairs of light quite remote from each other in azimuth (Bulletin VNIIPO "Invention" 15 from 27.05.98. Description of the invention to the patent of the Russian Federation. Magomedov P. M. "Astrologiae" 96111711/28; 11.06.96; EN 2112211 C1; 6 G 01 1/08).The aim of the invention is the simplification of the observations, their computerization, increasing the efficiency and accuracy of definition of space by reducing the number of observations and execution counts for one point in time.To this end offers a two-star marine collimator Sexton and method for simultaneous observation of a pair of light with the imposition of their images.Two-star marine collimator Sexton (Fig. 1) is telescopic optic tube with a wide field of view. He has the eyepiece 1 field of view which is placed a grid of thread 2 in the form of usamica lit light bulb 4. The device has a relay system 5 (essentially you can do without it). In front of the lens 6 are arranged one behind the other two beam splitter 7 and 8, which form three optical channel 9, 10 and 11.Channel 9 has a measuring prism 12 with a reading device 13. Hollow channel 10 includes a collimator 14, consisting of a lens 15 and a luminous mesh strands 16, identical to the grid of threads in the field of view of the eyepiece.The collimator is equipped with a weight 17. The image grid collimator 16 accurately superimposed on the grid eyepiece 3, when the vertical weight lies in the plane of the vertical strands of the grid 3, or, equivalently, in the sighting plane of the device. The channel 11 has a right-angle prism 18 (type AR-90), which changes the direction of the light beam by 90 degrees. On the outside of the channels 9 and 11 are protected by glass 19 and 20.This arrangement allows the device to see in his eyepiece two images of the remote space and contrasting points in this space, in particular, the image of light. When the index reading device is at zero and the optical axis of both channels parallel to each other, both images are exactly superimposed on each other in the eyepiece visible grid threads of the eyepiece and the collimator. They just imposed the Sinker has the freedom to swing only in the plane perpendicular to the sighting plane of the device. Therefore, during rolling of the ship affects him one component from ravetastic of gravity forces and pitching, causing rotation of the vertical weight, and hence the grid of threads of the collimator to the right and to the left of its middle, the unperturbed position. In this case violated halogenate grids, and this is seen by the observer. His task is in the quiet water of rotation of the device to achieve image merge meshes, and when rolling to keep the grid eyepiece midway between the extreme positions of the grid collimator and in that position to produce the samples.See a couple of light with the imposition of their images according to the following scheme:
1. Known from marine astronomical Yearbook (MAY) declinations1and2and the difference between stellar additions ( =2-1scheduled observation pairs calculate the angular distance d between bodies according to the formula of cosine hand
cosd = sin1sin2+cos1cos2cos
and spherical angles r1and R2between party d and meridians (lines of declinations) pairs according to the formula of kotangens
2. In preparation tool is thereby superimposing the image of the same brightness of the image of the other (Fig. 2, a), and this record as zero-point.3. Put the device on a pair of light, holding his sighting plane vertical weight, and give you two images of the same lights in the vertical and one of the images of the second light in the horizontal threads of the grid eyepiece and remove samples for the reference device and the chronometer.In Fig. 2, b shows how to bring images of light for measurement of the arc of one vertical light c1(11-O1) to spherical perpendicular (2-O1) passing through the second image light. It is convenient to measure the arc O1-1= l, so that the difference d-l to get c1c1= d-l.Then the vertical thread grid eyepiece transferred to the two images of the second light, holding the image of the first lights in the horizontal threads, and perform the same measurement.4. From the solution of the rectangular spherical triangle with known Catete 11-O1= c1and hypotenuse d determine the angle to1(Fig. 2), which together with the corner R1is one navigation parameter is the parallactic angle of the first light q1. At the same time likewise getting a second navigatie 1and2and stellar additions pair2and1at the date of the observations, which are given in MAY) and obtained from the observation values parallactic angles of the two light1and q2at the same time, according to the formula Magomedov determine the local hour angle tMone of the pair of light, and with Greenwich mean solar time of the observations, according to the concept Magomedov (Bulletin VNIIPO "Invention" 15 from 27.05.98. Description of the invention to the patent of the Russian Federation. Magomedov R. M. "determination of the longitude of the site based on the concept Magomedov" 96105046/28; 12.03.96; EN 2112213 C1; 6 G 01 21/02), get the longitude of the place . Then, knowing the declination, the parallactic and local hour angles of light, calculate the latitude of the place . 1. Two-star marine collimator Sexton containing a telescope with a wide field of view eyepiece with illuminated grid of mutually perpendicular vertical and horizontal threads that intersect on the optical axis of the pipe, the lens and the beam splitter to create two optical channels, one of which has a measuring prism with a reading device, characterized in that sequentially after the first set, a second beam splitter that creates the third channel, in which ladyvamp on the net threads of the eyepiece, when the sighting plane of the device coincides with the plane of the vertical weight.2. The method of simultaneous observations of the pair of light with the imposition of their images, including the registration point in time measurement of the arc of the vertical one light to the spherical perpendicular on it from the second light, wherein the pre-impose the image of a pair of light each other by the installation of a counting device of the measuring prism, the calculated values of the angular distance between them and see a couple with measurements of arcs of both verticals of light, while the device is held so that the threads of the eyepiece was midway between the extreme positions of the threads of the collimator, and the known values of inclination and stellar additions and measured values parallactic angles of the two bodies, the local hour angle of one of the luminaries calculate the latitude and longitude of places.
