Method and device for use of the phase manipulation walsh in the system of spread spectrum communications signals

 

(57) Abstract:

Method and apparatus for forming an orthogonal coded communication signals to subscribers of a communication system using orthogonal functions for each orthogonal channel. The symbols of the digital data M-fold modulated using at least two orthogonal modulation symbols of length n, which, as a rule, are of the Walsh function, commonly used in the communication system. These symbols are provided by the selector symbol modulation, usually consisting of one or more code generators, and this modulation is such that M is equal to the product of the total number of orthogonal functions and the numbers used for the formation of individual modulation symbols. Each group of loq2M coded character data of the element data is converted to one modulation symbol using a symbol modulation in accordance with their binary values. In some specific embodiments, the implementation uses the device fast Hadamard transform to convert characters. The received communication signals demodulated by parallel correlation with their pre-selected number of ORT is the real symbol of the modulation. These energy values are converted into metric data energy through the process of forming the dual maximum metric. Correlation and demodulation can be performed using at least two groups of N correlators, N is the number of features used, and the filing of correlated signals on one demodulator for each group of correlators. Each demodulator generates M energy values representing each of M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols, which are then combined into one set of M energy values. In other configurations, you can use coherent demodulators to obtain the value of the amplitude of received signals, which are then combined with the results of the dual maximum metric to obtain values of the composite metric for data characters. Technical result achieved during the implementation of the claimed group of inventions is to increase energy for the evaluation and monitoring phase of the communication signals, as well as maintaining orthogonality between channels using non-coherent modulation/demodulation. 6 C. and 38 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il., table 2.

The invention relates to communication systems with negotitations access, such as radio information or Telefon is more specifically the invention relates to a method and apparatus for using multiple orthogonal codes with the aim of generating signals spread spectrum communications. The invention also relates to a method of using manipulation of multiple code sequences of the Walsh function for modulation in communication systems spread spectrum signals and negotitations access, code-division multiplexing, to provide users of the system improved energy metrics for non-coherent demodulation of signals.

Developed many communication systems with negotitations access to exchange information between a large number of system users. The methods used in such communication systems with negotitations access include mnogozastrelenny access with time division multiplexing (MDRC (TDMA)), mnogozastrelenny access frequency division multiplexing (MDCRC (FDMA)), and diagrams of amplitude modulation (AM), for example, amplitude-komandirovannoi single side-band (American standard code for information interchange ASCII), the foundations of which are known in the art. However, the modulation methods with the extension of the spectrum, for example mnogotochechnymi modulation, especially in the process of providing services for a large number of users of the communication system. Using methods MDCRC in the communication system with negotitations access disclosed in the provisions of the U.S. patent N 4901307, which issued on February 13, 1990, entitled "communication System with negotitations access and spread spectrum signals using satellite or terrestrial repeaters" ("Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Communication System Using Satellite or Terrestrial Repeaters"), transferred from the holder of the rights to the invention and is mentioned here for reference.

In patent N 4901307 disclosed a method of using a communications system with negotitations access, in which each of a large number of mostly mobile or remote users of the system uses a transceiver to communicate with other system users or the desired signal receivers, such as through the telephone network of General use. The transceivers communicate through satellite repeaters and gateway stations or terrestrial base stations (also sometimes referred to as a cell or cells) using the signals spread spectrum communications mnogochastichnogo access, code-division multiplexing (MD is the users of the system and other subscribers, connected to the communication system. Communication systems that use signals with spread spectrum and modulation methods, such as disclosed in U.S. patent N 4901307, provide a higher bandwidth users of the system compared to other methods due to the fact that the full range of frequencies used at the same time among the users of the system in a certain field and reused many times in different areas served by the system. Use MDCRC leads to greater efficiency in the use of a specified range of frequencies than that which can be achieved using other methods mnogochastichnogo access. In addition, the use of broadband MDCRC makes it easier to solve problems, such as fading due to multipath propagation, especially for terrestrial repeaters. How psevdochumoy (PN (PN)) modulation used in the processing of broadband signals MDCRC, provide a relatively high gain signals, which allows you to quickly distinguish between similar spectral channels or communication signals. It makes it easier to discriminate against signals the following different distribution channels, the barb element PN signal, i.e. the inverse of bandwidth. If you are using the transmission frequency of the element PN signal, say, 1 MHz, you can use the gain when processing full extended range, equal to the ratio of the bandwidth distribution to the data transfer rate in the system for the discrimination of signal channels by more than one microsecond delay in the channel or time of arrival. This difference corresponds to the difference in the channel length of approximately 1,000 feet (304,8 m). Normal urban conditions allow for a delay in the channel more than one microsecond, and in some areas - a delay of up to 10-20 μs.

The ability to discriminate between signals of many channels significantly reduces the intensity of multichannel fading, although usually not eliminate it completely, because of possible channels with delay difference is less than the period of the element PN signal. The existence of channels with low latency is more common specifically in satellite repeaters or directional communication lines, where multi-reflections from buildings and other ground surfaces is significantly reduced. Therefore, it is desirable to provide some form of diversity signals as one of the approaches to reduce the or relay.

Generally speaking, in communication systems with signals with spread spectrum receive or use three types explode temporal, frequency and spatial diversity. Temporary separation obtained using the recurrence data, interleave in time data or components of the signal and coding errors. The form of frequency diversity necessarily MDCRC, in which the signal energy is distributed over a large bandwidth. Therefore, frequency selective fading has a negative impact only on a small part of the bandwidth of the signals MDCRC.

Space diversity or diversity of channels is obtained by providing multiple channels of signals via simultaneous connections with a mobile user via one or more base stations in the case of systems of ground-based repeaters, and through one or more radiology satellite or individual satellites - in the case of repeaters space-based. That is, in terms of satellite communications, or for those in the areas of radio communication systems can be obtained channel separation by intentionally transmitting or receiving with the help of many antennas. In addition, raznosnye reception and signal processing, coming through different channels, each of which has different latency distribution, separately for each channel.

If there are two or more channels to receive signals from a sufficient difference of delays, for example, more than one microsecond, you can use two or more receivers for the separate reception of these signals. Because these signals usually have independent fading and other propagation characteristics, these signals can be processed separately by the receiver, and the output signals are combined using a consolidator explode with the aim of obtaining the final output of information or data and solve problems that would otherwise exist in the same channel. Therefore, the loss of efficiency occurs only when the signals received at both receivers, are fading or interference in the same way and at the same time. To use the existence of multi-channel signals, you must use the form of signals, which allows the operation of combining signals of channel separation.

Examples of the use of channel diversity in communication systems with negotitations ft Handoff in a CDMA Cellular Telephone System"), issued March 31, 1992, and U.S. patent N 5109390 entitled "Receiver with diversity channels in a cellular telephone system with MDCRC" ("Diversity Receiver in a CDMA Cellular Telephone System"), issued April 28, 1992, both assigned to the owner of the rights to the invention and are mentioned here for reference.

In ways MDCRC disclosed in U.S. patent N 4901307, discusses the use of coherent modulation and demodulation for both directions of communication or communication line in the communication process between the user and the satellite. In communication systems that use this approach, use the pilot carrier signal as a reference signal for coherent phase for a link station mate-user" or "satellite - user and base station-user". The phase information obtained by tracking the pilot signal at the carrier frequency, is then used as the reference phase of the carrier signal for coherent demodulation of the other system or information signals to the subscriber. This method allows combining carrier signals of many users in a common pilot signal as a reference signal phase, providing a less expensive and more effective tracking mechanism. In systems satellite recov stations mates. In terms of terrestrial radio or cellular systems, the rigidity of the multi-channel fading and the resulting gap phase of the communication channel, as a rule, prevent the use of methods of coherent demodulation for the communication line user base station, and the pilot signal is not generally used. However, the present invention can be used, if desired, as a way non-coherent modulation, and the way non-coherent demodulation.

Although mainly used repeaters and base stations, ground-based, in future systems, more attention will be paid to the repeaters satellite-based view of the wider geographical coverage needed in order to reach a greater number of "remote" users and to achieve truly global communication services. Unfortunately, in terms of the satellites of some of the factors sometimes have a negative impact on the usefulness of the ways ordinary explode signals and tracking of frequency and phase.

Satellite repeaters operate in conditions of serious limitations of the power supply. That is, there is some reasonable amount of power, which controls the satellite and to which system the ICA and the mechanisms of energy conservation. It is highly desirable to reduce the amount of power consumed or used by the communication system for anything except the actual data for a user or subscriber of the system.

It may be so that the system maintains a relatively small number of real users at any given time, working well with low bandwidth. This circumstance can lead to the emergence of the pilot signal, which takes into account more than fifty percent of the power consumed part of the satellite communication system, which manifests itself in a potentially unacceptable inefficiency in the use of power for the satellite repeaters. In this latter situation, the pilot signal becomes too expensive to maintain, and system operators actually was able to compensate to reduce the power of the pilot signal.

However, whatever the cause, the decrease in the power of the pilot signals reduces the ability initially to capture the pilot signal with a high speed and to provide a very accurate tracking of the phase of the carrier pilot signal. This is especially true in satellite systems where Doppler and other effects increase the difficulty of accurately tracking what if capacity is not large enough or if the Doppler or other effects are quite significant factors, system users may not be able to reliably produce the desired level of tracking pilot signal and must use a non-coherent demodulation. That is, the energy of the pilot signal, is insufficient to accurately assess, to a certain level, the phase of the signals for coherent modulation or maintain tracking. At the same time, the energy of the pilot signal received at the earth surface can be low near the edges of a few spots of satellite beams due to the shape of the antenna signals, etc.

It is therefore desirable to develop a way of capturing or demodulation signal spread spectrum communications using methods of non-coherent demodulation. In such methods is desirable effective work for users or subscribers of the system in the presence of reduced energy of the pilot signal. This should occur even when the energy of the pilot signal decreased either by design or due to propagation effects - to such a low energy level that is undetectable for practical purposes. At the same time, this method should not prevent the effective use of information the pilot signal when it is available and should be good the other problems, found in the technical field related to the demodulation pilot signals of channels in communication systems with negotitations access, one objective of the present invention is to increase the energy that the subscribers of the system can be used to assess and track the phase of the communication signals.

One of the advantages of the present invention is that it improves the reception and at the same time compatible with other modulation schemes.

Another advantage of the invention is that it supports and diversity, and the transmission of signals with a soft transmission of a communication between two communication lines, one of which uses a non-coherent modulation and coherent modulation.

The second objective of the invention is to develop a modulation method, which preserves the orthogonality between channels using non-coherent modulation/demodulation. These and other goals, objectives and advantages are realized in a method and apparatus for forming an orthogonal coded signals for subscribers of the system using multiple orthogonal functions or code sequences for each recipient signals or orthogonal direct lines of communication in the communication system with signals with spread spectrum, M-fold modulated using at least two characters orthogonal modulation length n, which, as a rule, each contain one or more of the Walsh function. The relationship between the used orthogonal functions and M-fold level of the modulation is such that M is equal to the product of the total number of orthogonal functions used to generate modulation symbols, and the number of functions used to generate each individual signal. In other words, equal to the product of the total number of features used and the ratio (L), is equal to the number of times in which each modulation symbol is greater than the length n of each function. Typically, the number of functions and the factor is chosen so that M was less than 64. Functions used to generate modulation symbols, functions are usually intended for the communication system or used in it.

