The method of geometric leveling
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular for geodetic measurements in excess of construction and Assembly production. The sighting axis leveling register counts on the ruler. Line sequentially set in the area of controlled points. The beginning of the scale line is combined with the reference point of reflectorless rangefinder. The optical path of the finder result in vertical position and measure the distance to the monitored points. The excess between the controlled points is calculated by the formula h= (bi-bi+1)-(ai-ai+1), where h is the excess between the controlled points i, i+1;ibi+1- measured range reflectorless rangefinder; aiandi+1- readings on the ruler. The technical result consists in expanding the range of use of the method and increase productivity. 2 Il. The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular for geodetic measurements in excess of construction and Assembly production.The known method of geometric levelling.with. N 1439403, G 01 C 5/00, 23.11.88 g), namely, that the sighting axis leveling Perelada this technical solution is small measuring range, that limits the scope of its application.Closest to the claimed method is geometric levelling (A. C. Ants, B. I. Gaidashev. Engineering geodesy. M., Nedra, 1982 , page 364 - 365, Fig. 108 b), namely, that the sighting axis leveling register counts on the ruler and tape on the two horizons.The disadvantage of this technical solution is the complexity, which limits the range of use and productivity.The invention consists in that in the method of geometric leveling, namely, that the sighting axis leveling record the reading on the ruler, sequentially installed in the area of controlled points, the beginning of its scale line is combined with the reference point of reflectorless range finder, optical path which leads to a vertical position and measure the distance to the monitored points, the excess between the controlled points is calculated by the formula
h = (bi- bi+1) - (ai- ai+1)
where h is the excess between the controlled points i, i+1;
bibi+1- measured range reflectorless rangefinder;
andi, ai+1- timing p is co-located points and consequently to determine the excess between them. This ensures, first, the expansion of the range of use of the method, and secondly, improving the performance of the work.The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows the General scheme of the method of Fig.2 - General layout of the line and reflectorless rangefinder.For implementing the method uses a level 1 and a device that combines line 2, reflectorless rangefinder 3.The method of geometric leveling is implemented as follows. In the area of the controlled object (e.g., crane tracks overhead crane) establish a level 1. At a pre-broken and marked on the floor points sequentially install the device, companysee line 2 and reflectorless rangefinder 3 (for example, Disto classik) (see Fig. 1). The beginning of the scale line 2 is combined with the reference point of reflectorless rangefinder 3. The optical path of the finder 3 lead (for example, with lifting screws and cylindrical level) in a vertical position. Level 1 take the reading on the ruler 2 and measure distance 3 distance to controlled points located on crane paths (see Fig.2). The excess between the controlled points calculate Sogni points i, i+1;
bibi+1- measured range reflectorless rangefinder 3;
andiandi+1- readings on line 2.Thus, it is possible to perform measurement of excess highly placed between the inaccessible points (within the range reflectorless distance up to 100 m). This ensures, first, the expansion of the range of use of the method, and secondly, improving the performance of the work. The method of geometric leveling, namely, that the sighting axis leveling register counts on the line, sequentially installed in the area of controlled points, characterized in that the top of the scale line is combined with the reference point of reflectorless range finder, optical path which leads to a vertical position and measure the distance to a monitored points, the excess between the controlled points is calculated by the formula
where h is the excess between the controlled points i, i+1;
bibi+1- measured range reflectorless rangefinder;
andi, ai+1- readings on the ruler.
SUBSTANCE: device for introducing information correction into readings of electronic aviation devices has angle of rotation optic converter made in form of modulating disc linked with handle for introduction of correction, optical radiator and two photoreceivers shifted by one forth of step of modulator. Angle of rotation optic converter is made of two conjugated bushings, one of which is motionless and the other one is made for turn. Plate provided with two photoreceivers and optic radiator is fixed at the end of motionless bushing. Optic radiator is mounted in center of plate in front of edge of light-conducting cylinder made of opal glass. Cylinder is introduced into axial hole of modulating disc which has outer diameter to be fixed at the edge of turning bushing. Conic ring-shaped mirror is made in turning bushing. Bigger diameter of the mirror is turned to photoreceivers.
EFFECT: reduced sizes of correction signal former.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: evaluating altitude profile of object.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has distance sensor and deviation unit. Distance sensor is provided with radiating transmitter and receiver. Altitude profile of object is evaluated in data processing device using output data of distance sensor and respective deviation angles of transmitted light beams. Deviation unit is provided with transmission optics and actuating facility. Transmission optics is periodically set in deviation motion by means of actuating facility. Receiving optics is disposed in front of receiver. Radiation axes of transmitted and received light beams are located at certain distance from each other.
EFFECT: enhanced immunity to external disturbing factors.
30 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in measuring the vertical acceleration and indicated barometric altitude by means of static pressure sensor; vertical velocity is obtained through integration of difference of vertical acceleration and acceleration correction; barometric altitude is obtained through integration of difference of vertical velocity and velocity correction; difference between calculated barometric altitude and indicated barometric altitude is used for calculation of said corrections; vertical velocity is multiplied by unitless multiplier equal to ratio of air temperature by standard atmosphere calculated by magnitude of barometric altitude to measured temperature of air.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determination of barometric altitude and vertical velocity under off-standard conditions of flight.
FIELD: the invention refers to aviation technique.
