Multichannel sign correlates

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in measuring systems intended for the analysis of the characteristics of the stochastic correlation of random processes. The technical result is to increase the accuracy of the estimate of the correlation and cross correlation functions and the extension of functionality through analysis of random processes with any distribution. The device includes first and second Comparators, the shaper short pulses, the first pulse distributor, a group of N binary counter, a clock, a group of N RS-triggers, the first and second generators are random uniformly distributed signals, the inverter, the first, second and third elements And the EXCLUSIVE OR element, a reversible counter, a divider with a configurable dividing ratio, the second pulse distributor, RS-trigger and M processing units of time intervals. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in measuring systems intended for the analysis of the characteristics of the stochastic correlation random the different processes with any probability distribution, contains two input devices, the inputs of which are the inputs of torrelamata, and outputs connected to first inputs of the first and second comparing device, the second inputs of which are connected respectively to the outputs of the first and second generators random equiprobable signals, the first and second outputs of the first comparing device connected to the zero and unit inputs the first trigger, direct and inverted outputs of which are connected with the first inputs of the first and second circuits coincidence, the second inputs of which are connected to first and second outputs of the second comparing device, the output of pulse generator poll is connected via the start button with a single input of the second trigger, with the control input of the second comparing device and with the control input of the divider switch, a main input connected to the outputs of the first and second circuits overlap each channel output of the divider switch, connected to the input of the corresponding pulse meter, control output of the divider switch connected to the control input of the first comparing device and to the signal input of the temporary selector, the output of which is connected through a frequency divider with a zero input of the second Tr is howling and the second schema matching, and with control inputs of the counters. Reading the i-th pulse counter at the end of the measurement cycle corresponds to the ith ordinate of the correlation (or cross correlation) functions (A. C. USSR N 304583, MKI G 06 F 15/34. Bull. N 17, 1971).

The disadvantage of this iconic correlate is the large statistical error in the limited duration of the implementations of the investigated signal.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is correlated containing the first and second Comparators, the first and second additional blocks of multiplication, the first and second triggers, clock generator pulses, the pulse distributor, a group of N triggers and N multiplier units, the first and second groups of M counters, the third group of N counters N switching blocks and M units of the division, with the first inputs of the first and second Comparators are respectively the first and second inputs of torrelamata, and the second inputs of Comparators connected to the bus zero potential, the outputs of the first and second Comparators connected to the first information input of the first and second additional multiplier units respectively, the second information inputs which connect the first and second additional multiplier units respectively, the output of the first additional block multiplication is connected to the input of the pulse distributor, and the output of the second additional block multiplication connected with the second control inputs of each of the switching unit, the inverse output of the first trigger is connected with the adjusting inputs of all flip-flops of the group, the outputs of the pulse distributor is connected to the counting inputs of the respective trigger group, with the first control inputs of the respective switching blocks and with the inputs set the corresponding counters of the third group, the clock inputs are combined and connected to the generator output clock pulses, and outputs of the counters of the third group are connected with the second information inputs of the same block commutation, inverted output of the second trigger is connected with the second information inputs of each block multiplication, the first inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the trigger group, and outputs connected to first inputs of the switching blocks, the group of control inputs of each switching unit is connected with a group of previous outputs of the switching unit, and a group of outputs of the n-th switching unit is connected with a group of control inputs of the first switching unit, the first output unit is adequate blocks division, the second inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the respective counters of the second group, the inputs of which are connected respectively with the joint second outputs of the switching blocks, the outputs of the units of the division are the outputs of correlate (A. C. USSR N 1224806, MKI G 06 F 15/336. Bull. N 14, 1986).

The disadvantage of this correlate is low statistical accuracy of the estimates of the correlation and cross correlation functions. Besides, this correlates allows you to analyze only the signals with the normal distribution law.

The aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy of the estimate of the correlation and cross correlation functions and the extension of functionality through analysis of random processes with any distribution.