With this approach, you can use 2 orthogonal functions of length n for the formation of two modulation symbols of length n and obtain a 2-fold modulation, although the same orthogonal functions can be used for the formation of four modulation symbols of length n, which are used to produce 4 times alzati modulation symbols of length 4n, used to obtain 16-fold modulation (M = 4 (functions] x 4 [n] = 16).

The modulation is carried out by conversion of the encoded symbols and intermittent data modulation symbols or code sequence in accordance with binary values of modulated symbols of data. Each group of log2M symbols data is used to generate or select the corresponding output symbols M times the modulation. Therefore, when L = 1 and the number of orthogonal functions of length n = 2, M = 2 and each (one) character coded data is converted into one of the two modulation symbols of length n. Usually it is done by selecting one modulation symbol for binary input values "0" and another to "1". In other specific embodiments, when L = 2 and the number of features used is 2, M = 4 and each two characters encoded data is converted into four modulation symbol length 2n. Similarly, when L = 4 and the number of features used is 4, M = 16 and every four characters encoded data is converted to sixteen modulation symbols.

Typically, the modulation symbols generated by the formation of the first orthogonal codes of length n, for example functions Wolak M is typically less than 64. The tool or device selection characters modulation accepts or generates orthogonal codes and produces the desired modulation symbols by using the code sequence, as in the case of 2-fold lower modulation order, or by joining L separate code sequences and their inversions to create, if desired, a longer modulation symbols of length Ln. Generators codes may have a configuration that makes it possible to produce the inverted sequence, or you can use the additional generators codes to perform this function. Alternatively, the picker can invert each selected sequence, if desired, to produce the sequence used to generate the modulation symbols of length Ln. In the case of modulation of a higher order, each modulation symbol length Ln contains either L code sequences, or L/2 sequences and L/2 inversions of the same sequence or function. Inverse functions have in common a sequence of modulation symbols so that the supported orthogonality between other sequences that use this feature.

adnych data. Picker responds to the binary value of each group of log2M symbols data and generates the appropriate symbol modulation as the output signal.

In one specific embodiment of the invention, at least one (mostly two) generator is used to issue the first and second orthogonal functions of length n. The selector or selector connected to receive the symbols of the user data and the first and second functions, and responds to the binary values of the data symbols by issuing the first orthogonal function when the data symbols have the same value, and the second orthogonal functions, when the data symbols have the second value. Alternatively, using a higher modulation level, the selector responds by issuing the first, second, third and fourth code sequences of length 2n using the first orthogonal function twice when a couple of incoming data symbols have the first value, using the first orthogonal function and its inversion, when a couple of characters of data have a second value, using the second orthogonal function twice when a pair of data characters have a third value, and using the second orthogonal is sushestvennee, at least one, but mostly - four generator orthogonal functions are used to issue the first, second, third and fourth orthogonal functions of length n. The selector receives the symbols of the user data and the four functions and responds to the binary values of the data symbols by issuing four sequences in which the first, second, third and fourth functions are repeated four times, respectively, each in response to one of four values of the data symbols. In addition, the selector generates three sets of sequences, each in response to one of the twelve values of the data symbols, and first, second, third and fourth functions are repeated two times, respectively, and are accompanied by two inversions repeat functions, with the relative position of inversions in each sequence in each of these sets, shifted from inversions in other sequences, in order to maintain substantial orthogonality.

In another specific embodiment, using the fast Hadamard transform in the process of modulation for the transmitter of the gateway or base station. The data symbols are injected into the device for quick PREOBRAZOVANIYa into a serial data stream, and the bandpass signal is filtered to remove unwanted frequency components, and then subjected to the usual processing of analog signals for transmission.

The communication signals demodulated accept communication signals with spread spectrum, having a common carrier frequency, modulated using M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols of length Ln, consisting of a predetermined number of orthogonal functions of length n, where M is the product of L and the pre-selected number. Then the signals are simultaneously correlated with pre-selected number of orthogonal functions of length n and demodulator obtaining M energy values representing each of M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols, respectively. Then these energy values are converted to metric data energy through the process of forming the dual maximum metric.

The operation of the correlation and demodulation can be performed by introducing signals, at least two groups of N correlators, where N is the number of features used, and then served correlated signals to respective demodulators for each group of correlators. Signals demodulated obtaining M energy values the values of the energy from each demodulator are combined into one set of M energy values using the unifier of energy.

In other aspects of the invention, the communication signals are also introducing at least one coherent demodulator and demodulator to obtain at least one amplitude value. The obtained amplitude value of each of the coherent demodulator are combined into a single value of the amplitude in the unifier amplitude, and then combined with the output signal of the process of forming the dual maximum metric obtaining values of the composite metric for character data consolidator of energy.

The invention generally finds application in radio/information communication system in which remote users are in many cells and receive signals from at least one station pair using signals spread spectrum communications mnogochastichnogo access, code-division multiplexing (MDCRC). Modulated communication signals are transmitted from the gateway station to the user through at least one relay satellite-based. Distinctive features, objectives and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description presented in conjunction with the drawings in which the same riprovazione radio system with MDCRC,

in Fig. 2 shows a block diagram of a possible device demodulation/modulation and transmission to the gateway station for a radio communication system with MDCRC,

in Fig. 3 shows a possible modulator signals for the preparation and modulation data intended for the subscriber node and used in the apparatus shown in Fig. 2;

in Fig. 4 shows a modulator that uses a 2-fold modulation in accordance with the principles of the present invention:

in Fig. 5 shows a modulator that uses a 4-fold modulation in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

in Fig. 6 shows a modulator that uses a 16-fold modulation in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

in Fig. 7 shows a block diagram of one channel of the receiver, performing a non-coherent demodulation in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

in Fig. 8 shows a block diagram of a multichannel receiver, performing a non-coherent demodulation;

in Fig. 9 shows a block diagram of a multichannel receiver, performing as coherent and non-coherent demodulation.

The present invention provides subscribers of a communication system negotitations access and spread spectrum signif. Uses a new modulation method, which makes more efficient use of energy signals by using multiple orthogonal codes to encode character data in the signal processing channel of the user. This approach to modulation provides more efficient energy per symbol for each subscriber that is used when compiling metrics energy symbols. This extra energy provides more accurate tracking in the absence of the pilot signals. This approach also provides the use, and coherent way, and the way non-coherent demodulation of signals. The corresponding demodulation in the presence of a very weak pilot signal or in its absence, will offset some of the problems that are present in many communication systems, satellite-based and other systems, spread spectrum communications signals.

In a typical communication system with MDCRC, such as radio information or telephone system, a base station within a predefined geographical areas or cells using each of several blocks of the modulator-demodulator or modem signals with spread spectrum with the aim of processing is not the modulator for transmission of digital signals with spread spectrum, at least one digital data receiver spread spectrum and at least one search receiver. During typical operations, each remote or mobile user or subscriber node, if necessary, is the modem at the base station for the coordination of transmission of communication signals with the specified subscriber. If the modem uses multiple receivers, one modem will coordinate the processing explode, otherwise you can use a combination of two or more modems. In the case of communication systems using satellite repeaters, these modems usually placed at the base stations, called gateways or hubs that communicate with users by transmitting signals via satellites. Possible and other related control centers that communicate with satellites or stations mates to maintain large-scale load control system and synchronization signals.

Possible radio system constructed and operating in accordance with the principles of the present invention shown in Fig. 1. In the communication system 10 shown in Fig. 1, are used modulation methods extended range when communicating and base stations of the system. In large urban areas, you can use a number of such base stations to provide services to mobile users in cellular telephone systems type. In the communication system typically uses fewer satellite repeaters to serve more users in terms of the repeater, but distributed over a larger geographical areas.

As can be seen in Fig. 1, the communication system 10 uses the network 12 system control and switching, also called switching station for moving objects (CTSO (MTSO), which typically includes a circuit interfacing and processing to enable large-scale control system for base stations and gateways. The control unit 12 also controls the direction of the telephone phone calls from the public network (the PSTN (PSTN)) to the corresponding base station or station pair for transmission in the desired or prescribed subscriber node, and to route calls received from subscriber nodes via one or more base stations to the PSTN. The control device 12 basically locates the subscriber nodes in communication with each other by connecting calls eat communications usually are not adapted to communicate directly with each other for reasons of efficiency and cost. Connection line, which connects the control device 12 to different base stations can be installed using various known methods, including, but not limited to, fixed telephone lines, fiber optic lines or microwave or fixed line, satellite connection.

In part of the communication system shown in Fig. 1 depicts two possible base stations 14 and 16 for communication over terrestrial repeater with two satellite repeaters 18 and 20 and two associated gateways or hubs 22 and 24. These elements of the system used for communication with two possible remote subscriber nodes 26 and 28, each of which has a radio communications device, for example, but not necessarily, cell phone. Although these subscriber nodes are considered as movable, it is clear that the provisions of the invention are applicable to a stationary subscriber nodes where it is desirable wireless service. This latter type of service is appropriate, in particular when using satellite repeaters to establish lines of communication with many remote areas of the world.

The terms "rays" ("spots") and "cell" or "sectors" everywhere use the latitude region of similar nature, the differences in physical characteristics of the type of platform used relay and its location. However, some characteristics of the transmission channels and delays and frequency reuse channels differ between the two platforms. The cell is determined by the effective "reach" of the base station signal, while the beam is "spot" covered projected on the earth's surface signals of satellite communications. In addition, sectors, generally cover different geographical areas within the cell, whereas the satellite beams at different frequencies, sometimes referred to as signals MDCRC, may cover the same geographical area.

The terms "base station" and "station pair" is also sometimes used interchangeably, in this case, the gateways in the art sometimes refers to a base station that direct communication through satellite repeaters and have more "domopravitelnitsa tasks, with associated equipment, to support such communication lines moving through the relays, while the base station using a terrestrial antenna for direction in the surrounding geographic area. Central is s mates and moving satellites.

For this example, assume that each of the base stations 14 and 16 are provided by a separate geographic areas or "cells" that are serviced by the directional characteristics of their respective antennas, while the rays from the satellites 18 and 20 are directed so that cover other relevant geographic area. However, it is easy to understand that coverage rays or maintenance of satellites and the radiation patterns of antennas for terrestrial repeaters may overlap completely or partially in this area, depending on the design of the communication system and the type of service offered. Therefore, at different points in the communication process can realize a transmission link, as discussed below, between base stations or gateways that serve different areas or cells, and can also achieve separation between any of these areas or communication devices.

The gain of the signals provided by the methods MDCRC-modulation, allows you to use a "soft" communication, when subscribers change the location sufficiently to move into the area served by the new base station, station mates or characterist, while the existing modem gateway continues to maintain a line of communication up until the old link will not cease to exist. When the subscriber node is in the transition region between the borders of the review of two base stations, i.e. in the zone of overlap of the review of the communication line can support two modems in accordance with the accessibility and frequency of the received signal. As a subscriber node is always communicates with at least one modem, there is less disruption of service. Thus, the subscriber node uses multiple modems gateways or base stations to help the process of communication, in addition to performing the functions explode. In addition, a soft handover connection, you can use essentially continuously to maintain lines of communication between subscribers and a few companions.

