Catalytic converter

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to catalytic converters for neutralization of toxic substances in exhaust gases of automobile engines. The catalytic Converter includes a housing and placed in it a metal door with the media, as well as additional media, made in the form of a truncated cone with side holes, the smaller base of which is connected to the inlet pipe, which is equipped with a choke, and a large base of passages connected with the metal carrier made of composite of serially connected cell elements arranged between the two perfluorinated plates and passages of cellular elements in the form installed one after another in hexagonal prisms, the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry, the first of which coincide with the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry subsequent, on the outer surface of the body mounted belt from vysokoteploprovodnyh material, and the inner surface of the casing, inlet pipe, the outer and inner side surfaces of the additional medium is covered with a layer of Nickel, all surfaces of the cell elements and perfori the speakers. %: 40% Ni, 25% Fe2O3, 27% Cr2O3and 8% V2O5at the same time , the media, cellular elements and perfluorinated plate can be made of a porous material, and a larger base and the nearest to him perfluorinated plate made with respect to the distance l between the diameter d of the smaller base in the range defined by the inequality of 0.14<l/d<0,95. The efficiency and reliability of the catalytic Converter. 5 Il.

The invention relates to vehicles, particularly to catalytic converters, and is intended to neutralize toxic substances in the exhaust gases of automobile engines. It can also be used for neutralization and disposal of toxic gas emissions from industrial production.

The toxicity of exhaust gases of automobile engines due to incomplete combustion of fuel and by their content of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein), hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes, zilanov) and others.

Experimental studies and experience in the motor show, contraci, harmless to humans, and the conservation of ecological environment can be achieved:

- installation, removal of exhaust gases highly reliable and efficient catalytic Converter;

- use of additives to gasoline;

- careful control of the combustion process;

control devices, power systems and ignition, and maintain in full working order, engine parts, affecting the completeness of combustion.

Patent research showed that the catalysts on carriers, as more advanced and progressive, well-known in many countries with developed automotive industry, such as Russia, USA, UK, France, Germany, Japan, etc.

A well-known carrier for catalyst for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines and method of its preparation for the patent RU 2032463 from 16.04.92,, MPK7 B 01 J 21/00, 37/02, consisting of a metal amp with applied surface of the pin base and the substrate in the form of a single thickness of the coating layer formed from a highly filled, aluminum oxide and phlogopite toluene suspensions of polymethylphenylsiloxane. Pin-based and applied on the substrate metal is anywayt at 600-800oC in air for at least 2 hours, the Suspension is a composition comprising, in wt.%: polymethylphenylsiloxane 25-32, aluminum oxide, 52-55, phlogopite 10-16, toluene 4-6. Applying the slurry on a metal power lead pneumatic spraying or dipping, or by pumping under pressure. The carrier is a rectangular package (and in another case, a bobbin), consisting of multiple alternating with each other flat and corrugated thin metal plates with corrugations deep serrate profile, on both sides of which formed the floor.

The main weaknesses of the media include:

- high temperature structural members, due to the high temperature of the reacting gases, considerable heat generated by an exothermic process and the absence of heat. In addition, the increased temperature of the reacting gases leads to an increased formation of nitrogen dioxide. All together it reduces the durability, efficiency and reliability of the catalytic Converter;

- the difficulty of fabrication of the corrugation deep serrate profile and the possibility of gaps at the tops and bottoms of the corrugation where the concentrate is on neutralizer;

- manufacture of corrugated smooth contours (bobbin) is costly and requires more complex equipment;

- when pre-molded carrier complex geometric shapes is complicated control for ensuring the uniformity of coating thickness and uniformity of coating thickness reduces the efficiency of the catalytic Converter.

A well-known carrier for catalyst for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines for U.S. patent 4742038, MPK7 B 01 J 21/00, 37/02, published in 1988, consisting of a metal amp, made of stainless steel, the surface of which is formed by bonding a base in the form of thin oxide membrane and the deposited layer of a substrate of aluminum oxide.

A disadvantage of the known carrier for catalyst for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines is that providing the required adhesive strength of the adhesion of thin oxide membrane with a metal amplifier is possible only under the condition that the metal of the amplifier of multicomponent expensive steel alloy. The production of the thin oxide membrane of this alloy presents difficulties, CT thickness, what worsens as applied to him substrate of gamma-aluminum oxide.

Known molded carrier for catalyst for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines at the request of Germany 2151416, MPK7 B 01 J 37/00, published in 1976, consisting of molded structural metal amplifier of steel with a carbon content of 0.12 to 0.25 wt.% coated on the surface of the pin base, in which the medium contains metallic copper or silver, and a layer of this - and gamma-alumina, oxides of cerium and zirconium.