SUBSTANCE: the mode envisages measuring of vertical acceleration and with the help of a sensor of static pressure- the indicated barometric altitude. The values of the vertical speed are received by way of integrating a vertical acceleration, the values of the barometric altitude - integrating a vertical speed with the calculation of corrections of acceleration and speed. The difference between computed and indicated barometric altitudes with calculation of delays in the pneumatic tract of static pressure is used for computing mentioned corrections using coefficients. The atmosphere is sounded no more than 3 hours before flight tests which are carried out on regimes consisted of sectors of horizontal flight, climbing and lowering. At that vertical acceleration, indicated barometric altitude, reference vertical speed and geometric altitude of a flying vehicle are synchronously measured. Using these parameters the model values of vertical speed and barometric altitude are computed on the basis of Kalman's filters and coefficients are optimized minimizing the criterion of quality: the mean value of the square of an error or the maximum value of the module of an error of defined magnitude. The delay in the pneumatic tract is defined by calculation of pressure and temperature of air at the present altitude.
EFFECT: increases accuracy of definition of vertical speed and barometric altitude of the flight.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: geodetic instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has reference member, cylindrical yoke, collimator, electric motor, pentaprism, unit for setting inclination of axis of rotation of pentaprism and vertical circle. Laser is placed into cylindrical yoke. Reference member has base and frame. Unit for setting inclination of axis of rotation of pentaprism is made in form of set of hinge parallelograms. System has two cranks with parallel units. Cranks are fastened to top plank of frame by means of shafts. Top plank of frame is made U-shaped. Cylindrical yoke is mounted in parallel to units of cranks. Optical center of pentaprism is disposed at extension of straight line to cross the points where cranks are fastened to frame. Two pairs of connecting rods are connected by hinges with cranks and cylindrical yoke. Sector gear is disposed onto shaft of axis of rotation of one crank. Worm is mounted onto base for interaction with sector connecting rod. Vertical circle is mounted onto axis of rotation of one crank.
EFFECT: simplified design; improved reliability; improved precision of results.
FIELD: controlling and measuring equipment engineering, possible use for performing leveling operations in mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: laser with collimator are positioned on axis of observation tube before its objective. Diameter of body does not exceed size of aperture of objective of pipe with relation of these dimensions no more than 1/4. collimator contains one flat-convex lens with spherical aberration. On optical axis of lens semiconductor laser is positioned. Laser is rigidly held with shift relatively to lens focus.
EFFECT: possible determining of horizontal position of controlled object with required precision.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: experimental geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: hydrostatic level comprises two parallel connecting pipes whose ends are connected with the hydrostatic vessels filled with liquids having different coefficients of thermal expansion and indicators of liquid level in the hydrostatic vessels.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measurement of excesses in leveled points, especially when taking measurements under undesired conditions like vibration, shading, fluxes of non-uniform heated air etc. Flexible thread is suspended between leveled points. Thread is pulled by built-in vibrator; load is freely suspended at roller, which roller fixes point of maximal sag. Section between point of suspension of load and marked center of thread is measured. Excess is measured from formula of h=2Δl√1-(L/l)2, where L is projection of length of thread l onto horizontal plane and Δl is section between point of maximal sag and central part of thread.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved precision of measurement of location of maximal sag; simplified calculation of excesses.
FIELD: measuring equipment, in particular, devices for high-accuracy measurement of excesses, as well as for monitoring of the points of the engineering structures and production equipment by combination of the methods of hydrodynamic and hydrostatic leveling.
SUBSTANCE: the device has dynamostatic systems installed on the preset horizontal with monitored vessels communicating in them, as well as one measuring vessel installed on a fixed point in the system located on the lower horizon. One of the monitored vessels installed on the fixed horizon is provided with an additional level indicator, whose other end is fixed to the base of the monitored vessel of the system installed on the preset upper level. The vessels are filled with liquid and separated into two equal sections: the main and the auxiliary ones, communicating only in liquid through a port in the bottom part of the vessel. The liquid level indicators are located in the upper part of the main sections of the monitored vessels, the indicators are installed at a similar distance from their bases. The air spaces of the auxiliary sections of the measuring and monitored vessels are connected to the additional pressure unit by pipe-lines of a similar length and diameter. Pressure equalization in the main and auxiliary vessels, as well as increase of pressure in the auxiliary section of the vessels, are effected with the aid of the respective valves.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurements and simplified construction.
FIELD: geodesic measuring equipment, possible use for controlling measurement results during geodesic operations.
SUBSTANCE: method for controlling geodesic measurements includes performing additional measurements of control marks of target rod, comparison of results and determining of weight of single measurements. Base parameters of target rod Urod are compared, which characterize mutual position of control marks, with their computed values Upract on basis of measurement results, commensurate with system measurements, while one of control marks is combined with sighting target, and weight of single measurement Piezo is estimated on basis of absolute value of difference (Upract-Urod). Target rod for controlling geodesic measurements includes horizontal and vertical bars, on which four control marks are mounted at fixed distances from each other. One mark is combined with the center of horizontal bar and with base of vertical bar. Other ones are mounted on free ends of bars. Control marks are made in form of deflectors.
EFFECT: increased precision and increased trustworthiness of measurements due to expanded functional capabilities of control means.
2 cl, 1 dwg