In Fig. 1 some of the possible channels of signals for communication between the base station 14 and subscriber nodes 26 and 28 shown by a set of lines 30 and 32, respectively. The tip of the arrows on these lines indicate the possible direction of the signal line, which is either a straight line or a return line, although this CNY signals or the required communication channels. Similarly, the possible lines of communication between the base station 16 and subscriber nodes 26 and 28 are shown by lines 34 and 36, respectively. The base station 14 and 16 typically have a configuration enabling the transfer of signals using equal power to minimize mutual interference between users.

Additional possible channels of signals are shown for the case of the connection established via the satellites 18 and 20. These lines set the routes signals between one or more gateways or centralized hub 22 and 24 and subscriber nodes 26 and 28. Part of the "satellite - user" of these lines is shown by the group of lines 40, 42 and 44, as part of the "station mates satellite" lines 46, 48, 50 and 52. In some configurations, you can also establish direct communications "satellite - satellite", as shown by lines 54.

Geographical areas or cells served by base stations, attached to the essentially non-overlapping or disjoint form, so normally the user or subscriber is closer to one base station than to another, or within one sector of the cell to which it is additionally subdivided. Essentially, the same having the specific characteristic direction and the level of its signals, and not relative proximity to the satellite.

In modern radio systems and cellular telephone systems with MDCRC each base station or station pair transmits the carrier signal, pilot signal" across the field of view. In the case of satellite systems, this signal is transmitted in each "ray" of the satellite or satellite parts and is formed on a special gateways served by this satellite. Only one pilot signal is transmitted for each of the gateway or base station and is common to all users of this station pair, except in the case of regions, subdivided into sectors, where each sector may have its own separate pilot signal. The pilot signal, generally speaking, does not contain the modulation of data and use of subscriber nodes to obtain initial system synchronization and to provide resilient track of time, frequency and phase of the transmitted signals of the base station. Each station pair or base station also transmits the modulated information with an extended range, for example - about the identity of the gateway, clocking systems, information retrieval call user POMOShch signal (subjected to large-scale reuse in the system), they are formed using different generators of PN codes, and use the same code expansion at different phase offsets codes. This allows to obtain PN-codes that can be easily distinguished from each other, in turn discriminate the origin of base stations and gateways or cells and rays. Alternatively, use the group of PN-codes in a communication system using different PN codes for each station pair, and possibly for each plane of the satellite, through which communicate the GW. For specialists in the art it will be obvious that in order to identify sources of special signals or repeaters in the communication system can allocate as much or as little number of PN codes as you need. That is, if you wish, you can use codes to distinguish each repeater or signal generator in the system is determined by the total number of possible communication channels and the number (which it is desirable to maximize) users accessed the system.

The use of one code sequence of the pilot signal in the entire communication system allows the subscriber nodes to detect pulsing blue is foreseen through a process of correlation for each code phase. Subscriber node sequentially searches the entire sequence and is configured to shift or shift, which gives the strongest correlation. The most powerful pilot signal detected using this process corresponds to the pilot signal, transmitted to the nearest base station or covering ray satellite. In General, however, use the most powerful pilot signal regardless of the source of transmission, because it is undoubtedly the signal, the user can easily monitor and accurately demodulate.

Basically, the higher the power level and, consequently, a greater signal-to - noise and supply noise immunity pilot signal enables high-speed initial capture and allows you to accurately track the phase with relatively broadband scheme tracking phase. The phase of the carrier obtained by tracking the pilot signal at the carrier frequency, is used as the reference phase of the carrier signal for demodulation of information signals of a user, transmitted from base stations 14 and 16 and gateways 22 and 24. This method gives the possibility of combining many channels load or load-bearing signals occur is through the strongest pilot signal, subscriber node then searches for another signal called clock or synchronization signal, or channel, which typically uses a different code coverage, as discussed below, have the same sequence length as the pilot signal. The synchronization signal transmits a message containing certain information about the system, also identifying the source station pair and the entire communication system, in addition to convey timing information for a long PN codes interspersed groups of data, vocoders, and other information about clocking system used within the remote subscriber node without having to search additional channel.

The communication system may also use another signal, called signal search call, or channel for sending a message indicating that the call or informational message "received" or present or "adheres" to the person at the GW. For this function, you can reserve one or more channels and subscriber nodes can monitor these channels and the pilot signal, with the exception of other, albeit in an inactive mode, i.e. when no line connection. Signal search call PR the ides, and requests a response from the prescribed subscriber node.

As shown in Fig. 1, the pilot signals are sent to the subscriber node 26 of the base stations 14 and 16 to extraordinary or direct communication lines 30 and 36, respectively, and from the gateways 22 and 24 via satellite 18 via communication lines 40, 46 and 48. After that, the circuit device in the subscriber node 26 is used to determine what services the base station or the gateway station (satellite) to be used for communication, that is, basically, what cell or beam used, by comparing the relative power of the signals to pilot signals transmitted by base stations 14 and 16 or gateways 22 and 24. For clarity in the depiction of Fig. 1 satellite 20 is not shown as having a connection with the subscriber node 26, while certainly possible, depending on the configuration of a specific system configuration, distribution of the directivity of the satellite and transferring calls CTSO 12.

In this example, the subscriber node 28 can be considered as the closest to the base station 16 for ground service, but in the field of view of the satellites 18 or 20 in order to maintain the station pair. When the subscriber node 2 of the Directive, here is 16, or 18 and 20. The base station 16 upon receipt of a message requesting a call, transmits the called number to the device management system or CTSO 12. The control unit 12 then switches the call through the PSTN to a prescribed recipient. In an alternative embodiment, the communication line is established from the subscriber node 28 via satellite 18 and station pair 22 or 24. Station pair 22 receives the request message of the call and passes it to the control device 12 system, which processes the message as described above.

There is a call request or the communication line to the PSTN, or is initiated by the subscriber node, CDPO 12, mainly transmits call information to all base station or gateway in a predetermined area with respect to which either known, for example - on the basis of previous information that there is a subscription site, or know that it must be in this area, for example - in "residential" area. The gateway station and the base station, in turn, transmit the message retrieval-call in each of the respective areas of review for the called subscriber. When the prescribed destination detects the message retrieval call, he autocapture. This control message signals the control device 12 about which station pair, satellite or base station is in communication with the subscriber node, and CDPO or the control unit 12 then sends messages or calls on this line in the subscriber node. If your site here - 28, out of the view area originally selected satellite, 18, or the GW, 22 or 24, an attempt is made to extend the line by sending information via other satellites up until don't have to use another station pairing or base station.

When initiated the call or communication line and a subscriber or remote node enters the active mode, is formed or selected psevdochumoy (PN) code to use for this call. This code can either be dynamically assigned to the station of mate, or at a pre-determined prescribed values based on the coefficient of the identity for a particular subscriber node. After initiation of the calling subscriber node continues to scan and the pilot signal to the gateway through which he communicates, and pilot signals for adjacent beams or cells. Filigree is and the power of one of the originally selected pilot signals. When the signal power of the pilot signal associated with the neighboring cell or beam exceeds the capacity of the pilot signal associated with the current cell or beam, subscriber node determines that the entered directional characteristic of a new cell or beam, and to initiate the transmission of a communication station pair, corresponding to this feature.

Possible specific part of the transceiver or base station device of the gateway used for the 29 implementation of a communication system MDCRC, more detail is shown in Fig. 2. In Fig. 2 uses one or more sections of the receiver, each of which is connected to the antenna and the analog section of the receiver to implement receiving frequency or spatial diversity. In the terrestrial base stations repeaters use of multibeam antennas to achieve the receive spatial diversity, mainly within sectors. The gateways can be used multibeam antennas for coupling several different satellites and orbital characteristics.

In each of the sections of the receiver signals are processed in essentially the same way up until the signals podvergautsya elements of the receiver, used to manage communication between a station pair and one subscriber node, although this technology is known and some deviations from this. Output signals analog receivers or sections of the receiver are also available on other items used in connection with other subscriber nodes, also discussed in U.S. patent N 5103459 and referenced below.

In the transceiver shown in Fig. 3, an analog receiver 62 is connected with an antenna 60 for the reception, conversion with decreasing frequency and conversion into digital form of communication signals. In the art there are known various mappings with decreasing frequency in the transition from high frequencies (RF) to intermediate frequency (if) and then to the frequency band of the modulating signals, and analog-to-digital signal conversion channels. Digitized signals are then transmitted to the monitoring receiver 64 and at least one demodulator digital data 66A. If necessary, to obtain explode signal for each subscriber node using additional receivers 66B-66N digital data, each of which forms one channel in the receiver signals and receive signals from subscribers across multiple channels of distribution and provide failover mode explode. Each of the data receivers, essentially identical in structure and operation, but can work with a constant, slightly different due to the nature of relayed signals. As mentioned previously, the station pair has one or more sections of additional receivers, which are not shown and each of which is designed to mate with an active subscriber.

At least one control processor or the control unit 70 of the gateway connected to the demodulators 66A-66N and search the receiver 64, issue commands and control to perform functions including, but not limited to,

signal processing, forming clock signals, power control and transmission of a communication, diversity, Association explode, and interfacing with CDPO. Another management task to the control processor 70 is ensuring the availability of Walsh functions, transmitter and destination demodulators for communication with subscribers. Search receivers typically use to determine which of the demodulators should be assigned to analog output 31 of the signals. After that, each demodulator is responsible for tracking clocking signals, taking their known Enya explode and decoding used for logical grouping of signals issued by the demodulators service General subscriber node. This combined signal is issued in a digital communication line 72, which is also connected to the control processor 70, in the transmitting modulator 74 and, generally, in a digital switch or network CDPO. The schema used to generate the digital communication line 72, well known and typically include a variety of known control or switching and memory elements. Digital communication line 72 serves to control or direction of transmitted or encoded/decoded signals between the unifier explode and decoders 68, network CDPO and one or more transmitting demodulators 74 station pair, and all this happens under the control of the control processor 70.

The converted digital signals issued from the demodulators 66 and search receiver 64, which in this example consist of the combined signal common mode (1) and quadrature (Q) channels. However, specialists in the art will easily recognize the possibility of such complete these items that they will ensure the internal channel separation up to p the channels after conversion. This separation simply changes the nature of the data bus used to transfer data to other elements.

On the other transmitter signals CDPO in the communication system or from other combiners are connected to a suitable transmitting modulator for transmission to the receiving subscriber via the digital communication line 72. The transmitting modulator 74 also operates under control of control processor 70, modulates a broader spectrum of data for transmission to the prescribed recipient and outputs the resulting signal to the device 76 control the transmit power, which provides control of the transmit power used for the issued signal. Additional details associated with the construction and operation of possible transmission modulators 72, are discussed in U.S. patent N 5103459 and 5309474, to which references below, which are to be assigned to the holder of rights to the present invention and shown here for reference.

Output device 76 power control is summed with the output signal to other circuits of the transmitting modulator/power control, preparing the signals for a signal of the same carrier, in the adder 78. The output signal of the adder 78, in turn, is issued to the subscriber sites through satellite repeaters. Control processor 70 also controls the formation and power of the pilot signals, signals synchronal and signals of the channels of the search call, and connecting them to the device 76 power control before summing with other signals and output to the antenna 82.