A disadvantage of the known carrier for catalyst for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines is the low long-term strength of the medium caused by the exfoliation of the bonding substrate and the corrosion of the structural steel of the amplifier during operation of the catalytic Converter in the exhaust stream.

In addition, such components pin bases, such as copper or silver, is very scarce and expensive, and application of flame spraying requires the use of complex thermal equipment.

Known two-stage catalyst patent-Japan Kokai 60-205129, MPK7 B 01 J 21/04, 21/06, 1984, to wny metal La, media - SiO2Al2O3i.e. catalytically active platinum group metals and lanthanum deposited on the ceramic substrate.

Disadvantages of two-stage catalyst are as follows:

the catalysts of the platinum group metals when working with leaded gasoline containing lead poisoned and damaged. An example is the foreign cars imported to Russia: they come here with the established catalytic converters, but after the first filling of leaded gasoline catalysts fail, that is completely incapacitated and do not meet the criteria of efficiency and reliability;

in the catalyst bed, you may experience high temperatures, causing recrystallization and the ordering of its structure, resulting in catalyst aging rapidly loses activity and efficiency.

- platinum group metals (palladium, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, iridium) are very scarce and expensive metal, more expensive than gold (see M. H. Karapetyants, S. I. Drakin. General and inorganic chemistry. M.: Chemistry, 1981. 632; S. 577 - the use of platinum metals), which increases PR is giving options - pressure, temperature and flow rate and maintain the neutralization of toxic substances at a lower level of these parameters, increasing efficiency, durability and reliability of the catalytic Converter.

The technical essence and the achieved effect is the closest to the proposed device is a catalytic Converter according to the patent RU 2065766 C1 from 26.11.90,, MPK B 01 J 21/04, comprising a housing and placed in it a metal monolithic carrier catalyst is prepared based on the platinum group metals, the heat exchange surface and passages for combustible gases. Metal monolithic carrier is assembled or made of metallic materials having a catalytic surface and the adjacent non-catalytic surface. The metal carrier is caused to the substrate, and not her - catalytic material. The carrier is able to be deformed.

Corrugated (cold rolling or otherwise) sheet metal roll together with a flat metal strip to obtain a spiral cylinder. While the passages for combustible gases formed in the form of bumps deep saw-toothed profile. In other embodiments, the passages made in the form of the PA offered the catalytic Converter.

The main disadvantages of the prototype are as follows:

- when the car is on leaded gasoline, lead, platinum catalysts are poisoned and damaged, i.e. do not meet the criteria of efficiency and reliability;

the platinum group metals are very scarce and expensive, which increases the production of catalytic converters;

- the use of thin metal sheets with corrugations serrate profile reduces the reliability of the catalytic Converter because of the possibility of gaps at the tops and bottoms of the corrugation, where stress concentration;

- during operation there is a decrease in the adhesion strength of the adhesion of the substrate with a metal carrier, which might result in the shedding of the substrate and catalyst in terms of pulsation of exhaust gases and vibration impacts arising from the operation of the automobile engine;

in the process, it is impossible to reduce the pressure, temperature and flow rate of the exhaust gas to neutralize toxic substances at a lower optimal level of these parameters that improve the durability, efficiency and reliability kataliticheskogo Converter by lowering the pressure, temperature and flow rate of the exhaust gas of the engine to an optimum level.

The required technical result is achieved due to the fact that a catalytic Converter comprising a housing and placed in it a metal carrier with passages provided with an additional carrier, made in the form of a truncated cone with side holes, the smaller base of which is connected to the inlet pipe, which is equipped with a choke, and a large base of passages connected with the metal carrier made of composite of serially connected cell elements arranged between two perforated plates, and the passages of cellular elements in the form installed one after another in hexagonal prisms, the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry, the first of which coincide with the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry further, on the outer surface of the body mounted belt from vysokoteploprovodnyh material, and the inner surface of the casing, inlet pipe, the outer and inner side surfaces of the additional medium is covered with a layer of Nickel, all surfaces of the cell elements and perforated plates generation4, 27% Cr2O3and 8% V2O5at the same time , the media, cellular elements and perforated plates can be made of a porous material, and the large base and the nearest to him perforated plate made with respect to the distance 1 between the diameter d of the smaller base in the range defined by the inequality of 0.14 < 1/d < 0,95.

The authors analyzed the content of a large number of domestic and foreign patents, inventor's certificates, Bulletin of inventions, refereed journals, books and other publications on catalysts and catalysts, came to the conclusion that a similar technical solutions that could be novelty-destroying and the essential differences between the claimed invention, are missing.