The objective is achieved by the fact that in correlated containing the first and second Comparators, the first inputs of which are respectively the first and second inputs of torrelamata, the output of the second comparator is connected to the input of the shaper short pulses, the output of which is connected to the information input of the first pulse distributor, a group of N binary counters, the counting inputs are combined and podgrzanych uniformly distributed signals, the inverter, the first, second and third elements And the EXCLUSIVE OR element, a reversible counter, a divider with a configurable dividing ratio, the second pulse distributor, RS-trigger and M processing units of time intervals, and outputs the first and second generators of uniformly distributed random signals is connected with the second inputs respectively of the first and second Comparators, the output of the first comparator connected to the first input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element and with significant input of each of the M processing units of time intervals, the output of the second comparator connected to the first input of the first element And directly and through an inverter connected to the first input of the second element And with the second input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element, the output of which is connected to the control input of the counting direction of the reversible counter, the second inputs of the first and second elements And the joint and connected to the input "start" correlate, the outputs of the first and second elements And are connected respectively to the input of the recording unit and the input record zero of each of the M processing units of time intervals, N outputs of the first pulse distributor is connected to the reset inputs of the respective N RS-trigger group, the PI is connected to the enable inputs of the account corresponding to N binary counters group the reset inputs are combined and connected to the input "start" torrelamata, direct output the last N-th RS flip-flop group is also connected with the control input of the first pulse distributor and with the second input of the third element And the first input of which is connected to the generator output clock pulses, and the output connected to the counting input of the reversible counter, the reset input of which is connected to the input "start" correlate, the output of the reversible counter is the exit assessment to the zero ordinate of the correlation function, the output of the i-th (where i= 1, 2, ..., N) binary counter group connected with i-diversified inputs receive data from all processing units of time intervals, the output of the last N-th binary counter group is one of the outputs of torrelamata and carries information about the length of time of measurement, the generator output clock pulses is connected to the counting input of the divider with a configurable dividing ratio and with a counter input of each of the M processing units of time intervals, set the input of the divider with a configurable dividing ratio is connected to the input "start" correlate, and the reference input division factor is the reference input step delay measurement of the correlation function, wholsom combined and connected to the direct output of the RS flip-flop the input set which is connected to the input "start" correlate, the output of the divider with a configurable dividing ratio is connected with the information input of the second pulse distributor, M outputs of which are connected with inputs of launch of the respective M processing units of time intervals, the last M-th output of the second pulse distributor is connected with the reset input of RS flip - flop, the inputs of the processing units of time intervals combined and connected to the input "start" correlate, the output of the j-th (where j=1, 2, ..., M) processing unit time intervals is the output of the j-th evaluation of the ordinate of the correlation function.

In each of the M processing units of time intervals of the first input element OR combined with the reset inputs of the binary counter and a reversible counter and an input unit, an output element OR is connected to the reset input of RS flip-flop, the input set which is the starting block, and a direct output connected to the enable input account binary counter with the second inputs of the first, second and third elements And the counting input of a binary counter is combined with the first input of the third element And is counter input block, the output of the binary counter is ode of the first (N-1) schema compare is connected to the inputs of the (N-1-Vodolaga element OR, respectively, the output of which is connected to the first input of the second element And output the last N-th of the comparison circuit connected to the first input of the first element And whose output is connected with the second input member OR the output of the second element And is connected to the counting input t of a flip-flop, the inputs set and reset which are respectively the log recording unit and the input recording zero block, the output of the T flip-flop is connected to the second input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element, the first input of which is a significant input unit, and the output connected to the control input of the counting direction of the reversible counter, the counting input of which is connected to the output of the third element And the output of the reversible counter is the output of processing unit time intervals.

In Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of torrelamata; Fig.2 is a block diagram of processing unit time intervals; Fig.3 is a block diagram of the shaper short pulses and timing diagrams of the operation.

Correlated contains the first 1 and second 2 generators random uniformly distributed signals, the first 3 and second 4 Comparators, shaper 5 short pulses, the first 6 and second 17 distributors pulses, a group of RS-flip-flops 71-71-19Mprocessing time intervals.

Each of the processing units of time intervals contains an element OR 20, RS-trigger 21, the binary counter 22, N schema comparison 231-23N, (N-1-input accumulating element OR 24, the first 25 and second 26 and third 27 elements And the flip-flop 28, the EXCLUSIVE OR element 29 and the reversible counter 30.

Shaper short pulses contains the EXCLUSIVE OR element 31 and the flip-flop 32.

The outputs of the first 1 and second 2 generators random uniformly distributed signals is connected with the second inputs respectively of the first 3 and second 4 Comparators, the first inputs of which are respectively the first and second inputs of torrelamata, the output of the first 3 of the comparator connected to the first input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element 13 and with significant input of each of N blocks 191-19Mprocessing time intervals, the output of the second 4 of the comparator is connected to the input of the shaper 5 short pulses, with the first input of the first 10 element And directly and via the inverter 9 is connected to the first input of the second element 11, And also in ribnovo counter 14, the second inputs of the first 10 and second 11 elements And combined and connected to the input "start" correlate, the outputs of the first 10 and second 11 elements And are connected respectively to the input of the recording unit and the input record zero of each of the M blocks 191-19Mprocessing time intervals, the output of shaper 5 short pulses is connected to the information input of the first 6 of the distributor pulses, N outputs which are connected to the reset inputs of the respective N RS-triggers 71-7Ngroup inputs installation are combined and connected to the input "start" torrelamata, direct outputs N RS-triggers 71-7Ngroup is connected to the enable inputs of the account corresponding to N binary counters 81-8Ngroup, the reset inputs are combined and connected to the input "start" torrelamata, counting input of N binary counters 81-8Nthe group also combined and connected to the output of the generator 15 clock pulses, a direct output the last N-th RS flip-flop 7Nthe group is also connected with the control input of the first 6 of the distributor pulses and a second input of the third element 12 And the first input of which is connected to the output of the generator 15 clock pulses, and the output is connected with the accounts I shall Odom evaluation of the zero ordinate of the correlation function, the output of the i-th (where i= 1,2, . . . N) binary counter 8igroup connected with i-diversified inputs receive data of all blocks 191-19Mprocessing time intervals, the output of the last N-th binary counter 8Nthe group is one of the outputs of torrelamata and carries information about the duration of the measurement time, the output of generator 15 clock pulses is connected to the counting input of the divider 16 with varying the division factor and the counting inputs of M units 191-19Mprocessing time intervals, set the input of the divider 16 with tunable division factor is connected to the input "start" correlate, and the reference input division factor is the reference input step delay measurement of the correlation function, the control input of the divider 16 with varying the division factor and the control input of the second 17 of the distributor pulses are combined and connected to the direct output of the RS flip-flop 18, the input set which is connected to the input "start" correlate, the output of divider 16 with tunable division factor is connected with the information input of the second 17 of the distributor pulses, M outputs of which are connected with inputs of launch of the respective M blocks 191-19Morboros RS-flip-flop 18, inputs installation M blocks 191-19Mprocessing time intervals combined and connected to the input "start" correlate, the output of the j-th (where j= 1,2,..., M) block 19jprocessing time intervals is the output of the j-th evaluation of the ordinate of the correlation function.