System spread spectrum communications signals, such as shown in Fig. 1, using the signal based on the carrier expanded pseudoloma direct sequence. That is, the carrier frequency band of the modulating signal is modulated using psevdochumoy (PN) sequence period Ts to achieve the desired effect expansion. PN-sequence consists of a series of elements of the signal period. Those that have a frequency much greater than the frequency extensible communication signal in the frequency band of the modulating signal, which is only about 9.6-19.2 kbit/s Normal frequency element of the signal is about 1,2288 MHz and is selected in accordance with the total bandwidth required or permitted by interference signals and other criteria associated with the power and quality of signals that are known in the art. Therefore, specialists in the art will understand how mo cost and alternative communication quality.

The sequence of pilot signals must be long enough to form many different sequences using phase shifts to maintain a large number of pilot signals in the system. In a possible specific embodiment, the length of the sequence to the carrier of the transmitted signal is chosen equal to 215or 32768 elements of the signal. The resulting sequence has the good properties of cross-correlation and autocorrelation, which is necessary to prevent mutual interference between pilot signals transmitted in different cells. At the same time, it is desirable to maintain a sequence as short as possible to minimize the time of capture. When an unknown constant need to find full length sequence, to determine the correct timing. The longer the sequence, the more time the search of this sequence. However, if the sequence length is reduced, and the gain in the processing code is also reduced along with the noise suppression, and possibly to unacceptable levels.

As mentioned previously, the signals from different gateways or base stations distinguish the DOI field relative to neighboring regions. Offsets or shifts must be large enough to ensure that essentially no interference between pilot signals.

On line the base station - to-subscriber" or "station pair - subscriber" binary sequence used to spread spectrum, create two different types of sequences, each of which has different characteristics and performs various functions. To discriminate between signals transmitted by different base stations, and between the multi-channel signals using external code. This external code is usually common to all signals in the cell or beam and, as a rule, is relatively short PN sequence. However, depending on your system configuration, you can assign a set of PN-sequences each station pair, or satellite repeaters may use different PN codes. Each system design specifies the distribution orthogonal external codes in the system in accordance factors evident in this technical field.

Then using the "internal" code for discrimination between different users in a certain area or between the signals of the users, beready subscriber node has its own orthogonal channel, provided on a straight line through the use of special covering sequence PN-codes. On the back of the line signals of the users are not completely orthogonal, but differ in the way they modulated code symbols. In the art it is also clear that you can use the optional extension code when preparing data for transmission, to provide an additional level of "scrambling" to increase the gain of the signals for subsequent transmission and processing.

In the art know that you can create multiple orthogonal binary sequences of length n for n being a power of 2. This is considered in the literature, for example in Digital communications with space applications" ("Digital Communications with Space Applications"), S. W. Golomb et al., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964, S. C. 45-64. In fact, the sets of orthogonal binary sequences is also known for most sequences with lengths that are multiples of the number four, but not less than two hundred. One class of such sequences, which are relatively easy to form, is called the Walsh function and also known as metrics Hadamard.

logical addition W, that is, W(n) = - W(n), and W(1)=1.

Therefore, the first few of the Walsh function or functions of orders 2, 4 and 8 can be represented as

< / BR>
< / BR>
and

< / BR>
Then the function or sequence of Walsh - it's just one of the rows of the matrix of the Walsh function, and the Walsh function of order n contains n sequences of Walsh Sn(n), for n bits in length each. Individual bits forming a code sequence of Walsh, called the elements of the signal Walsh. Therefore, the Walsh function W (n) is the i-th row n row/column matrix of the Walsh function and has n bits. For example, the Walsh function W3(8) shown above in a sequence of S3(8) =1 1-1-1 1 1-1-1.

A Walsh function of order n and in reality (as well as other orthogonal functions) has the property that in the interval of n signal elements in the chain of elements of the signal cross-correlation between all the different sequences Sn(n) in the set equal to zero, provided that the sequence of temporally ordered. It's easy to keep provided that exactly half of the bits or signal elements in each sequence are different from the bits or elements of the signal in all other sequences. Another useful property is Telenesti consist of half ones and half minus units. Alternatively, one sequence (complex) consists of all zeros, and the other half ones and half zeros.

In a modern system standards spread spectrum communications signals to all subscribers or user nodes within the beam or cell combined into a single phase external PN-code. That is, the basic clocking and phase set by the gateways and base stations for users on a given frequency, typically embedded in the pilot and sync signals, the same. What distinguishes the signals of the subscriber or user as specially designed for the data recipient is the use of different orthogonal extensions or functions scrambling, of the Walsh function to each signal of the user, also called a subscriber channel. It is the use of external PN-codes are aligned in phase, depending on the internal codes.

In this system spread spectrum communications signals using a function or code sequence Walsh, pre-set a pre-defined set or table of sequences having n rows of n values each, to determine razlichnyie certain set of 64 Walsh functions, each of which has a length of 64 element signal. These functions are used to ensure orthogonality to 64 channels or subscribers (minus the pilot signal, a code call and signal) in the carrier signal used in the beam, the cell or sector. For a modern satellite-based systems, repeaters, with the aim of increasing the number of users who can provide the service, are expected to increase the size of the Walsh functions, at least up to 128 elements signal length (n=128).

Thus, the signal elements or binary value ("0" or "1") signal elements for Walsh functions, for example - W1(64), W2(64) or W64(64) pre-defined and exist in the ordered set for use in the communication system. These functions are reused within beams or cells, because the phase offset of the carrier signal is already done for basic clocking each cell or beam, as follows from the displacements of the pilot signal (external code). Using this type of information is clear to the experts in this field of technology. In the communication system 10 can be used several forms of the carrier signal. In a preferred specific embodiment, the NCD is a binary PN sequences. In this approach, PN-sequences with the same length, are formed by two different PN - generators. One sequence Biphase modulates the in-phase channel (1 channel) carrier signal, and the other sequence Biphase modulates the quadrature-phase or just a quadrature channel (Q-channel) signal carrier. The resulting signals are summed with the formation of four composite carrier signal.

Possible design of the modulator signals to implement the transmitting modulator 74 and data preparation DJ for subscriber node j for transmission is shown in Fig. 3. As shown in Fig. 3, the modulator 74 includes a device 100 data coding and interleaver 102. Before using orthogonal coding and extensions here - with the use of the Walsh function, the digital data signals carried by each communication channel, typically encode with repetition and alternating to provide error detection and correction functions, which allow the system to operate at a lower signal-to-noise ratio and selectivity of harmonics of the intermediate frequency. This affects the character data that are processed for transmission.

Alternating data preparatively CDPO. Data is processed according to a standard or known analog methods and pre-amplified or filtered, and then converted into the form of a digital signal. The methods used for coding, repetition or alternation is also known. An additional consideration moving, for example, can be found in the source of Information communications, networks and systems" ("Data Communictaions, Networks and Systems"), Howard W. Sams & Co. , 1987, S. 343-352. Alternating symbols from the interleaver 102 then coded orthogonal or covered prescribed orthogonal code sequence supplied code generator 104. Code generator 104 is multiplied by or merged with character data in the logical element 106. Orthogonal function normally synchronize the frequency 1,2288 MHz. At the same time, possible in systems with variable data transmission rates, including voice, facsimile (FAX) and information channels high/low-speed data transmission, transmission rate information symbols may vary, for example, from 75 Hz to 76800 Hz. Before converting code Walsh alternating data can also be multiplied by a binary PNusequence in the logical element 1080 long PN code, usually also synchronized on 1,2288 MHz, and then deciminate in Decimator 111 to provide a baud rate of 19200 kbit/S. alternatively, the logical element 108 can be connected in series with the output of multiplier 106, and the resulting covered by the data are multiplied by PSHu-sequence. When a code sequence of Walsh and PNusequences consist of binary values "0" and "1" instead of "-1" and "1", the multipliers can be replaced by the logical elements, such as logical XOR.

Code generator 104 generates a separate PN-code sequence PNucorresponding to a single PN-sequence generated by each subscriber node or for each subscriber node using a variety of known elements designed for this purpose. PSHusequence scramblase data in order to provide security or additional separation signal. Alternatively, you can, if desired, to use non-linear encryption generator, such as an encoder that uses the data encryption standard (SSD), instead of the PN generator 110. You can assign PSHusequence or Tenaga subscriber unit.

Circuit transmitting device also includes two PN - generator 112 and 114, which form two different code sequence PNIand PSHQsmall length for the in-phase (1) and quadrature (Q) channels. All subscriber nodes use the same sequence PSHIand PSHQbut shifted or displaced in time at different sizes, as discussed above. Alternatively, you can make these generators are common to multiple transmitters using the relevant elements of the pair. The possible scheme of the formation of these codes is disclosed in U.S. patent N 5228054 called "power generator pseudotumour sequences with two lengths, with fast regulation of displacement" ("Power of Two Length Pseudo Noise Sequence Generator with Fast Offset Adjustments"), issued July 13, 1993 and assigned to the owner of the rights to the invention.

These PN generators responsive to an input signal corresponding to the signal identification of the beam or cell from the control processor to provide a predetermined time delay time-shift for PN-sequences. Although shown only two PN generator for generating PN sequencesIand PSHQeasily on the additional generators.

Character data encoded by the method of Walsh issued by the multiplier 106, are multiplied by the PN code sequenceIand PSHQfor example, using a pair of multipliers 116 and 118. The received signals are then typically modulated on an RF carrier, usually by bi-phase modulate a quadrature pair of sinusoids, which are summed up in one communication signal and summed with the pilot signal and the alignment signal carrier, along with other data signals for beam or cell. The summation can be done in several different points during processing, such as an intermediate (if) or fundamental frequency, or before the multiplication or after multiplication by the PN sequence associated with the channels in the concrete beam or cell. The received signal is then subjected to bandpass filtering means to the ultimate high frequency, amplified and radiated by the antenna of the station pair. As discussed earlier, the operation of filtering, gain, translation and modulation can be used interchangeably. Additional details of the operation of the transmitting device of this type can be found in U.S. patent N 5103459 entitled "System and method of formation of wave signals in a cellular telephone with MDCRC" ("System and Method for Gener reference.

Working satisfactorily in most communication systems, the design of the modulator depicted in Fig. 3, provides a very grounded approach to modulation and coding signals. Experts in the art using such a modulation scheme to achieve a simple and effective application cover Walsh codes to ensure mezhluchevoy or megacheese orthogonality mentioned previously. However, the device shown in Fig. 3, generally requires the use of a pilot signal and coherent demodulation of the signal receivers. Without the pilot-signal approach, shown in Fig. 3, does not provide energy characters, sufficient to allow the receivers to focus on tracking the phase of groups of data signals in many applications.

On the other hand, the Applicant has found that it is possible to use multiple orthogonal code sequence to modulate each signal data to obtain additional gain in signal processing in the case of non-coherent signal processing. The applicant has found that it is possible to use M code sequences (where M=2kL and k is an integer, a L-factor, discussed below) for the energy of the received modulation symbols, so the characteristic of the error is close to the characteristics of the errors inherent in the methods of coherent demodulation. Below are examples of values of M lower-order or level modulation, where M = 2, 4, and 16. To maintain compatibility with the more common use of "covering" codes, the value of k is set equal to 0 in the above embodiment, (L=1), which leads to M=1 and single or single modulation code sequence.

