Two-star marine collimator sexton and method for simultaneous observation of a pair of light with the imposition of their images


(57) Abstract:

Two-star marine collimator Sexton used on ships and vessels to determine where the observation of the heavenly bodies. This visual pipe covered with a grid of threads in a field of view wide-angle eyepiece in the form of mutually perpendicular vertical and horizontal threads that intersect on the optical axis. In front of the lens device is equipped with two beam splitter to create three optical channels. One channel has a measuring prism with a reading device, the second channel includes a collimator with a sinker, a company that designs in the field of view eyepiece grid of threads, which is exactly superimposed on the grid eyepiece when the sighting plane of the device lies in the plane of the vertical weight. The third channel with angle lens creates an image that accurately superimposed on the image of the first channel, when the index reading device at zero. Simultaneous observation of a pair of light with the imposition of their image suggests a preliminary calculation of the angular distance between the target to the observation of a pair of light, for the reading device the calculated values and perform observations with reference to the new zero-point INIA second luminary. While retaining the mesh strands of the collimator, exactly superimposed on a grid of threads of the eyepiece or the grid eyepiece, keep in the middle between the extreme positions of the grid collimator and the average time world time measurement register on the chronometer. Then on the known and measured values, calculate the latitude and longitude of places. Technical result: simplification of observations, increasing the efficiency and accuracy of definition. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to nautical astronomy and can be used to determine the coordinates designated by the observation of the stars.

Existing manual astronavigation devices perform observations of single stars by measuring their heights relative to the visible sea horizon. To perform a task, you must observe during the evening or morning twilight several bodies at the same time (within 4-10 minutes) or in the daytime to observe the Sun with the interval between observations about two hours. Because the devices do not have devices to hold the plane vertical, it is necessary to apply different methods of swinging of the tool, which leads to errors and difficult. These devices are of bad podderzivau B. I. Nautical astronomy. Textbook for high schools. 3rd ed. Rev. and ext. M: Transport. 1986).

Monitoring with astrocoeniidae Magomedov not associated with the visible sea horizon, it has a device for holding verticals and can be highly computerized. However, it does not provide sufficient efficiency determine the place, as it requires observations at least two pairs of light quite remote from each other in azimuth (Bulletin VNIIPO "Invention" 15 from 27.05.98. Description of the invention to the patent of the Russian Federation. Magomedov P. M. "Astrologiae" 96111711/28; 11.06.96; EN 2112211 C1; 6 G 01 1/08).

The aim of the invention is the simplification of the observations, their computerization, increasing the efficiency and accuracy of definition of space by reducing the number of observations and execution counts for one point in time.

To this end offers a two-star marine collimator Sexton and method for simultaneous observation of a pair of light with the imposition of their images.

Two-star marine collimator Sexton (Fig. 1) is telescopic optic tube with a wide field of view. He has the eyepiece 1 field of view which is placed a grid of thread 2 in the form of usamica lit light bulb 4. The device has a relay system 5 (essentially you can do without it). In front of the lens 6 are arranged one behind the other two beam splitter 7 and 8, which form three optical channel 9, 10 and 11.

Channel 9 has a measuring prism 12 with a reading device 13. Hollow channel 10 includes a collimator 14, consisting of a lens 15 and a luminous mesh strands 16, identical to the grid of threads in the field of view of the eyepiece.

The collimator is equipped with a weight 17. The image grid collimator 16 accurately superimposed on the grid eyepiece 3, when the vertical weight lies in the plane of the vertical strands of the grid 3, or, equivalently, in the sighting plane of the device. The channel 11 has a right-angle prism 18 (type AR-90), which changes the direction of the light beam by 90 degrees. On the outside of the channels 9 and 11 are protected by glass 19 and 20.