In each of the M processing units of time intervals of the first input element OR 20 combined with the reset inputs of the binary counter 22 and the reversible counter 30 and an input unit, the output of the OR element 20 is connected to the reset input of RS flip-flop 21, the input set which is the starting block, and a direct output connected to the enable input of the accounts of the binary counter 22 with the second inputs of the first 25 and second 26 and third 27 elements And the counting input of the binary counter 22 is combined with the first input of the third 27 item And is counter input unit, the output of the binary counter 22 is connected with the second inputs of the N schemas comparison 231-23Nthe first inputs of which are N inputs, data acquisition unit, the outputs of the first (N-1) schema comparison 231-23N-1connected to inputs of (N-1)-Vodolaga element OR 24, respectively, the output of which is connected to the first input 26 of the second element And output the last N-th of the comparison circuit 23

Correlates can measure correlation and cross correlation functions and operates as follows.

When measuring the mutual correlation function Rxy() investigated centered random signals and are received respectively in the first and second inputs of torrelamata, that is, the first inputs, respectively, of the first 3 and second 4 Comparators, the second input of which receives signals1(t) and2(t) outputs, respectively, of the first 1 and second 2 generators random uniformly distributed signals. The values of each of the auxiliary signals1(t) and2(t) are independent relative to each other and relative to the values of the investigated signal (t) and (t). Signals1(t) and
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moreover, the values a and b must satisfy the following conditions

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where the maximum possible absolute value, which can receive respectively the signals (t) and (t).

As auxiliary signals1(t) and2(t) use linearly varying periodic signals (see Mirsky, I. Characteristics of stochastic relations and their measurement): Energoizdat, 1982, S. 190). In particular, you can use the signal of a triangular form, the schema generator triangular form, see the book: the Use of precision analog circuits /A. G. Alexenko, E. A. particularly, G. I. Starodub. - M.: Radio and communication, 1985, S. 165, Fig. 4.11).

The first 3 and second 4 Comparators perform comparison operations, respectively, of the signal (t) with a signal1(t) and signal (t) with a signal2(t). As a result of these operations will have the signals z1(t) and z2(t), which are significant signals, i.e. they can be described using the sign function

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< / BR>
where Sgn{ ... } is the symbol of the sign function.

Since, in practice, the comparison circuit always fix a null value coded signals with equal probability as "+1" or "-1" when change is stochastic relations and their measurement - M: Energoizdat, 1982, S. 179). In accordance with the expressions (4) and (5) can be written in the following form

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When the technical implementation of torrelamata as the first 3 and second 4 Comparators, you can use the integrated Comparators (see A. Nefedov Century Integrated circuits and their foreign counterparts: a Handbook. So 5. - M.: Goblet-a, 1997, S. 113-119). In this case, the logic unit outputs the first 3 and second 4 Comparators will match the value "+1" sign signals z1(t) and z2(t), and the levels of the logic zero at the outputs of these Comparators will correspond to the value "-1" of coded signals z1(t) and z2(t).

The signal z2(t) with the release of the second part 4 of the comparator is fed to the input of the shaper 5 short pulses, which in the time of change of the logical level of the signal z2(t) generates at its output a short pulse. Shaper 5 short pulses may have different circuit designs, it is only necessary that he'd carried out their function. One of possible variants of such a driver and timing his work is represented in Fig.3. In this case it is based on the use of the element IZKLUCHAYE and is the output of the shaper, the output of the T flip-flop is connected to the second input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element 31.

The pulses from the output of the shaper 5 short pulses act on the information input of the first 6 of the pulse distributor.

In the initial state of torrelamata on direct outputs of the group RS-triggers 71-7Nand to direct the output of the RS flip-flop 18 are logic zero.

The logic zero from the direct outputs of the RS-flip-flops 71-7Nthe group arrives at the enable inputs account the respective binary counters 81-8Ngroup and forbid them the expense of clock pulses on their counting inputs from the output of the generator 15 clock pulses.

The first 6 pulse distributor, and the divider 16 with tunable coefficient of division 17 and the second pulse distributor does not operate as a logic zero, arriving at their control inputs direct outputs respectively of the N-th RS flip-flop 7Ngroup and RS-flip-flop 18, block their work.