In this regard, the proposed catalytic Converter, according to the authors, meets the criteria of the invention "significant differences" and "positive effect".

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where

in Fig. 1 shows a General view of the proposed catalytic Converter in the incision;

in Fig. 2 - section a-a in Fig. 1, the concentric arrangement of hexagonal prisms in cellular element;

in Fig. 5 - axonometric projection of the hexagonal prisms arranged one behind the other on a common axis X-X of symmetry, in an enlarged scale.

The catalytic Converter includes a housing in the form of a cylinder 1 with a bottom 2, 3 (Fig. 1 the arrows indicate the direction of flow of exhaust gases). The body is medium, made in the form of a truncated cone with 4 lateral holes 5, a lower base 6 which is connected to the inlet pipe 7, which has the orifice 8. Large base 9 passes 10 is connected with a metal carrier made of composite of serially connected cell elements 11, 12 and 13, located between the two perforated plates 14 and 15 with the holes 16. The passages 10 cell elements 11, 12 and 13 are made in the form established one after another hexagonal prisms 10, 17, 18 (Fig. 5). The longitudinal axis X-X (Fig. 5) geometric symmetry located ahead of the prisms, for example, 10 coincides with the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry subsequent prisms, for example, 17, 18.

On the outer surface of the body has teplovod pipe 7, external and internal lateral surface of the additional carrier 4 is covered with a layer of Nickel. All surfaces of the cell elements 11, 12, 13 and perforated plates 14 and 15 are covered with a layer of composite material with the following composition and ratio of components, wt.% (according to experience): 40% Ni, 25% Fe3O4, 27% Cr2O3and 8% V2O5. Additional media, cellular elements and perforated plates can be made of a porous material, and the large base and the nearest to him perforated plate made with respect to the distance 1 between the diameter d of the smaller base of the truncated cone in the range defined by the inequality of 0.14 < 1/d < 0,95.

The coating on specially prepared above surface is applied in compliance with the technological mode by known methods (spraying, dipping, etc.) before Assembly of the catalytic Converter. The coating should be firmly adherent to the metal. The range of thickness may be in the range of 50-200 μm. The maximum thickness of the coating is determined by its thermoresistance. For quality control can be used special devices, for example, type ED-5.

For housing production can b the CLASS="ptx2">

For the production of additional media, cellular elements and perforated plates of the preferred high temperature Nickel or cobalt alloys, aluminium-containing steel, for example, type HTR (EI-B).

The cylindrical portion 1 and a flat bottom 2, 3 of the casing is easy to manufacture. There is positive experience of producing additional media. The technology of manufacture of perforated plates 14, 15 perfected and mastered.

Hexagonal prism 10 cell elements 11, 12, 13 with their concentric (Fig. 2) and cell (Fig. 4) the location can be manufactured by stamping or other known method.

The cellular connection elements 11, 12, 13 and perforated plates 14,15 carried out by means of studs 20 and nuts 21. For ease of Assembly inside the housing provides an annular ledge 22.

All structural elements of the catalytic Converter can be interconnected with threaded connection or welding. The design of the proposed catalytic Converter allows to mechanize and automate the processes of its manufacture and Assembly.

The catalytic Converter operates as follows.

In the process of passing through the catalytic Converter exhaust gases, chemically reacting (interaction) with catalytically active surfaces are oxidized and cleaned from toxic substances.

Supply catalytic Converter inductor 8 and the additional media allows for throttling and expanding the exhaust gas to lower operating parameters - pressure, temperature and flow rate to the desired optimal level. The pressure is reduced to a value sufficient to overcome the aerodynamic resistance.

This lowering of the parameters provided by the serial connection of the inductor 8 and the additional media creates a number of positive effects, of paramount importance, namely:

1) these options provide optimal useraimagecavecom operation of the catalytic Converter;

2) simultaneous reduction of pressure and temperature allows to dramatically reduce the level of dangerous dynamic and thermal loading of structural elements that can cause the phenomenon of creep; to reduce dangerous for strength, stress, strain; to keep at a higher level of mechanical properties (tensile strength, yield strength, fatigue limit, and others), which increases the strength, durability, reliability and efficiency of the catalytic Converter;

3) reducing the flow rate increases the residence time of the exhaust gas in the catalytic Converter, thereby increasing the efficiency of its work;

4) of the lateral holes 5 and a large base 9 at the end of the reacting gases through them allow you to achieve maximum contact of the gases with the catalytically active surfaces of the additional carrier and the housing, which increases the efficiency and reliability of the catalytic Converter.