Taking into account the benefits of the orthogonality properties discussed above for Walsh functions (or other orthogonal functions), you can use multiple functions or code sequences, Walsh W1, W2,... Wnfor the formation of M-multiple orthogonal sequences or M symbols orthogonal modulation. For example, you can use two Walsh functions W(n)iW(n)jlength n for the formation of a binary or two-orthogonal sequences Sn with n elements signals Walsh, with S1(n)=Wi(n) (ij) and S2(n) = Wj(n), where i and j represent specific rows of a predefined matrix of Walsh. Each modulation symbol is a Walsh code of length n signal elements. For example, if lachumiere sequence1(8) and S2(8) as follows: S1(8)= 11-1-111-1-1 and S2(8)=1 -1-111-1-11.

Two sequences, such as those used for the modulation symbols of the encoded data in accordance with the selected scheme polling character conversion. Symbols from the encoder and/or interleaver is converted to two characters orthogonal modulation, educated predefined pair or a subset of two different Walsh functions. This is achieved by choosing an appropriate code sequence S1or S2in response to state or binary value of the input symbols. That is, a binary value "0" selects one sequence, say S1and the binary value "1" selects another sequence, here - S2. Then these sequences are passed to further processing of the signals as modulation symbols for the application of an expansion sequence PSHIand PSHQas previously.

One implementation of the modulator used in the preparation of user data for transmission through a 2-fold modulation in a straight line, is shown in Fig. 4. In Fig. 4 data is processed as before, the multiplier 120. The coefficient scrambling is discussed earlier delmarvanow sequence PSHuand the ratio of the power control is a bit image, typically used to compensate for deviations of the energy deposited in the operations of converting data into digital form and coding.

The output signal of multiplier 120 is passed to a code Converter or the selector 124 of modulation symbols, in which the coded alternating character data is converted into modulation symbols. The orthogonal sequence used for this modulation conversion, can be formed in two specially designed generators 126 and 128, each of which has an output connected to the selector 124. These generators are built using well known methods and circuit elements, such as the device disclosed in the aforementioned U.S. patent N 5228054, or other known device. Although the code generators are shown as separate structures, it is done only for clarity, and specialists in the art will easily understand that they can form an integral part of the selector 124 of modulation symbols.

If necessary, you can what I desired features. Alternatively, you can ensure the desired functions assigned to the control processor in the form of a pre-defined list of functions used in the communication system, from which, if necessary, select a specific function. Code generators can be dynamically programmed, for example using the information contained in the signals or the signals coded call, so that the code sequence is changed every time the subscriber node uses a new channel or communication line or station pair, or can, if desired, assign the sequence continuously. In addition, you can use two generators for the issuance of individual codes at the same time, or you can use one code generator to provide two different code at different points in time for each symbol interval in response to the binary values of the data symbols.

The selector 124 receives the sequence and produces a single sequence from generator 126, when the input characters are "0", and the orthogonal sequence generator 128 when the characters are "1". The selector 124 characters modulation built using many of the circuit elements and lo the th sequence, when the input signal "0" or "1". Orthogonal sequence, issued by one or more code generators, you can simply choose by including an electronic switching element, for example, but not necessarily, transistor or logic element connected in series with each output. Instead, you can store sequence, intended for use, in the local registers or memory elements that are part of the selector 124 of modulation symbols.

The above method can be extended to Quaternary or 4-fold sequence of length 2n elements of the signal using sequences, which have the form:

S1(2n) = (Wi(n), Wi(n));

< / BR>
S3(2n) = (Wj(n), Wj(n));

< / BR>
At this level, each modulation symbol is a chain of two orthogonal functions of lower order, that is, one sequence of length 2n elements of the signal that contains one two sequences of length n. Each of the symbol modulation based on orthogonal Walsh functions of length n, is normally used in the communication system, and maintains the orthogonality of the RAF CLASS="ptx2">

When four configurations use 2 symbol data output symbol modulation. One potential convert characters input to the modulation symbols shown in the table. I. Specialists in the art will readily understand that other applicable conversion functions in the framework of the invention, depending on the specific communication systems and circuits used to implement the transformation strategy.

This approach can be extended to shestnadcatiletnie orthogonal sequence of length 4n elements signal by distributing the four orthogonal functions Wi(n), Wj(n), Wk(n), Wp(n) B the following form:

Sx1(4n) = Wx(n), Wx(n), Wx(n), Wx(n));

< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
where x is i, j, k, p and i jkp. This ensures that sequences such as:

< / BR>
Using the above example for Wi(8), it must receive:

S11(32) = 11-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-1;

S13(32) = 11-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-1-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111;

S21(32) = 1-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-11 and

S23(32) = 1-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-11-1-111-1-111-1-111-1-111-1.

Level 16-fold modulation each symbol modulation is a chain of four is sledovatelno 4 sequences of length n. When 16-fold configuration using 4 data symbols to select a given code sequence or set of Walsh functions for issuance. The possible conversion of the input symbols into modulation symbols shown in the table. II. And again specialists in the art will easily understand that in the framework of the invention are applicable to other conversion strategies.

Method 4-fold modulation can be implemented by modification of the modulator depicted in Fig. 4, as shown in Fig. 5. In Fig. 5 the data is processed, as before, the encoding device 100 and the interleaver 102 before multiplication by the coefficients scrambling and control the output of the multiplier 120. The output signal of multiplier 120 is fed back to the selector orthogonal code or symbol modulation, here - 130, where the coded alternating character data is converted to the desired modulation symbols. Binary symbols at the output of the multiplier are grouped into 2-bit vectors, which are then converted into one modulation symbol. This conversion occurs in accordance with the binary representation of the index of the modulation symbol. That is, each modulation symbol is one of the four corresponding index values ISA to select the value of the index.

The orthogonal sequence used for modulation conversion is provided by generators 126 and 128, each of which has an output connected to the selector 130. This selector can be built so that it will manipulate the input sequences to provide, if necessary, the local addition of each sequence, which he accepts, or you can use the second group of generators, as shown in dotted outline, numbered 126' and 128' to the issuance of any desired additional sequences, or complementary to sequences of code generators 126, 128.

To perform a 4-fold modulation, the selector 130 characters modulation takes code sequence of lower order and issue one (higher order) longer sequence that contains the code taken from the generator 126, or its logical complement, when the pair of the input character has one set of values, such as "00" or "01", and characterized by a long sequence that contains the code taken from the generator 128, or its logical complement, when the pair of the input character has a different set of values, for example "10" elabora, in series with the selector 130 is connected to the demultiplexer 132 one-to-L (1:L). The value L is set equal to two to four modulation.

The selector 130 is constructed using a variety of circuit and logic elements known to specialists in this field of technology, which provide specific symbol modulation in response to each character image of the input signal. Orthogonal code sequence issued by each code generator, you can simply choose by including a number of electronic switching elements, such as, but not necessarily, transistor or logic element connected in series with each output. Instead, you can store the sequence used in the local registers or memory elements that are part of the selector 130 characters modulation, immediately after their formation. As before, the sequence generators can be dynamically programmed, if desired, using the information from the control processor of the gateway.

You can also use one or more conversion tables or similar memory structures, including logical additions to povtorimaia, but not necessarily, storage device, random access and persistent storage device and the programmable logic matrix for the implementation of such tables. In this configuration, the access conversion table, usually made directly to character data using the binary character vector as a pointer to the address or index for the position of a specific symbol modulation in the table. One circuit element of this type could be used to perform the combined functions of the selector 130 characters modulation and generators 126 and 128. The selector code sequence can also provide the increment or stack offset address index, the specified values of the characters to get four input values (M) to select the available sets of sequences of 128. This increment can be set or selected using commands from the control processor of the gateway.

One implementation of the modulator used to prepare the signals to subscribers through a 16-fold modulation, is shown in Fig. 6. In Fig. 6 the data is again processed by the encoding device 100 and the interleaver 102 before multiplying by coaffee the demultiplexer 132' 1:L in the selector 134 orthogonal codes or symbols of the modulation where the coded alternating character data is converted into modulation symbols. In this configuration, the binary symbols at the output of the multiplier are grouped into 4-bit vectors and transformed into one modulation symbol in accordance with a binary representation of the index of the modulation symbol.

In this device the orthogonal sequence used for modulation conversion, provided by a group of four code generators 126, 128, 136 and 138 of proper configuration, each of which has an output connected to a code selector 134. This selector can manipulate the input sequences to provide a logical complement of each sequence, or you can use the second group of generators (126', 128', 136' and 138'), which produces no additional output signal, or complementary function. Depending on which circuit devices, and more efficient in terms of cost and providing additional speed may be the use of a separate, additional sequence generators to provide additional sequences.

To implement the 16-fold modulation, the selector 134 receives the code PEFC is etelnost, adopted from the generator 126, or its logical complement, when many of the four input symbols one gets a pre-defined set of values, for example, "0000" or "0010". The selector 134 produces a different orthogonal sequence of length 4n, consisting of the sequence adopted from generator 128, or its logical complement, when the set of input symbols has a different set of values, for example, "0100" or "0011", another orthogonal sequence of length 4n, consisting of the sequence adopted from the generator 136, or its logical complement, when the set of input symbols has one set of values, for example, "1001" or "1010", and another orthogonal sequence of length 4n, consisting of the sequence adopted from generator 138, or its logical complement, when the set of input symbols has one set of values, for example, "1100" or "1111". To ensure the use of four symbols of the encoded data selection process, the demultiplexer 132', connected in series with the selector 134 of the symbol modulation, uses a value of four for l

As before, the selector 134 characters built using the set CX is skretny symbol modulation in response to each image of the input character signal. Orthogonal sequence by each code generator, you can choose by including a number of electronic switching elements, such as, but not necessarily, transistors or logic elements connected in series with each output. Instead, sequence, immediately after their formation, can be stored for use in the local registers or memory elements that are part of the selector 134. If desired, you can apply a special ROM or programmable logic matrix communication system 10 as rigidly connected transforming elements. You can also use the conversion table or a similar memory structure, as discussed above, as part of the design of the selector 134 characters to remember the pre-defined functions or code sequences, including logical additions to recall in the future in response to specific input characters.

In any of the above modulation devices using modulation symbols, which are works of shorter code length n signal elements, means that the functions or code sequences of shorter length, as p is Teleostei length 2n and 4n elements of the signal. These sequences are then available for use on specific requests schemes. This process of "building" a large series allows the communication system 10, gateways and subscriber nodes to remain very flexible in the type of orthogonal functions, so that you can supply either a sequence of length n, 2n elements of the signal, or sequence of length 4n elements of the signal under control of the processor 70, depending on the type of the desired modulation scheme. If desired, you can enable and disable sequence generators, and different users can take sequences of different length, in order to solve specific user problems receiving.