At the same time a logic level zero with direct access to the N-th RS flip-flop 7N group arrives and to the second input of the third element 12 And prevents the passage of clock pulses to the accounts do not function.

Start correlate by a signal "start". The signal "start" is a short pulse. Time steps of this signal determines the start of the measurement process of the mutual correlation function Rxy( ) and corresponds to the time t0which is assumed to be zero, i.e. t0=0.

The signal "start" in torrelamata takes the following position:

- binary counters 81-8Ngroup and reversible counter 14 are set to zero;

- on direct outputs of the group RS-triggers 71-7Nand RS-flip-flop 18 is set the levels of the logical unit;

- the integer value of Kdthe division factor is recorded in the divider 16 with tunable division factor.

In addition, a start signal is supplied to the second inputs of the first 10 and second 11 elements And. at the first input of the first 10 of an item And receives directly the signal2(t), and the first input of the second element 11 And the signal z2(t) flows through the inverter 9. In accordance with this if at time t0action signal "start", taken as the beginning of the measurement process, the signal z2(t) is the level of logical units (this means that z2< next arrives at the inputs of the recording units all units 191-19Mprocessing time intervals. If at time t0action signal "start" signal z2(t) has a logic level zero (this means that z2(t0)=Sgn{ y(t0) -2(t0)} =-1), then the signal "start" is at the output of the second element 11 And then enters the recording inputs of zero all blocks 191-19Mprocessing time intervals. Practically, this means that in the moment of a start signal, that is, at time t0corresponding to the beginning of the measurement process, in blocks 191-19Mprocessing of time intervals recorded the initial value of z2(t0signal z2(t).

The signal "start" is also fed to the inputs of the units 191-19Mprocessing time intervals and converts them into standby mode.

That's all the installation is completed, and starts the process of measuring the mutual correlation function Rxy().

The signals z1(t) and z2(t) are respectively the first and second inputs of the EXCLUSIVE OR element 13, which performs the function of the sign of the multiplier. If the signs of the signals z1(t) and z2(t) coincide, the output element of Iskluchau equal to "+1". If the signs of the signals z1(t) and z2(t) are opposite, then the output of the EXCLUSIVE OR element 13 will be the level of logical units. This means that the sum of these signals is equal to "-1". The output signal from the EXCLUSIVE OR element 13 is supplied to the control input of the counting direction of the reversible counter 14. When a logic level zero on this input will determine the direct expense of the reversible counter 14 (summation mode clock pulses), and the level of the logical unit detects the expense of the reversible counter 14 (subtraction mode clock pulses). (As a reversible counter 14 can be used, for example, the reversible counter CIE. Cm. Nefedov, A. C. Integrated circuits and their foreign counterparts: a Handbook. So 5. - M.: Goblet-a, 1997. S. 168.)

The level of logical units with direct access to the N-th RS flip-flop 7Nthe group arrives at the second input of the third element 12 And permit the passage of clock pulses from the first input to the counting input of the reversible counter 14. Depending on the level of the signal at the control input of the counting direction of the reversible counter 14 will work or summation mode input sequence clock pulse is N
the group arrives at the enable inputs account the respective binary counters 81-8Ngroup and allow them the expense of clock pulses on their counting inputs from the output of the generator 15 clock pulses. (As a binary counter 81-8Nyou can use, for example, the counter CIE. Cm. Nefedov, A. C. Integrated circuits and their foreign counterparts: a Handbook. So 5. - M.: Goblet-a, 1997, S. 166.)

The level of logical units from the output of the N-th RS flip-flop 7Nthe group was also fed to the control input of the first 6 of the pulse distributor and allows him a job. As a result, the pulses coming from the output of the shaper 5 short pulses on the information input of the first 6 of the distributor, consistently pass on its outputs. The first pulse passes to the first output, the second pulse at the second output, and so on, the N-th pulse passes to the N-th output. In the General case, the i-th pulse passes on the i-th output (where i=1,2,3,..., N). Pulse distributor may be based on a decoder and a binary counter. (In particular, as the decoder can be used chips CIJ or CIJ and schemes similar on purpose. Examples of schemes include decoder and Opole. - L.: Energoatomizdat. Leningrad. separa-tion, 1986, S. 115-118.)

Taking into account that the signal "start" determines the time t0corresponding to the beginning of the measurement process, we will have that the pulses at the outputs of the first 6 of the distributor pulses correspond to the moments of time t1, t2, t3,..., tN, in which the signal z2(t) changes its value after signal "start".

The pulses from the outputs of the first 6 of the distributor pulses are received sequentially at time t1, t2, t3,..., tNon the reset inputs of the respective RS-triggers 71-7Ngroup. As a result of this RS-triggers 71-7Nthe group has consistently set their outputs logic zero, which, on entering the enable inputs account binary counters 81-8Nthe group also consistently at time t1, t2, t3,...,tNstop the counting process of the clock pulses coming from the output of the generator 15 clock pulses to the counting inputs of the binary counter 81-8Ngroup. In the end, binary counters 81-8Nthe group will be accumulated number in binary code l1, l2,.. .,lNthe definition of N, and T0the repetition period of the clock pulses. Practically, this means that binary counters 81-8Ngroups are stored in the binary values of the moments of time t1, t2,...,tN, in which the signal z2(t) changes its value.