FIELD: information satellite systems; forming global radio-navigational field for sea-going ships, ground, air and space vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes many low-orbit spacecraft whose number depends on conditions of global covering of access areas of users. Each spacecraft contains communication unit in addition to navigational equipment for communication of this spacecraft with two other spacecraft in its orbital plane and two spacecraft from adjacent orbital planes. Communication is performed in millimetric wave band absorbed by Earth atmosphere. At least one spacecraft is provided with high-accuracy synch generator. Thus spacecraft group is formed which is provided with noise immunity system of relaying and measuring radio lines connecting all spacecraft groups and navigational radio line covering upper hemisphere.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and accuracy; enhanced noise immunity of data fed to users of satellite system.
FIELD: space engineering; forming satellite systems for positioning objects on earth surface.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes injection of N artificial satellites into circular or other orbits which work in "n" planes (where "n" is integer which is more than 2) by mi (i=1, ...n) satellites (where n is integer) in each plane. Satellites are positioned in orbits of datum plane and in planes located symmetrically and in pairs relative to datum plane. These planes of orbits are positioned irregularly along terrestrial equator relative to datum plane at angles a priori not equal to 360°/n. Artificial earth satellites in orbits are positioned irregularly and symmetrically in pairs relative to base satellite.
EFFECT: reduced number of artificial earth satellites in navigational system with no impairment of system parameters at positioning of ground objects.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: astronautics, in particular, systems for astro-correction of launch azimuth of carrier rockets.
SUBSTANCE: claimed device is used for launch azimuth correction of position of gyro-stabilized platform of carrier rocket control system and contains optical objective and photo-sensitive section positioned on aforementioned platform. The platform consists of at least two photo-detectors with different spectral characteristics and a scanning element, made in form of piezo-element with rounded reflecting end. When scanning element oscillation is low, any beam after the objective is reflected from rounded surface and received on a single photo-detector. That moment depends on position of a star relatively to finder axis of objective and on sweep path. When sweep is stable, the moment of appearance of signal from photo-detector inside the sweep period is rigidly connected to position of aforementioned beam, and position of finder axis is fixed when device is positioned on gyro-stabilized platform. When two photo-detectors are used with different spectral characteristics, it becomes possible to correct position of gyro-stabilized platform on basis of two spectrally different navigational stars. It is possible to install the device directly on the gyro-stabilized platform of control system of carrier rocket and to precisely aim the rocket at active flight section after comparatively rough aiming based on launch azimuth during pre-launch preparation, which results in simplified and cheapened ground-based aiming system, and allows to remove errors in launch azimuth caused by time difference between launch of engine block of first step of rocket and its release from launching device.
EFFECT: reduced mass and size of astro-finder device, increased reliability of its operation.
FIELD: aerospace engineering.
SUBSTANCE: astrohardware and Earth sounding hardware data is used to accurately determine spacecraft orbit and coordinates and orient it. Sounding data, apart from its designed purpose, is subjected to additional processing to be made in separate frames of the Earth image. This allows determining direction to the Earth center ("to plot local vertical"), correct current spacecraft coordinates and its orientation. Coordinates derived from combination of the Earth sounding area frames on one and several orbital passes are processed together to produce orbit parametres. Orbit parametre estimations are used for navigation-ballistic computations effected aboard the spacecraft till updating at another flight path. Note here that to do with aforesaid tasks, spacecraft needs no usual navigation data from ground appliances or satellite navigation systems, e.g. GLONASS. It does not required special means of orientation relative to the Earth centre (or horizon), say, infrared vertical. Model analyses have shown good chances of providing high accuracy in spacecraft current orientation and coordinate data on high-elliptical or geo-stationary orbit.
