The way to protect the area from flooding

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in the construction of protective dams from local soils. The method includes the breakdown of the route, training grounds, construction of trenches, stacking the sections of the screen (SE) - shift benches each subsequent layer to the previous overlap the underlying strips overlying. The screen is constructed from strips of the conveyor belt by stacking SE vertically wide party on a previously laid layers of the seal of a highly porous material, for example mineralovoloknistyh plates or strips of geotextile. The long side is placed along the axis of the dike. In places the conjugation of SE on the amount of overlap and the depth of the trench is placed a vertical layers seal (APU) of the same material. Mat set adjacent to the horizontal layers of the seals on the pair of adjacent solar cell height and at right angles to the incision. SE the upstream tier set, shifting relative to the SCS lower tier on the width of the vertical layers of the seal in the direction of ground slope. The protective dam can build with the screen in two vertical planes on the Sam is wound grassroots slope, for example, in 2 times. The bottom of trenches under the screen have below levels of flooding, for example, 1.0 m dike constructed with cross-device filter prisms, the distance between which can be up to 1500 m Method allows you to protect areas from flooding in any climatic conditions in the absence in the construction area are clayey-loamy soils. 10 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used to protect areas from flooding by the construction of protective dams using local soils.

Known membrane aperture of an earth dam (SU 918383 A class. E 02 B 3/16, publ. 10.04.1988), including enclosed in a sheath of cladding layers, the layer of asphalt. The asphalt-concrete layer made of asphalt concrete mixtures based bitumen emulsion paste containing petroleum bitumen, asbestos powder and water, and cladding layers are made of filter material, such as slag wool.

Disadvantages similar to the following:

1. Impervious diaphragm is made of a multicomponent mixture, incorporating both artificial and natural mater is I.

2. The need for additional technical means for the separate delivery of all components and the preparation of bitumen-emulsion paste, and for delivering it to the place of laying in the aperture.

3. The difficulty of ensuring the same density of bituminous emulsion mixture for delivery to its place of installation in the aperture.

4. The difficulty of ensuring the same density of bituminous emulsion mixtures in depth because its seal is envisaged under the action of gravitational forces, i.e., there is a possibility layered body of the diaphragm vertically, which may lead to differences in its strength characteristics on the vertical axis.

Known separation method of construction of an earth dam with an impervious diaphragm (Provisional recommendations for construction technology impervious diaphragms. Kyiv. Edition NISP of Gosstroy of the USSR, 1969, S. 10-23), including the construction of the body of the dam, the device trench in the dam with simultaneous filling her clay mortar and laying in trench of impervious material.

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the construction operam clay soils.

A known method of construction of an earth dam with a film aperture (A. C. SU 1133331 And 07.01.1985), which includes the construction of the aperture sections in layered backfill soil dams using trenchless stacker with lateral displacement of the track subsequent working movement of the stacker in the direction of the upstream, while the depth of each constructed as a stacker section of the diaphragm is greater than the thickness consistently tsepelovo layer of a dam on the value of the specified overlapping sections of the film aperture. Taken as a prototype.

The disadvantages of the prototype the following:

1. Insufficient mechanical strength of the screen in the construction of the body of the dam from macro-grained rock acute-angled soil.

2. The lack of cut-off reliability, which consists in the assumption filter between the benches.

3. The difficulty of quality control, packing film sections.

The objective of the invention is to develop environmentally safe way to protect the area from flooding, simple in design, reliable in operation, with the possibility of performance in all climatic conditions, in the absence in the construction area are clayey-loamy soils.

The technical result from modulating the particular construction of protective structures they are durable, impervious reliability, convenience in operation.

The essence of the invention: "a Method to protect an area from flooding" is that in a well-known invention is the method of construction of an earth dam with a film aperture, which includes the construction of the aperture sections in layered dumping dirt dam, according to the invention, the pre-selected route invented the trench below the base of the protective dam, and then build a protective dyke screen from strips of the conveyor belt, by stacking sections of the screen vertically wide party on pre-stacked horizontal layers of the elastic seal highly porous material, for example mineralovoloknistyh plates or strips of geotextile felt type, and the long side is along the axis of the dike, and in places the pair of adjacent sections of the screen on the magnitude of overlap and depth of trenches placed vertical layers of the seal of the same material, while the vertical layers of the seal installed adjacent to the horizontal layers of the seal at the junction, between adjacent sections of the screens height and at right angles to the section or sections of the screen upper tier set, its slope, at the areas of the proposed flooding with a constant wave activity, in terms of storm surges and storm weather protective dam erected with the screen in two vertical planes located at a distance from each other equal to the width of the crest of the dike, and the height of screen top of a slope twice the height of the screen, ground slope, and the bottom of the trench under the screen have below marks the average expected level of flooding on the value of one meter, at the areas located near water bodies, protective dams constructed upstream manner, with the arrangement of the transversal filter of the prisms, spaced from each other depending on the slope of the surface topography of the base of the dam and components up to 1500 m