Thus the i-th binary counter 8igroup stores the value of the time ti. It should be noted that the number of lNthat stores the N-th binary counter SN group, determines the duration of implementation of tNsignal z2(t), which is equal to the time Tpmeasure the mutual correlation function Rxy( ), i.e.

Tp= tN= lNT0(8)

A logic level zero output the last N-th RS flip - flop 7Nthe group arrives at the control input of the first 6 of the distributor pulses and stops its operation, and is supplied to the second input of the third element 12 And prevents the passage of clock pulses to the counting input of the reversible counter 14. In the end, in the reversible counter 14 will have accumulated the number of S0in the binary code that indicates the evaluation of the zero ordinate (0) significant mutual correlation function of the signals z1(t) and z2(t). Using known transformation (see Mi the valuation of the zero ordinate mutual correlation functions of the signals (t) and (t) taking into account expression (8) is equal to

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where the values a and B are determined by the relations (3).

It is easy to see that the transformation (9) is linear.

As was shown above, the signal "start" to direct the output of the RS flip-flop 18 is set to the level of logical units, which is admitted to the control inputs of the divider 16 with tunable division ratio and the second 17 of the distributor pulses and allows them to work. In this case, the signal "start" in the divider 16 with tunable division factor is entered integer value of Kthe division factor, which specifies the step delay measurement of the mutual correlation function

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where T0and f0respectively the period and the repetition frequency of clock pulses output from the generator 15 clock pulses.

Thus, the period of output pulses of the divider 16 with tunable division factor is Kperiods of the input pulses.

(As a divider 16 with tunable division factor can be used, for example, the well-known integral programmable timer CVI or its analogs. Mode 2 this timer provides a period of output pulses of taminco A. ,, Galitsin A. A., Ivannikov, A. D. Design of electronic equipment on microprocessors: Programming, standard solutions, debugging techniques. - M. : Radio and communication, 1984, S. 65-72).

The pulses from the output of the divider 16 with tunable division ratio of received information to the second input 17 of the distributor pulses and sequentially with an interval time = KT0appear at its outputs. And the first pulse appears at the first output through time . A second pulse appears at the second output through time 2, and so on, the Last M-th pulse appears on the M-th output through time M In the General case, the j-th pulse appears on the j-th output through time j.

Pulses with M outputs of the second 17 of the distributor pulses arrive at the input of the start of the corresponding M blocks 191-19Mprocessing time intervals.

The momentum from the last M-th second output 17 of the distributor pulses are also fed to the reset input of RS flip-flop 18 and sets on its direct output logic level zero, which disables the operation of the divider 16 with tunable division ratio and the second 17 of the pulse distributor.

Blocks 191-19Mprocessing time innocence j-th ordinate mutual correlation function Rxy(j (where j=1,2...,M).

Consider the j-th block 19jprocessing time intervals (see Fig.2).

Depending on the signal values z2(t) at time t0the beginning of the process measurement signal "start", after passing through the first 10 or 11 second elements And supplied respectively to the input of the recording unit or the input of a write-zero block 19j processing time intervals and then he goes or respectively on the input set or reset input of the T flip-flop 28. (As a T-flip-flop 28 can be used, for example, a trigger CTV. Cm. Nefedov, A. C. Integrated circuits and their foreign counterparts: a Handbook. So 5. - M.: Goblet-a, 1997, S. 278). In accordance with these to direct the output of the T flip-flop 28 is set to the level of a logical unit or a logic level zero. Thus, in the T-trigger 28 is stored initial value of z2(t0). Simultaneously, the pulse start is supplied to the input unit 19jprocessing time intervals. In the result, the binary counter 22 and the reversible counter 30 are set to zero, and to direct the output of the RS flip-flop 21 is set to a logic level zero, which is supplied to the second inputs of the first 25 and second 26 and third 27 elements And. consequently is avania 23Nand (N-1)-Vodolaga OR. In addition, the clock pulses at the counter input unit 19jprocessing time intervals that do not pass through the third element 27 And to the counting input of the reversible counter 30. A logic level zero with direct access RS-flip-flop 21 is supplied also to the input of the account permissions of the binary counter 22 and prevents the expense of clock pulses at its counting input.

After the initial settings for the unit 19jprocessing time intervals goes into standby mode, that is, waits for a signal at the input of the start with the corresponding release of the second part 17 of the distributor pulses correlate.