EFFECT: expanded operating performances in independent pilotless operation.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for computer-aided astronavigation involves recording time instants when luminaries are observed on vertical and horizontal fibres of a cross web and the horizon line. The field of vision of the eyepiece with straight-visible images of the luminaries, cross web of the eyepiece and the collimator on the display are transferred. The type of the starry sky is corrected using a computer program. On the display, navigation parametres are measured and coordinates of the sighting points are calculated. The collimating sighting telescope is a telescopic device, having a lens, an eyepiece, a system which creates an optical plane and a system which creates a straight-visible and mirror images of the remote space. The device has a built-in computer with a program for recording time instants for real-time observation of luminaries, measuring their navigation parametres and calculating coordinates. The channel which gives mirror images of the luminaries is fitted with a blind for cutting off mirror images from the computer display.
EFFECT: easy observation, providing round-the-clock observation of luminaries, accurate and rapid determination of coordinates through computerisation of measurement and computation processes.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: position of spacecraft in three-dimensional space, the unitary radius-vector and other elements of the reference (calculated, a priori assumed) orbit of the spacecraft are determined based on use of information coming from optoelectron devices mounted on the body of the spacecraft. The minimum number of required optoelectron devices is three, and two of them are placed in gimbals for optimum viewing of selected brightest stars of the celestial sphere. One optoelectron device is rigidly connected to the body of the spacecraft and measures coordinates and brightness of stars falling in the field of vision during navigation sessions and identifies the brightest (working) star.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: navigation system is configured to receive signals from a plurality of transmitters (T1-T5, N), having computation means for each transmitter (T1-T5, N) for gathering unprocessed navigation measurements and means of generating a navigation solution. The navigation system has means of checking consistency of the set of unprocessed navigation measurements calculated for the transmitter (N). The transmitter is marked as suitable if its set of unprocessed navigation measurements is considered consistent for use when generating a navigation solution and the transmitter is marked as unsuitable until consistency of the set of unprocessed navigation measurements is confirmed. The navigation system is configured to carry out for an initially suitable transmitter (T1) a preliminary step of acknowledging unsuitability of said transmitter in order to exclude it from generating the navigation solution and in order to allow its reuse in generating the navigation solution.
EFFECT: improved checking of integrity, avoiding use of erroneous unprocessed measurements associated with multibeam uneven propagation of signals.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of coelosphere coverage from space craft for surveillance of celestial bodies and coelosphere coverage space system for surveillance of celestial bodies and detection of Solar system bodies to this end. Survey consists in scanning of coelosphere by surveillance hardware in complete great circles or in sections composed by parts of said great circles at craft body spinning at preset velocity. Angular velocities of scanning are constant but differ for different coelosphere sections to allow registration of all celestial bodies with luster to preset magnitude and detection of potentially dangerous celestial bodies (asteroids and comets) over 100 m in size revealed at about 150,000,000 km and more at the time of their approach to the Earth of one month and more. Space system comprises space craft with one or several telescopes and continuous radio communication of surface stations located in geostationary or near geosynchronous orbit and equipped with scanning means and onboard data processing means. Besides, it includes surface control means and data reception and processing means.
EFFECT: extendable space system configuration.
24 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: instrument comprises an inlet optical system with a lens, in the focal plane of which there is a radiation receiver installed, placed on the inner frame of suspension, as well as the outer frame of suspension, and a unit of information processing, the first inlet of which is connected to the outlet, and the first control outlet - to the control inlet of the radiation receiver. Inner and outer frames of suspension are equipped by drives, inlets of which are connected accordingly to the second and third control outlets of the information processing unit, and meters of a rotation angle. Increased accuracy of angular measurements is achieved due to increased speed of information processing when using high-accuracy highly informative devices.
EFFECT: improved accuracy.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, navigation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to independent spacecraft navigation and orientation systems. The method includes generating estimates of osculating orbital elements and orientation angles of the spacecraft relative to the axes of the current orbital coordinate system. These estimates are determined based on analysis of geocentric hodographs of the axes of the spacecraft which are obtained based on processing measurement results of coordinates of stars and luminosity thereof in an optoelectronic device which is rigidly mounted on the body of the spacecraft. The obtained estimates are used as prior information when solving navigation and orientation tasks on-board the spacecraft. The method restores operation of an independent navigation and orientation system during emergency launch of the spacecraft, or in case of other emergency situations associated with loss of prior (reference) information. Thus, the degree of independence and reliability of the on-board control system is improved and combat stability and the probability of executing a flight task are also improved.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
5 dwg, 1 tbl