Although preferred, as a rule, the longer the sequence, the command information of the gateways may prescribe subscriber nodes, what is the length of the sequence is preferred in this communication system, or a pre-made first choice of the length of the code sequence or the actual code sequences for use in demodulation can be pre-stored in the subscriber site to find and use in the case when is of 2korthogonal functions or functions Walsh (k is an integer) to modulation symbols, which occupy the code length L of n signal elements Walsh, implement M-fold modulation, where M=2kL you can also determine the energy of each symbol of the modulation of Esbased on the rate r of the transmission codes and energy Ebon information bits in accordance with a ratio of

Es= r-L-Eb. (1)

Any user terminal or subscriber node has to integrate the received signal at time interval Ln elements signal code before obtaining the values of energy or energies of the received modulation symbols. Therefore, when the level increases or order M modulation increases the value of L and increases energy Eseach symbol modulation, so that decreases the characteristic errors in the tracking of received signals. That is, when increasing the order of modulation, for example, up to 16-fold (M=16, 2k=4, L=4), the energy Eseach symbol of the modulation increases with a factor of four, which gives the sequence length is increased. This extra energy allows the receivers of the subscriber nodes to obtain improved operating characteristics for the tracking phase signal is akusherstvo General nature of the above modulation schemes can also be understood by consideration of possible device configurations for non-coherent demodulation of signals, which can easily be implemented in a subscriber nodes or user terminals of the communications system 10. These fundamental configurations are discussed below with reference to Fig. 7-9, which provide the rationale for non-coherent demodulation. These configurations can be classified as either single-channel or multi-channel receivers using non-coherent demodulation, or as a multichannel receivers using both incoherent and coherent demodulation.

For clarity in the depiction and discussion of these receivers, it is assumed scheme 16-fold modulation, although you can definitely use other schemes. In addition, shows only one channel signals, however, the signals of the channels or paths 1 and Q, as a rule, are processed separately on parallel paths. Therefore, the elements for signal processing, shown in Fig. 7-9, in essence, must be duplicated, unless you use some form of generalization of time, as in the case of sources of orthogonal functions. At the same time, the operation of receiving and processing analog signals and related elements of the analog-to-digital conversion is not shown. Work and the use of such elements known Ony single-channel receiver communication signals, which uses only non-coherent demodulation of signals, depicted as a flowchart in Fig. 7. In Fig. 7 receiver 140 digital data is represented using three main functional blocks or groups of components for demodulation of signals. The first group of components is a series or battery of the 2kcorrelators 142 or 142A- 142Nwhere N=2kthe second M-fold demodulator 144, and the third generator 146 dual maximum metric (DMM).

Function correlator 142 is to correlate the incoming signal with 2korthogonal Walsh functions over the duration of each symbol of the modulation here - TWalsh. The duration of the modulation symbol is pre-defined in the communication system in accordance with the length of the orthogonal functions and the above coefficient "L" for long modulation of multiple sequences of orthogonal functions. The number of correlators 142 used in the demodulator 140 (2k), is determined by the number of functions used to generate modulation symbols. In the case of 16-fold modulation this number is four (k=2). Therefore, the correlation operation is carried out butalmost using one device fast Hadamard transform (BIA(FHT) devices) to increase efficiency by direct display character code in the space code modulation. At the same time, as mentioned below, the purpose of the correlators can be dynamic. So there will be more correlators for signal processing, when M is high, and less when M is small, which provides a significant flexibility of the system.

Correlated adopted output signal R for each correlator 142 (142A, 142B, 142C, 142Dcan conveniently be determined in accordance with each Walsh code Wiat the time N-TWalshby using the expression:

< / BR>
where Wi= (Wi1, Wi2, . . ., Win) represents the i-th Walsh function consisting of n signal elements Walsh with duration

TWalsh=PTeleMentawhitefishNalaand R(.) represents a complex output function of the matched filter for the form element signal at time (.). Therefore, W1(N) is the complex output signal of the correlator, outstanding Walsh code Wi.

In the case of non-coherent demodulation subscriber node or a user terminal processes the incoming signal by correlator 142A-Nand remembers the values of the symbols of the I - and Q-modulation for 2kof the Walsh function, here h is L=4) or the appropriate number of time units the stored values are used M-fold modulator 144, which evaluates or determines the received energy for each symbol of the modulation. The received energy is evaluated on the basis of the hypothesis that the modulation symbol i=l,..., M was transmitted during that interval of time. Characters 1 and Q-modulation can accumulate or remember using correlators 142, a storage part of the demodulator 144, or using other known storage elements, such as storage device, random access, triggers-latches or registers, etc.

In this approach, the energy of the characters can be set in accordance with the following dependencies:

< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
where ij, for double demodulation,

< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
where ij, for double demodulation; and 16-fold demodulation:

< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
where x , i, j, k, p and ijkp.

In the General case, L serial outputs from the battery correlators or BIA devices are used to establish the energies of the 2kL=M modulation symbols. As described above, the transmission source coded/intermittent data converts a predetermined set of bits of the code characters in one signal these bits of code symbols. In the case of 16-fold modulation, this means that each modulation symbol is converted by the demodulator 144 four-bit coded characters.

If the index of modulation symbols having a maximum output energy of M-fold demodulator 144, equal to T, then:

ET= max(E1,...Et,...Em). (14)

t (1.......m)

The bits of the code associated with the maximum energy of the T modulation symbols issued by the demodulator 144, can be seen as bits of solid solutions (after elimination of alternation), intended for use by the decoder of the receiver. In the configuration depicted in Fig. 7, the generator 146 dual maximum metric (DMM) calculates the difference between the maximum energy associated with each code symbol, when it is a "1" and "0", and outputs the q-Bitny quantized soft decision on the basis of the difference of these energies. Each symbol modulation provides four data symbols, so that the output signal from the oscillator 146 DMM is a four q-bit soft decision for each received modulation symbol. Additional description of the operation of the generator DMM can be found in simultaneously considering U.S. patent application N 08/083,110, entitled "Nekoma Metric Generation Process"), which is assigned to the holder of rights to the present invention and shown here for reference.

Generator 146 DMM can be implemented either in parallel or serial modes. That is, either all character bits from the demodulator 144 is processed essentially in one and the same time on parallel processing channels, or each symbol is processed one at a time over a single channel processing. The sequential approach requires additional time for the implementation of the calculation of the metric and the output of the final soft decisions. The advantage of the parallel approach is that all soft solutions ready at the end of each time interval is processing the last bit, and the logic control these functions are relatively simple, but usually requires additional circuit elements with a corresponding greater amount than that required for a consistent approach. However, you could choose a consistent approach for some operations because of the smaller schemes or smaller volume requirements and the fact that the additional time required for the issuance of mild solutions to pose no restrictions.

M, for example, using a storage element or circuit latches and locks. Dual maximum metric is obtained by entering into the generator 146 DMM, for example by reading from the memory cell or otherwise, of these energies associated with the addition of each maximum Kodo-character bits. There are log2(L) the maximum energy modulation symbols to complement each bit maximum index (Kodo-character-bits), providing four Kodo-character-bits to 16-fold modulation and four maximum energy modulation symbols to complement each Kodo-character bits. The maximum energy associated with the addition Kodo-character bits, called the additional Kodo-character energies.

Then in DMM 146 is made of a soft decision, and first take the difference between the maximum energy of the modulation symbols, accumulated from the demodulator 144, and each of its Kodo-character energies. Then, the value of a difference either invert or not, depending on the values of the maximum Kodo-character-bits to "pair energies", used in the preparation of this difference. It provides for the issuing of a metric soft decisions from DMM 146, which is ZAT is commonly worth decoder, for example, but not necessarily, the Viterbi decoder.

Possible multichannel communication signal receiver that only uses non-coherent demodulation of the signal, shown in the flowchart of Fig. 8. In this particular embodiment, again assumes 16-fold modulation, and the receiver uses at least two channels for demodulation of the users of different communication channels. This architecture or configuration supports allocating different orthogonal functions through various channels to ensure that the processing of the signals transmitted via different channels, such as satellite beams.

In the communication system 10 spread spectrum signals preferably used spatial diversity obtained using multiple channels. When using satellite repeaters for communication with the user terminal or subscriber nodes using multiple satellites, because of the overlapping beams having different frequencies or modes of polarization from one satellite would not provide the necessary separation. The use of two or more satellites to establish multiple communication lines means that mn is one for each channel or line. In some systems, the satellite itself may have its own PN sequence, which may also require additional demodulation and transmission schemes of communication.

Using the present invention the gateway station in the communication system 10 can assign one set of orthogonal functions for transmission system user or recipient of the signal with the beam a, And another set of functions to send the same user system using beam Century Respectively, both signals can be processed essentially simultaneously. At the same time, each set of orthogonal functions can be used for the issuance of modulation symbols of different lengths, for example, between two rays.

In Fig. 8 digital receiver 150 is shown having four principal functional unit or a plurality of components for demodulation. The first set of components represents two groups or batteries of N correlators 152Aand 152Bwhere N=2kthe second consists of two M-fold demodulator 154Aand 154Bthird is the adder energy 156, and a fourth generator 158 dual maximum metric (DMM).

The receiver 150 transmits dedicated to the 2korthogonal Walsh functions within the duration of TWalsheach modulation symbol, which is pre-selected in the communication system, as discussed earlier. The number of correlators 152 used in each channel of the receiver 150 (2kis determined, as before, the number of functions used to generate modulation symbols). In the case of 16-fold modulation is number four. Therefore, the correlation operation is carried out by two batteries of four correlators each. However, when k is very large, the correlation operation may be carried out by a pair of BIA devices to improve efficiency.

In this configuration, the subscriber node processes the incoming signals through each set of correlators 152 and stores the received values of the symbols 1 and Q-modulation for 2kof the Walsh function at each time interval TWalsh. Through LWalshseconds saved values for each signal in each channel are utilized one of the M-fold demodulators 154Aor 154Bthat evaluates or determines the energy of the received signal based on the hypothesis that the symbol modulation was adopted within a reasonable time interval. Symbols M4, or using other known storage elements, for example, but not necessarily, mass storage devices, random access, triggers-latches or registers.

The outputs of the demodulators 154Aand 154Bchannels 1 and 2 each contain sixteen of energy values that correspond to sixteen modulation symbols, as described in connection with Fig. 7. For example, the energy values {E1(1),..., Et(1),..., E16(1)} are output from channel 1, whereas the values of energy { E1(2),..., Et(2),...., E16(2)} are output from channel 2. The output signals of both demodulators 154A, 154Bthen logically combined or summed in the combiner energy 156.

Unifier energy 156 summarizes energy for each index of the corresponding modulation symbol in the corresponding pair mode and generates sixteen United energies for each modulation symbol. Note that in this configuration, you can also implement any desired operation of the alignment by using a storage device that stores intermediate results and shifts in time the output signal.

The end result of the process is ulali, asked by the equality Et=Et(1)+Et(2). In some specific embodiments, the implementation can, if desired, to weigh values of energy before merging to adapt to the changing quality of reception or attenuation between the signals. The values of the combined energy of the unifier energy 156 then transferred to the generator 158 DMM, which gives dual maximum metric, as described above in connection with Fig. 7. This metric value is then passed into reverse interleaver circuit and the decoding device, as before.