After the time delay, which for the j-th block 19jprocessing of time intervals equal to j, starting with j-th second output 17 of the distributor impulses impulse. This impulse to direct the output of the RS flip-flop 21 is set to the level of logical units, which, on the one hand, when the enable input account binary counter 22, gives an account of clock pulses, on the other hand, when the second input 27 third element And permit the passage of clock pulses to the counting input of the reversible counter 30.

the t to the inputs of the receive data of the j-th block 19jprocessing time intervals and, therefore, arrive at the first inputs of the respective schemes comparison 231-23Nthe second inputs are combined and connected to the output of the binary counter 22. As the filling of the binary counter 22, the comparison circuit 231-23Nwill consistently produce pulses at their outputs. (As schemes can be used for comparison, for example, chip CSP and their analogues. Cm. Digital integrated circuits: a Handbook /M. I. Bogdanovich, I. N. Grell, S. A. Dubin and others - 2nd ed., revised and enlarged extra - Minsk: Belarus, Flame. S. 262. Fig. 2.190 and 2.191.) In fact, the pulses at the outputs of circuits compare 231-23Nwill match the moments of time t1, t2,.. tNchanges of signal values z2(t), detained at time j with respect to the beginning of the measurement process. The pulses from the outputs of the circuits compare 231-23N-1go to corresponding inputs of (N-1)-Vodolaga element OR 24. (Note that (N-1)-input accumulating element OR 24 simply can be implemented, for example, a series connection of a simple two-input elements OR.) The pulses output from the (N-1)-Vodolaga element OR 24 through the second element 26 And fed to the counting who at the initial moment of time t0in the flip-flop 28 was recorded the initial value of z2(t0), we find that the signal at the output of the T flip-flop 28 is actually a signal z2(t), delayed by time j, that is, we will have T-flip-flop 28, the signal z2(t-j). The signal z2(t-j) is supplied to the second input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element 29, to the first input of which receives the signal z1(t). The EXCLUSIVE OR element 29 performs the operation symbolic multiplication of the signals received at its inputs, that is, signals z1(t) and z2(t-jT).

The output signal from the EXCLUSIVE OR element 29 is supplied to the control input of the counting direction of the reversible counter 30. When a logic level zero on this input will determine the direct expense of the reversible counter 30 (summation mode clock pulses), and the level of the logical unit detects the expense of the reversible counter 30 (subtraction mode clock pulses).

After execution of the last of the comparison circuit 23Nthat corresponds to the measurement time Tp=tNthe pulse output of this differential amplifier through the first element 25 And is supplied to the second input of the OR element 20 and then fed to the reset input of RS flip-flop 21, resulting in his preamortisation function ends. To this point in time in the reversible counter 30 will be accumulated number of Sjin the binary code that indicates the evaluation of the j-th ordinate significant mutual correlation function of the signals z1(t) and z2(t). As in the case of determining the zero ordinate mutual correlation function, using known transformation linking symbolic and conventional mutual correlation function (see Mirsky, I. Characteristics of stochastic relations and their measurement): Energoizdat, 1982. S. 191), we obtain that the estimate of the j-th ordinate mutual correlation functions of the signals (t) and (t) taking into account expression (8) is equal to

< / BR>
where the values a and B are determined by the relations (3).

It should be noted that the transformation (11) as well as the transformation (9), is linear.

Similarly all the blocks 191-19Mprocessing time intervals.

At the end of the last M-th block 19Mprocessing time intervals the process of measuring the mutual correlation function Rxy() fails.

The procedure for measuring the correlation function Rx() is similar to that considered above, the process of measuring the mutual correlation function Rxy(). the ode of torrelamata, that is, the first inputs of the first 3 and second 4 Comparators.

From the above description it is seen that compared with the device-the prototype of the proposed device allows you to get almost directly assess the correlation (or cross correlation) function, defined by the expressions (9) and (11). When this expression (9) and (11) are linear, while in the device prototype, you must use a nonlinear transformation. All this allows to reduce the measurement error of the correlation (or cross correlation) functions and work with shorter signals at a given statistical error. Moreover, the proposed device allows the measurement of the correlation (or cross correlation functions of stochastic processes with any distribution that extends its functionality.