Doing a base 9 and the nearest to him of a perforated plate 14 with respect to the distance 1 between the diameter d of the smaller base 6 of a truncated cone 4 in the range defined by the inequality of 0.14 < 1/d < 0.95, and ka is more the appearance of separated flow, vortex reduces aerodynamic drag, and all of this together increases the efficiency and reliability of the catalytic Converter.

Performing a metal carrier compound of serially connected cell elements 11, 12, 13, sandwiched between two perforated plates 14 and 15, allows you to:

1) to enable a more full and deep oxidation of reactive gases on the catalytically active surfaces of the cell elements, which increases the efficiency and reliability of the catalytic Converter;

2) increase the use of perforated plates 14 and 15 turbulence flow, which speeds up the process of heat transfer, energy transfer, exchange of momentum between the reacting gases and the catalytically active surfaces, which ultimately increases the efficiency of the catalytic Converter.

Making passes cell elements as mounted one behind the other hexagonal prisms, the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry, the first of which coincide with the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry subsequent, provides:

1) alignment of all cellular elements and hexahedral p is a spine operation of the catalytic Converter;

2) reducing the aerodynamic resistance, which allows you to expand the exhaust gases in a secondary storage medium to a lower pressure level, causing the decrease of temperature and speed, which, as mentioned, increases the efficiency and reliability of the catalytic Converter;

3) rational cell placement hexagonal prisms in cellular elements, which allows you to create a catalyst with high specific surface, reaching 85-90 m2/g and dispensed at a temperature of less than 900oC without the use of modifiers in the form of a compound of cerium and zirconium, Nickel and zirconium, cerium and lanthanum and other elements, which simplifies and cheapens the proposed catalytic Converter.

Serial connection of cellular elements and perforated plates with studs and nuts in a single rigid structure facilitates their Assembly, increases the compactness and efficiency of the catalytic Converter.

Installation on the outer surface of the shell belts 19 of vysokoteploprovodnyh material, such as aluminum, provides intense heat from the body, keeping the temperature of the gases at the level of 600-650oC that snecial, external and internal lateral surface of the truncated cone 4 is covered with a layer of Nickel provides the desired level of neutralization of toxic substances, which increases the reliability of operation of the catalytic Converter.

The fact that all surfaces of the cell elements 11, 12, 13 and perforated plates 14, 15 are covered with a layer of composite material with the following composition and ratio of components (wt.%): 40% Ni, 25% Fe3O4, 27% Cr2O3and 8% V2O5allows you to create a reliable catalytic Converter, capable of resisting the action of catalytic poisons during vehicle operation on leaded and unleaded gasoline and on any fuel.

Used catalytic materials - Nickel and Nickel in combination with Fe3O4, Cr2O3and V2O5- have experience shows that the highest catalytic activity, neutrality, well-developed domestic steel industry, are low cost and availability (produced their powders).

Performing advanced media, perforated plates and cellular elements of porous material improves a rational distribution of estimated number of cat is the reasons essential features of the claimed invention should, the proposed set of essential features and achieve the desired technical result - improving the efficiency and reliability of the catalytic Converter by decreasing the pressure, temperature and flow rate of the exhaust gas of the engine to an optimum level.

Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed catalytic Converter in comparison with the known catalytic converters, established in recent years in countries with highly developed automotive industry, Russia, USA, UK, France, Germany, Japan and others, shows that the proposed catalytic Converter according to the technical level and potreblyaemoi when the car with leaded gasoline, lead-containing, substantially exceeds the current global level.

Thus, the claimed catalytic Converter, due to the close combination of the essential features set forth in the claims, provides high performance, reliability, durability and ecological compatibility of work and meets the criteria of the invention.

All this together is competitive on the world market, and this increases the priority of the Russian Federation in the art.

A catalytic Converter comprising a housing and placed in it a metal carrier with passages, characterized in that it is provided with an additional carrier, made in the form of a truncated cone with side holes, the smaller base of which is connected to the inlet pipe, which is equipped with a choke, and a large base of passages connected with the metal carrier made of composite of serially connected cell elements arranged between two perforated plates, and the passages of cellular elements in the form installed one after another in hexagonal prisms, the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry, the first of which coincide with the longitudinal axis of geometric symmetry subsequent, on the outer surface of the body mounted belt from vysokoteploprovodnyh material, and the inner surface of the casing, inlet pipe, the outer and inner side surfaces of the additional medium is covered with a layer of Nickel, all surfaces of the cell elements and perforated plates covered with a layer of composite material with the following composition and aspect] is positive medium, cell elements and the perforated plate can be made of a porous material, and the large base and the nearest to him perforated plate made with respect to the distance l between the diameter d of the smaller base in the range defined by the inequality of 0.14<l/d<0,95.

 

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