Possible receiver that uses multiple channels for coherent and non-coherent demodulation, depicted as a flowchart in Fig. 9. In Fig. 9 there are "i" channels to build such a "comb-like" configuration of the receiver. Here again it is assumed 16-fold modulation and receiver is used with at least four channels, two of which implement non-coherent demodulation, and two more - coherent demodulation. The top two channel, i=1,2, is used for coherent demodulation, while the bottom two, i=3,4, used for non-coherent demodulation. However, such an arrangement is shown only for illustrat is another strategy demodulation. Specialists in the art will easily understand that it is possible to use other combinations or number of circuits or channels incoherent and coherent demodulation, and that for each demodulation mode is not necessary to assign a symmetrical or equal to the number of channels.

In Fig. 9 receiver 160 digital data represented using seven major functional blocks or groups of components for demodulation. The first group of components represents two rows or two batteries 162 and 164 on 2kcorrelators each, the second two M-fold demodulator 166Aand 166Bthird - unifier energy 168, the fourth generator 170 dual maximum metric (DMM), and the fifth to two coherent demodulator 172 and 174, the sixth one amplitude 176, and the seventh - generator 178 composite metric (FCM).

For non-coherent demodulation of the signal receiver 160 transmits the incoming signal in the correlator 162 and 164 in channels 3 and 4 receiver (i=3,4), which again correlated each incoming signal with 2 orthogonal functions in the time duration of TWalsheach symbol modulation as described above. The number of correlators used in each processing channel, is defined as R is, this correlation operation is carried out by two batteries, four each correlator with two BPA-devices used to improve efficiency when k is large enough.

As can be seen from Fig. 9, the digital part of the receiver of the subscriber node processes each of the received signals by each of the two groups of correlators 162 and 164 and stores the received values of the symbols of the I - and Q-modulation for 2kof the Walsh function at each time interval TWalsh. Through LWalshseconds saved values for each signal in each channel are utilized one of the M-fold demodulator 166Aor 166Bthat evaluates or determines the received energy. The output signals from each of the demodulators 166Aor 166Bin each channel 1-4 represent the sixteen values of energy corresponding to sixteen modulation symbols, as described in connection with Fig. 7. For example, the energy values {Ti(1),... Tt(1),..., T16(1)} are issued from the channel 3, while the energy values {T1(2),... Tt(2),..., T16(2)} are issued from channel 4.

Then the output signals from demodulators 166Aand 166Blogically combined or cumulative p the ith modulation symbol in the corresponding pair mode and generates sixteen United energies for each modulation symbol. The generator 170 DMM then takes the combined power and generates double the maximum metric, as described above in connection with Fig. 7.

At the same time, for coherent demodulation receiver 160 transmits the incoming signal into two coherent demodulator 172 and 174 of the signals in channels 1 and 2 receivers (i=1,2), where it is correlated with a specific orthogonal codes. Here is known not only codes, but the main clocking and phase of the communication signal, so that, generally speaking, there is no need demodulation by using multiple code sequences for compiling metrics or tracking signal.

For coherent processing of the signals from each of the demodulators 172 and 174 uses one correlator for the application of one code sequence, the phase shifter and combiner amplitude and can be implemented in relatively normal item coherent MDCRC-demodulation, for example, using commercially available components ASIC (ICI (ASIC)). An additional consideration such elements demodulation can be found in U.S. patent N 5309474 entitled "System and method of formation of wave signals in a cellular telephone system with MDCRC" ("System and Method for Generating Signal Waveforms in a the scrap each channel coherent signal processing in the receiver 160 is the amplitude And the received signal, use the coverage function or code sequence of Walsh, who was assigned to this user. The amplitude by each coherent demodulator channel i (i= 1,2), designated here as Ai. Generally speaking, because the user terminal is able to receive transmissions from different rays in the communication system 10, each of which uses a different orthogonal Walsh code, each channel demodulates the signal or channel spread spectrum, which was assigned to the receiving user of the specific satellite beam.

Each amplitude Aiissued from the demodulators 172 and 174 are combined in the combiner amplitude 176. Unifier amplitude 176 summarizes energy for all relevant paths or channels of signals in the corresponding mode, and outputs the value of the combined energy for each symbol of the modulation. As before, you can, if desired, to weigh the amplitude before the merge process or during the merge process.

Unifier metrics 178 then takes all the information about the metrics of the unifier amplitudes generator 176 and 170 DMM and integrates it to produce reliable soft metrics for decoding. The output signal from obedinitel Viterbi.

Therefore, what has been described is a new method of data modulation for generating signals spread spectrum communications. This modulation method allows the use of a coherent schemes, and schemes non-coherent modulation/demodulation, providing greater flexibility in signal processing. It also allows for improved reception of signals, when there is very low or insignificant power of the pilot signal. For modulating the encoded data to transfer multiple orthogonal code sequence Wi(where i=1, 2, 4,..., N). Next, we use the scheme demodulation, which primarily correlates the received signal with each of the potential orthogonal codes and outputs the modulation symbols, which are then converted into potential coded and linking the data to the demodulator. This leads to obtaining energy values for symbol demodulation, which are processed DMM, along with additional values to ensure the presence of bits in the soft decision. Bits of soft decision, in turn, processed, appropriate facing the interleaver and decoder to generate the data. If desired, the length and the Chi is

The preceding description of preferred specific embodiments are intended to give any expert in the art the ability to implement or use the present invention. Various modifications of these specific embodiments will be obvious to a person skilled in the art, and the basic principles defined in the description, can be applied to other specific variants of implementation without the need to use abilities to the invention. Thus, it is necessary to consider the present invention is not as limited to the specific implementation options, and as consistent in its broadest sense here with open principles and new features.

1. The modulation method of the communication signals in the communication system spread spectrum signals in which the information is transferred through the formation of characters encoded data receiving digital communication signals, namely, that form the N orthogonal functions of length n, with a pre-defined recursive relationship with each other, form M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols having a length Ln, using having a pre-defined recursive relationship with each other, where M = N L, N is equal to at least loq2M - the total number of orthogonal functions used to generate modulation symbols, L is the number of orthogonal functions used to generate each individual symbol modulation, convert the encoded symbols of the data in a pre-selected modulation symbols by selecting one of the specified characters modulation in accordance with the binary values for each group of loq2M symbol encoded data.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that M is in the range 2-64.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the communication signals modulate and transmit to subscribers of a communication system in a straight line.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the orthogonal functions are Walsh functions.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the conversion operation is that choose the first orthogonal function for transmitting, when the data symbols in said digital communication signals have the same binary value, and selects the second orthogonal function for transmitting, when the data symbols in said digital communication signals have a second binary value.

6. Sposobnotey orthogonal functions of length n, form a modulation symbol in the first code sequence of length 2n, twice using the specified first orthogonal function, when a couple of characters encoded data in said digital communication signals has a first value, generate a modulation symbol in the second code sequence of length 2n and its inversion, using the specified first orthogonal function, when a couple of characters encoded data in said digital communications signal has a second value, form a symbol modulation as the third code sequence of length 2n, twice using the specified second orthogonal function, when a couple of characters encoded data in said digital communications signal has a third value, form a symbol modulation as the fourth code sequence of length 2n using the specified second orthogonal function and its inversion, when a couple of characters encoded data in said digital communications signal has a fourth value.

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that use pre-selected first, second, third and fourth functions to obtain modulation symbols, and these operations of formation and transformation include znaczenia sets of four characters encoded data, moreover, these code sequences contain four sequences in which the first, second, third and fourth functions are repeated four times, respectively, each in response to one of four values of data-encoded symbols, and three sets of sequences, each in response to one of the twelve values of the characters in encoded data, the first - fourth functions are repeated two times, respectively, and are accompanied by two inversions of these duplicate functions with the relative position of inversions in each sequence in each of these sets, shifted from inversions in other sequences, in order to maintain substantial orthogonality.

8. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the conversion operation includes the operation of feed specified characters encoded data to the device fast Hadamard transform to convert the data symbols in a pre-selected modulation symbols.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the conversion operation includes the operation of feed characters encoded data to the device for storing characters modulation to convert the character data is profiled communication signals from the base station type station pair using at least one relay satellite based on at least one remote subscriber node in said communication system.

11. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the communication system includes radio/information communication system in which remote users are in many cells and transmit information signals from at least one station pair using the signals spread spectrum communications mnogochastichnogo access, code-division multiplexing (MDCRC).

12. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that additionally take a lot of data signals transmitted to the subscribers of the communication system for the individual user channels, and encode each data signal to obtain encoded data symbols for each user channel.

13. Device for modulation of signals in a communications system spread spectrum signals in which the information is transferred through the formation of characters encoded data receiving digital communication signals containing the means of formation of N orthogonal functions of length n, with a pre-defined recursive relationship with each other, the means of formation of M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols of length n using N orthogonal functions and their inverses from a variety of ortho = NL, N, is equal to at least loq2M - the total number of orthogonal functions used to generate modulation symbols, and L is the number of orthogonal functions used to generate each individual symbol modulation conversion tool data-encoded symbols into modulation symbols designed for reception of data-encoded symbols and orthogonal modulation symbols by selecting one of the specified characters modulation in accordance with the binary values for each group of N symbols of the encoded data.

14. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the means of formation of N orthogonal functions contains at least one generator of orthogonal functions, which generates first and second orthogonal functions, respectively, and the means of formation of M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols includes a selector connected to receive the specified data characters and these first and second functions, which responds to the binary value for the specified data characters by selecting the specified first orthogonal functions as the output signal when the specified characters have the same value, and selecting the specified second orthogonal fu is .14, characterized in that it contains generators of the first and second orthogonal functions.

16. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that M is in the range 2-64.

17. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that it further comprises means of transmission of these modulated communication signals to subscribers of a communication system in a straight line.

18. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the said orthogonal functions are Walsh functions.

19. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the conversion tool provides a means of selecting the first orthogonal function for transmitting, when the data symbols in said digital communication signals have the same binary value, and selecting the second orthogonal functions for transmission, when the data symbols in said digital communication signals have a second binary value.

20. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the said means of formation and selection contain at least one generator of orthogonal functions, which generates first and second orthogonal functions of length n, respectively, and a selector connected to receive the specified data characters and these first and second funkciami length 2n for issuing, containing the specified first orthogonal function used twice, when the pair of data symbols in said digital communication signals have a first value, the second code sequence of length 2n for issuing containing the specified first orthogonal function and its inversion, when a pair of data symbols in said digital communication signals has the second value, the third code sequence of length 2n for issuing containing the specified second orthogonal function used twice, when the pair of data symbols in said digital communication signals has a third value, the fourth code sequence of length 2n for issuing containing the specified second orthogonal function and its inversion, when a pair of data symbols in said digital communication signals has a fourth value.

21. The device according to p. 20, characterized in that it contains generators of the first and second orthogonal functions.

22. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the conversion tool provides device fast Hadamard transform, adapted to convert character data in a pre-selected modulation symbols.

23. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that CA receiving the converted character data and issuance of pre-selected modulation symbols.

24. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that it further comprises means of transmission of these modulated communication signals from the base station type station pair using at least one relay satellite based on at least one remote subscriber node in said communication system.