Technically, the proposed device is implemented on standard elements, widely known and used in modern technology. Moreover, at the present level of development of technology of production of integrated circuits such device or its separate blocks, it is advisable to realize in the form bolser, the first inputs of which are respectively the first and second inputs of torrelamata, the output of the second comparator is connected to the input of the shaper short pulses, the output of which is connected to the information input of the first pulse distributor, a group of N binary counters, the counting inputs are combined and connected to the generator output clock pulses, a group of N RS-triggers, characterized in that it introduced the first and second generators are random uniformly distributed signals, the inverter, the first, second and third elements And the EXCLUSIVE OR element, a reversible counter, a divider with a configurable dividing ratio, the second pulse distributor, RS-trigger and M processing units of time intervals, and outputs the first and second generators of uniformly distributed random signals is connected with the second inputs respectively of the first and second Comparators, the output of the first comparator connected to the first input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element and with significant input of each of the M processing units of time intervals, the output of the second comparator connected to the first input of the first element And directly and through an inverter connected to the first input of the second element And Echeta reversible counter, the second inputs of the first and second elements And the joint and connected to the input "start" correlate, the outputs of the first and second elements And are connected respectively to the input of the recording unit and the input record zero of each of the M processing units of time intervals, the N outputs of the first pulse distributor is connected to the reset inputs of the respective N RS-trigger group, the inputs of the installation which are combined and connected to the input "start" torrelamata, direct outputs N RS-trigger group is connected to the enable inputs of the account corresponding to N binary counters group the reset inputs are combined and connected to the input "start" torrelamata, direct output the last N-th RS flip-flop group is also connected with the control input of the first pulse distributor and with the second input of the third element And the first input of which is connected to the generator output clock pulses, and the output connected to the counting input of the reversible counter, the reset input of which is connected to the input "start" correlate, the output of the reversible counter is the exit assessment to the zero ordinate of the correlation function of torrelamata, the output of the i-th (where i=1, 2, ..., N) binary counter group is connected with the i-th input of the receive data of all blocks of the processing time is no information about the duration of the measurement time, the generator output clock pulses is connected to the counting input of the divider with a configurable dividing ratio and with a counter input of each of the M processing units of time intervals, set the input of the divider with a configurable dividing ratio is connected to the input "start" correlate, and the reference input division factor is the reference input step delay measurement of the correlation function of torrelamata, the control input of the divider with a configurable dividing ratio and the control input of the second pulse distributor United and connected to the direct output of the RS-flip-flop, the input set which is connected to the input "start" torrelamata, the output of the divider with a configurable dividing ratio is connected with the information input of the second pulse distributor, M outputs of which are connected with inputs of launch of the respective M processing units of time intervals, the last M-th output of the second pulse distributor is connected with the reset input of RS flip-flop, the inputs of the processing units of time intervals combined and connected to the input "start" correlate, the output of the j-th (where j=1, 2, ..., M) of processing unit time intervals is the output of the j-th evaluation of the ordinate korrelationen intervals contains an element OR RS-flop binary counter, N schema comparison, (N-1)-input accumulating element, OR the first, second and third elements And the flip-flop, the EXCLUSIVE OR element and a reversible counter, and the first input element OR combined with the reset inputs of the binary counter and a reversible counter and an input unit, an output element OR is connected to the reset input of RS flip-flop, the input set which is the starting block, and a direct output connected to the enable input account binary counter with the second inputs of the first, the second and third elements And the counting input of a binary counter is combined with the first input of the third element And is counter input block, the output of the binary counter is connected with the second inputs of the N schemas comparison, the first inputs of which are N inputs, data acquisition unit, the outputs of the first (N-1) schema comparison connected with the inputs of the (N-1)-Vodolaga element OR, respectively, the output of which is connected to the first input of the second element And output the last N-th of the comparison circuit connected to the first input of the first element And the output of which is connected with the second input member OR the output of the second element And is connected to the counting input t of a flip-flop, the inputs set and reset are sootvetstvuyushee OR the first sign is a landmark entrance to the block, and the output connected to the control input of the counting direction of the reversible counter, the counting input of which is connected to the output of the third element And the output of the reversible counter is the output of processing unit time intervals.

 

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The invention relates to devices of automatics and computer engineering and can be used in correlation extreme systems such as television-correlation

FIELD: specialized information extracting means.

SUBSTANCE: device has displacement registers, comparator block, XOR element, multiplexer, triggers, counter, AND elements.

EFFECT: simplified construction.

1 dwg

FIELD: computer science.

SUBSTANCE: device has first and second regenerators of random evenly spaced signals, second and first comparators, generator of short pulses, second and first binary counters, decoder, D-trigger, first and second RS-triggers, AND element, XOR element, reverse counter, clock pulse generator, divider with rebuilt division coefficient , pulse distributor, group of M synchronization blocks, group of M pulse distributors, N (M-10) - input elements R and N blocks for calculating ordinates of correlation function.

EFFECT: simplified construction and higher reliability .

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: the invention refers to the technique of detection of a target and determination of the direction at a target.

SUBSTANCE: the mode is realized by way of receiving of ultra wideband impulses reflected from the target, of delaying them on various time multitude in various channels of surveillance and multi channel processing. In the first variant of the current mode variation of the form of receiving impulses on a great number of discrete time positions are carried out by way of averaging-out by channels of surveillance at known direction of incoming reflected impulses in a beforehand designed control sector and then found valuation of the form of receiving impulse is used as a base signal in multi channel correlation processing. In the second variant valuation of magnitude of receiving impulse is formed in concrete moment of time for each base direction in beforehand given angular sector of control, valuation of the form of the receiving impulse is found according to formed valuations of magnitude 0f the receiving signal for various discrete moments of time; found valuation of receiving impulse is used as a base signal in multi channel correlation processing; out of multitude of results of correlation processing correlation maximum is chosen. This maximum is used as preliminary threshold decision statistics in the procedure of detection of the target; the direction of incoming reflected impulses with the help of interpolating valuation of the position of the correlation maximum in the environs of that base direction for which the largest result of multi channel correlation processing.

EFFECT: the use of this invention at location of a target with the help of ultra wideband impulses allows to receive signals incoming not only from in advance chosen base directions.