This arrangement allows the device to see in his eyepiece two images of the remote space and contrasting points in this space, in particular, the image of light. When the index reading device is at zero and the optical axis of both channels parallel to each other, both images are exactly superimposed on each other in the eyepiece visible grid threads of the eyepiece and the collimator. They just imposed the Sinker has the freedom to swing only in the plane perpendicular to the sighting plane of the device. Therefore, during rolling of the ship affects him one component from ravetastic of gravity forces and pitching, causing rotation of the vertical weight, and hence the grid of threads of the collimator to the right and to the left of its middle, the unperturbed position. In this case violated halogenate grids, and this is seen by the observer. His task is in the quiet water of rotation of the device to achieve image merge meshes, and when rolling to keep the grid eyepiece midway between the extreme positions of the grid collimator and in that position to produce the samples.

See a couple of light with the imposition of their images according to the following scheme:

1. Known from marine astronomical Yearbook (MAY) declinations1and2and the difference between stellar additions ( =2-1scheduled observation pairs calculate the angular distance d between bodies according to the formula of cosine hand

cosd = sin1sin2+cos1cos2cos

and spherical angles r1and R2between party d and meridians (lines of declinations) pairs according to the formula of kotangens

CtgR1= tg2cos1:sin-sin1:tg

CtgR2= tg1cos2:sin-sin2:tg

2. In preparation tool is thereby superimposing the image of the same brightness of the image of the other (Fig. 2, a), and this record as zero-point.

3. Put the device on a pair of light, holding his sighting plane vertical weight, and give you two images of the same lights in the vertical and one of the images of the second light in the horizontal threads of the grid eyepiece and remove samples for the reference device and the chronometer.

In Fig. 2, b shows how to bring images of light for measurement of the arc of one vertical light c1(11-O1) to spherical perpendicular (2-O1) passing through the second image light. It is convenient to measure the arc O1-1= l, so that the difference d-l to get c1c1= d-l.

Then the vertical thread grid eyepiece transferred to the two images of the second light, holding the image of the first lights in the horizontal threads, and perform the same measurement.

4. From the solution of the rectangular spherical triangle with known Catete 11-O1= c1and hypotenuse d determine the angle to1(Fig. 2), which together with the corner R1is one navigation parameter is the parallactic angle of the first light q1. At the same time likewise getting a second navigatie 1and2and stellar additions pair2and1at the date of the observations, which are given in MAY) and obtained from the observation values parallactic angles of the two light1and q2at the same time, according to the formula Magomedov determine the local hour angle tMone of the pair of light, and with Greenwich mean solar time of the observations, according to the concept Magomedov (Bulletin VNIIPO "Invention" 15 from 27.05.98. Description of the invention to the patent of the Russian Federation. Magomedov R. M. "determination of the longitude of the site based on the concept Magomedov" 96105046/28; 12.03.96; EN 2112213 C1; 6 G 01 21/02), get the longitude of the place . Then, knowing the declination, the parallactic and local hour angles of light, calculate the latitude of the place .

1. Two-star marine collimator Sexton containing a telescope with a wide field of view eyepiece with illuminated grid of mutually perpendicular vertical and horizontal threads that intersect on the optical axis of the pipe, the lens and the beam splitter to create two optical channels, one of which has a measuring prism with a reading device, characterized in that sequentially after the first set, a second beam splitter that creates the third channel, in which ladyvamp on the net threads of the eyepiece, when the sighting plane of the device coincides with the plane of the vertical weight.

2. The method of simultaneous observations of the pair of light with the imposition of their images, including the registration point in time measurement of the arc of the vertical one light to the spherical perpendicular on it from the second light, wherein the pre-impose the image of a pair of light each other by the installation of a counting device of the measuring prism, the calculated values of the angular distance between them and see a couple with measurements of arcs of both verticals of light, while the device is held so that the threads of the eyepiece was midway between the extreme positions of the threads of the collimator, and the known values of inclination and stellar additions and measured values parallactic angles of the two bodies, the local hour angle of one of the luminaries calculate the latitude and longitude of places.


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