25. The way demodulation of communication signals in the communication system spread spectrum signals in which the information is transferred by the orthogonal coded communication signals, namely, that accept signals in spread spectrum communications, having a common carrier frequency, modulated by M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols having a length Ln, and formed by using N orthogonal functions of length n and their respective inverses, where M=NL, N, is equal to at least loq2M - the total number of orthogonal functions used to generate modulation symbols, and L is the number of orthogonal functions used to generate each individual symbol modulation, enter these signals in at least two groups of N correlators and parallel to correlate these signals with N orthogonal functions of length n, serves korrelirovannye correlated signals to obtain M values of energy, representing each of these M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols, respectively, combine the M values of energy derived from each demodulator, in one set of M values of energy, and convert the specified set of energy values in the data metrics energy through the process of forming the dual maximum metric.

26. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that M is in the range 2-64.

27. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that the subscribers of the communication system adopt the demodulated communication signals in a straight line.

28. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that the said orthogonal functions are Walsh functions.

29. The method according to p. 25, wherein the pre-selected number of orthogonal functions is at least 2 and less than 64.

30. The method according to p. 25, wherein the transmit modulated communication signals from the base station type station pair using at least one relay satellite based on at least one remote subscriber node in said communication system.

31. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that the communication system contains R and transmit information signals by at least one station pair, using the signals spread spectrum communications mnogochastichnogo access, code-division multiplexing (MDCRC).

32. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that it further impose these signals in at least one of the coherent demodulator and demodulator these correlated signals with obtaining at least one amplitude value, combine any received amplitude value of each of the coherent demodulator in a single value of the amplitude and unite the specified set of values of the amplitude and the output signal of the above-mentioned process of forming the dual maximum metric values in a composite metric for character data.

33. Device for demodulation of communication signals in the communication system spread spectrum signals in which the information is transferred by the orthogonal coded communication signals containing means receiving signals, spread spectrum communications, having a common carrier frequency, modulated by M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols having a length Ln, with the use of N pre-selected number of orthogonal functions of length n and their respective inverses, where M= NL, N, is equal to at least loq2M - total number of apolizumab for the formation of each individual symbol modulation at least two groups of N correlators, connected for receiving the above signals, spread spectrum and parallel correlation of these signals with N orthogonal functions of length n, the set of demodulators, each of which is connected to receive the output signals of one of the respective group of correlators to modulate these correlated signals to obtain M values of energy, representing each of these M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols, respectively, means for combining the received M energy values from each demodulator in one set of M values of energy and the conversion of these energy values in metric values of energy through the process of forming the dual maximum metric.

34. The device according to p. 33, characterized in that it contains at least one coherent demodulator connected to receive these signals with spread spectrum and demodulation of these signals to obtain at least one amplitude value, the unifier of amplitude, is connected to receive the output signal of the specified coherent demodulator and combining the received amplitude values of each of the coherent demodulator in a single value am is the process of forming the dual maximum metric and combining them into a composite values of metrics for character data.

35. The device according to p. 34, characterized in that it contains at least two coherent demodulator.

36. The device according to p. 33, wherein the pre-selected number of functions is equal to 64 or less.

37. The device according to p. 33, characterized in that M is in the range 2-64.

38. The device according to p. 33, characterized in that the said orthogonal functions are Walsh functions.

39. The system spread spectrum communications signals containing multiple base stations type of gateways, each of which includes at least one transmitter of the communication signals, which transmits signals containing the data-encoded symbols, the active users of the system, containing many tools of the formation of orthogonal functions, each of which is intended to issue at least one from a set of orthogonal functions of length n, with a pre-defined recursive relationship with each other, the selector N from the specified set of orthogonal functions for each active user in the system, the means of formation of M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols in length Ln for each active user is where M=NL, N, is equal to at least loq2M - the total number of orthogonal functions used to generate modulation symbols, and L is the number of orthogonal functions used to generate each individual symbol modulation conversion tool data-encoded symbols into modulation symbols for each active user of the system to select one of the modulation symbols in accordance with the binary values for each group of N encoded symbols data, many extenders, each of which is connected to the conversion tool for receiving modulation symbols for the respective user and for issuing a data signal spread spectrum, and combining means for combining the modulation symbols, essentially, for all active users, receiving signals on a common carrier, in the communication signal, the set of mobile nodes, each of which includes a receiver mobile communication containing the picker and the reception spread spectrum communications from at least one station pair and the demodulation means connected to the means for receiving and choice for the issuance of modulation symbols for the respective users by demodula the major mobile receivers additionally contain at least two groups of N correlators, connected for receiving the above signals, spread spectrum communications and parallel correlation of these signals with the specified pre-selected number of orthogonal functions of length n, the set of demodulators, each of which is connected to receive the output signals of one of the respective group correlator to demodulate these correlated signals to obtain M output energy values in each demodulator representing each of these M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols, respectively.

41. The generation of the signal spread spectrum communications, namely, that form a set of orthogonal functions of length n, each of which is formed according to the corresponding function of the set of orthogonal functions that accept multiple data signals of the subscribers of the system, containing characters encoded data transmitted active subscribers of the system by a single user channels, form M mutually orthogonal modulation symbols for each channel length Ln using N orthogonal functions from the specified set of orthogonal functions and their inverses, where M=NL, N is at least what acii, convert the encoded symbols of the data for each channel specified in the predefined modulation symbols for this channel by selecting one of the specified characters modulation in accordance with the binary values for each group of N symbol encoded data, the combined modulation symbols for all channels after conversion into a signal of a data-encoded spread spectrum serial data.

42. The method according to p. 41, characterized in that the communication system includes radio/information communication system in which remote users are in many cells and transmit information signals from at least one station pair using the signals spread spectrum communications mnogochastichnogo access, code-division multiplexing (MDCRC).

43. The method according to p. 41, characterized in that M is in the range 2-64.

44. The method according to p. 41, characterized in that it further amplify and transmit the combined data signal spread spectrum.

 

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FIELD: computer science.

SUBSTANCE: system for use with method has first network element 101, second network element 102 and network 103 with commutation of packets between first and second network elements. Method includes transferring groups of packets from first network element 101 via network 103 with commutation of packets to second network element 102, while in second network element at least a portion of sent packets is received. Received packets are transferred from second network element via the net with reverse commutation of packets to first network element as a reaction on receipt of packets in second network element. This is achieved by transferring packet, received by second element, during said reverse transmission, back to first network element only after delay of packet receipt in second network element. Also included are system, network element and computer application for realization of said method.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: communications engineering; transmission and reception of message protected by noise-immune code.

SUBSTANCE: on sending end of communication system data burst is coded by noise-immune code, service information is added to this code and transferred to communication channel. On receiving end frame synchronization of information sequence is made, noise-immune code is separated and decoded. Results of decoding are used to evaluate probability of message reception, and parameters characterizing quality of communication channel are determined. Channel quality is evaluated by average error probability per bit in communication channel and by error grouping coefficient; new length of data burst is chosen considering highest increase in speed of useful information transfer through communication channel.

EFFECT: enhanced speed of useful data transfer through communication channel.

2 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: engaged condition bits of reverse communications line are generated independently by each base station and point out, when base station reaches its peak of bandwidth of reverse communication line. Remote station combines multi-beam components of engagement condition bits of reverse communication line from each of transferring base stations in its active set and accordingly sends signal of reverse communications line, only if all engaged condition bits of reverse communications line point, that base stations in active set of remote station have enough of bandwidth of reverse communications line. Remote station estimates signals of engaged condition of reverse communication line in accordance to level of signal of base station, transferring engaged condition signal, and determines, whether to perform transfer, on basis of estimated total of engaged condition signals.

EFFECT: possible transfer of digital information at high data transfer speeds.

6 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method includes leading transfer of fragment of main portion of packet of code symbols with code symbols frame, while number of repeated queries during synchronous transfer of message, data, separated on data packets with check communication.

EFFECT: higher bandwidth.

6 dwg

FIELD: method and device are claimed for aggregation of packets in wireless communication system.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the invention, the data to be transmitted are selected, combined into packets and generated in form of frames for transmission. Instead of transmitting each frame individually, frames are grouped and transmitted together with grouping marks, notifying receivers about the method which they should use to confirm successful receipt of transmitted data. Receipt confirmation messages are transmitted at predetermined times or all at once, divided by sub-carriers in a variant of orthogonal-frequency division multi-access network.

EFFECT: efficient and reliable transmission of data.

2 cl, 25 dwg

FIELD: physics; communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wireless communication and particularly to real time information adaptive coding in a packet-switching wireless communication system. Real time information adaptive coding in a wireless communication system is carried out based on packet switching. In one embodiment, a speed adaptation module can be made with possibility of receiving local feedback information as well as feedback information received for cut-through transfer of data, related to transfer of data (such as data delay, packet loss, transmission power allowance, channel status, sector loading, amount of buffered data etc) from a wireless access module which is connected to wireless/wired networks, and real time information adaptive coding in accordance with such feedback information.

EFFECT: efficient and high-quality method of providing multimedia services.

30 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method and device are proposed for provision of flexible feedback concerning channel information, where memory is arranged with the possibility to store formats of messages for device, and processor related to memory is configured to select a type of feedback concerning information on communication channel on the basis of message format for device and type of communication sector, to which feedback is sent concerning information about the channel.

EFFECT: provision of feedback for usage of multiple modes of transfer for communication with multiple basic stations with minimisation of resources required to provide for feedback from receiver to transmitter.

35 cl, 9 dwg, 10 tbl

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: indication of error in video data is received from video coder, it is determined whether error happened in video data in return communication line of wireless network between video coder and network device, and errors control is applied in response to error in video data, if error in video data happened not in the return communication line. For instance, indication of error in video data may include the first sequence order (SN) of packet, containing lost data, and it is determined, whether error happened in video data in return communication line, including comparison of the first SN with the second SN of packet, associated with the last error in return communication line.

EFFECT: development of method for errors monitoring in video data, which makes it possible to increase efficiency of video coder.

33 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: averaging, compression or both processes are employed to reduce the number of bits required for transmitting channel quality information.

EFFECT: reduced feedback delays in wireless communication system.

15 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: delivery report recipient is notified whether that report is a partial report for which updates will be received or a complete report for which no updates will be received, by improving the delivery report so that it contains indication whether the report is complete or partial. The sender can use delivery report information to decide, for example, whether to delete the message identifier used to associate the report with the message as unwanted information from the storage device or store the message identifier in order to be able to associate next reports with the message.

EFFECT: improving a message delivery report so that it contains indication whether the report is complete or partial, which provides a mechanism through which the recipient of the report, ie message sender, can be informed whether more reports, such as updated reports associated with the message, can be received.

22 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: broadband cell radio communication systems, possible use for correcting frequency of supporting generator of mobile stations, necessary for provision of coherent message receipt mode.

SUBSTANCE: serial cyclic procedure of estimating mismatch and its compensation uses original algorithm for determining maximum of solving function by two of its values from the area where frequency is undetermined, thus making it possible to decrease frequency mismatch compensation time. Proposed procedure has increased interference resistance, because it uses additional digital supporting signal. Proposed algorithm can function with different, including substantial, values of original frequency mismatch. Algorithm is efficient both at beginning stage (in frequency capture mode) and during following automatic adjustment. Proposed variant of realization of frequency automatic adjustment allows precise adjustment of frequency of supporting generator even in case of very low signal-noise ratio for signal being received.

EFFECT: increased precision of estimation of frequency of input multi-beam signal, including cases with substantial frequency mismatches.

3 cl, 9 dwg

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