6 cl,9 dwg

FIELD: data processing in broadband radio communications and radio navigation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method intended for use where reception of extended-spectrum data signals keyed by simulation-resistant pseudorandom nonlinear derivative sequences is always preceded by synchronization includes concurrent accumulation of periodic mutually correlated function values of signal segments arriving from output of dynamically matched adjustable filters with two standard sampling lines affording generation of random derivative, as well as determination of time step numbers of their mutual shift corresponding to delay synchronism. Then current delay of entire signal being received is found from combination of these time step numbers. Used as dynamically matched adjustable filters in search channels are acousto-electronic convolvers.

EFFECT: reduced time and hardware requirement for searching broadband delay signals characterized in high simulation resistance.

2 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: engineering of specialized devices, meant for determining correlation functions of random processes.

SUBSTANCE: correlator consists of circular distributor (1), containing generator of clock impulses and serially coupled triggers (2), two limiter amplifiers (3), key circuits (4), logical elements "AND" (5,9), "OR" (6) and "NOT" (7), memorizing element (8) and impulse counters (10). In circular distributor (1) between "n" and "1" triggers (2), a "n+1" trigger (2) is additionally coupled, which makes it possible to introduce additional preparation operation for memorizing element (8), in other words, its nullification. Second input of "n+1" trigger (2) by preparation signal is connected to output of "n"-trigger (2), and its first output is connected to controlling input of additional "n+1" key circuit (4), input of which is connected to output of memorizing element (8), and output - to ground connection. Input clamp by second input signal through second limiter amplifier (3) is connected to second input contact of mode switch (12), its first input contact is connected to input of first key circuit (4) and to output of first limiter amplifier (3), input of which is connected to input clamp of first input signal; output contact of mode switch (12) is connected to second input of "AND" element (9).

EFFECT: increased precision of multi-channel polar correlator, expanded functional capabilities of correlator due to introduction of mode for determining mutual correlation function of two signals.

1 dwg

FIELD: navigation techniques.

SUBSTANCE: when forming an image of a surface, on which a sensor is moving, components of the image with spatial wavelength less than twice the size of the optical cell are destroyed, before calculation of shift between the reference and the current frames on the discrete set of numbers Arefij and Acurij, stored in the first and second memory buffers. Initial continuous functions Aref(x,y), Acur(x,y) are restored, and then the shift between the frames is calculated by comparing the restored continuous functions.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and resolution capacity of calculating shift.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: physics; radio-technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to radio-technology, and particularly to optimum receiving of pseudonoise signals. The technical outcome is the increased resistance to interference of the output signal. According to the method, the radio frequency oscillation is converted to the video frequency range. The signal envelope is separated, sampled on time and amplitude on two levels, "1" and "0". The obtained code is recorded in an n-bit shift register of a discrete matched filter, matched by a direct code, and a discrete matched filter, matched by an inverse code. The automatic correlation function of the received signal is generated by removing the constant component from the result of adding output signals of the indicated discrete matched filters. The device which implements the method consists of a multiplier (1), low-pass filter (2), bidirectional limiter (3), cascade for coinciding with "1" (4), cascade for coinciding with "0" (8), inverter (7), n-bit shift registers (5,9), n-input adders (6,10), dual input adder (11), device for removing constant component (12), polling clock pulse source (T). At the first n-bit shift register and the first n-input adder there is discrete filter, matched by a direct signal code, and at the second n-bit shift register and the second n-input adder there is a discrete filter, matched by an inverse signal code.

EFFECT: increased resistance to interference of the output signal.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for detection of complex signals in those radio-technical systems which are not capable to change signal phase quickly. Method for detection of Barker signal in matched filter which signal is modified by substitution "-1" elements for "0" elements consists in following. Received signal is filtered in auxiliary filter matched relatively to one signal position, delayed in time-delay circuit where delay between it's branches is equal to duration of one signal position. Corresponding elements of received signal code and elements of reference code are added one-by-one by modulo 2. Results of additions are inverted, summed, and in accordance with summing results the decision about detection is made.

EFFECT: possibility to process complex signals with constant phase.

2 dwg

FIELD: education.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in the following: placing on the monitor of a control question and versions of the answer to the given question, a choice of one, preferable trained, a version of the answer by means of moving of the manipulator cursor to the location of its indicator and the subsequent definition of correctness of the answer on a final cursor position; after placing of indicators of versions of answers in the range from the moment of the cursor movement beginning till the moment of fixing of its final position form a file trajectory parametres of its movement on the monitor, determine autocorrelation function of the obtained array of trajectory parametres and determine level of confidence of the trained person in the obtained knowledge by position of a maximum of function at which arrangement within the set error of decision-making in the beginning of co-ordinates gives the conclusion about the confident or uncertain motivation of the answer.

EFFECT: increase of reliability and accuracy of the control of obtained knowledge level.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics; computer facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns computer facilities and can be used for algorithmic diagnosing and compensation of failure of process of automatic support of the object by the television tracer of correlative type. For this purpose the known television tracer of correlative type is equipped with the analyser of failure of process of support and the additional commutator.

EFFECT: provision of fault-free object following at occurrence of sudden failures in the correlator at the expense of identification of failure of tracing by the correlator and automatic transmission to the given situation of priority of a number system of coordinates.

1 dwg

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