The construction of the screen from strips of the conveyor belt by stacking sections of the screen vertically wide party on pre-stacked horizontal layers of the elastic seal highly porous material, for example from mineralovoloknistyh plates or strips of geotextile felt type, and the long side is along the axis of the dike, and in places the pair of adjacent sections of the screen on the magnitude of overlap and the depth of the trenches is Oh reliability, because the conveyer belt does not filter through the water. Because the conveyor belt is produced in the form of rolls, it is possible to mechanize the process of installing strips of screens that reduce the time of construction of check dams in the present invention. Use as a seal highly porous elastic mineralovoloknistyh plates or strips of geotextile felt type will allow for a short period of time to Sakaiminato porous space seal suspended solids filtration flow, turning them into anti-filtration screen, which ultimately will increase impervious reliability of protective dams in the present invention. Laying seal highly porous elastic materials horizontally directly beneath the strip conveyor belt, and at the junction, between adjacent sections of the screen on the magnitude of overlap and depth of trenches vertical layers seal of the same material will ensure a tight fit of the seal to the surrounding soil and to the plane of the screen, and together with clogging of the porous space of the seal will increase impervious reliability, and hence reliable way to protect an area from flooding. The way the places mates adjacent sections of the screen height, increase path filtering baseflow through the layers of seals and their fastest colmatation than is provided by a higher cutoff reliability of the present invention. The offset sections of the screen upper layer relative to the sections of the screen located below the stage on the width of the vertical sealing layers will further increase impervious reliability of the screen, as due to the vertical arrangement of layers of compaction increases the total path of movement of seepage flow that will facilitate more intensive clogging of the porous space of the seals, and also due to the fact that the elastic properties of the seal allow tightly to clothe even small particles of soil or unevenness (roughness) of the conveyor belt, which will eliminate the free infiltration and movement of water contacts the soil body constructed dike - seal, the ground walls and bottom of the trench - seal and seal - adjacent side of the conveyor belt, the pair together will contribute to the increase in impervious reliability screen protective dams, and hence increase the reliability of the method of protecting the public from Tenkan trenches and soil body protective dams and planes of the conveyor belt in the areas of overlaps and mates and sediments in the process of consolidation of the soil body protective dam during its construction and operation will ensure the structural integrity of the screen therefore, the increase in impervious reliability. Due to the fact that the sealing material does not rot, it is used in the construction of screen protective dams will increase the longevity of protective dams. The offset sections of the screen above the stage on the width of the vertical layers of the seal in the direction of ground slope due to the small thickness of the layers of the seal will ensure the construction of the screen at a slight distance from the edge of the ridge that will minimize the impact of dynamic loads from road construction equipment during construction and during operation, and therefore, will increase the reliability of the screen and the protective dam, thereby improving the reliability of way to protect the area from flooding. The construction of protective dams with the screen in two vertical planes located at a distance from each other in places supposedly flooded with a constant wave activity, in terms of storm surges and storm weather will increase the path bypass filtration due to the rounding of the bottom of the screen, located in the inner trench relative to the reservoir, then through the path within the body of the dam is the compared to the reservoir, that will greatly reduce the pressure of the filtration flow and eliminate out on a day surface seepage, and also reduce the height of the flooding prepodavanii layers of the body of the dam, which ultimately will increase impervious reliability of protective dams and in General the present invention. Two vertical plane of the screen, located at a distance from each other equal to the width of the crest of the dike in terms of wave action, storm surges and storm weather, will provide an impervious reliability even in case of partial damage or destruction of the internal plane of the screen relative to the reservoir, which significantly increases impervious reliability dike. The height of the screen top of a slope that exceeds the screen height grassroots slope twice, will require less material costs for the construction of the protective screens of the dam, which will significantly reduce both the construction time and the total cost of the construction of protective dams without reducing impervious reliability, because the slope of the surface of the soil flow is below the surface of the screen downstream of the slope. The location of the soles of trenches below average marks Pei screen, provide sufficient reducing baseflow, which will eliminate full water saturation of the body of the protective dam, thus increasing deformation properties of the soil body protective dams and preventing seepage on the surface at low water, thus ensuring durability and increased impervious reliability of protective dams and inventions in General. Protective dams in the areas near the reservoirs built upstream manner, with the arrangement of the transversal filter of the prisms spaced from each other, will more rapidly increase the body's protective levees, because most large suspended particles of soil will be delayed filter prisms in the body of the dike, and the silt particles will be diverted from the flow of water beyond the alluvial area of the protective dam, thereby increasing the carrying capacity of the protective dam. Distance up to 1500 m between transverse filter prisms along the axis of the dam, its length will reduce the cost of construction of protective dams by reducing the number of transversal filter prisms, especially in areas ravninnoe dam screen perform in two planes with a distance between them, equal to the width of the dam that leads to increased impervious reliability by increasing the path filter under the bottom of the dam. Seal of highly porous elastic material in the places of articulation in the clogging of pores suspended solids filtration flow quickly turns into a waterproof screen. In hydraulic engineering is widely known dams and levees with two or more vertical grooves, however, known in the dams, the dams they are made of concrete, Zhelezobeton, clay materials, in the form of ice and cement curtains, metal or wooden dowels, etc. materials. According to the invention, the screens in two planes constructed from sections of the conveyor belt, and tightness of the connection section of the screen with the Foundation and each other in horizontal and vertical planes is provided by the seal layer of highly porous elastic material, placed at the base of the sections of the screen and into the gaps between adjacent sections, which allows the construction of protective screens dams in areas with no local clay-loam soils. Known seal butt joints of the covering earth Ottosen T-shaped in cross-section of the individual, interconnected by means of adhesive mastic layers of e-glass, to which the junction to the plates glued a layer of mineral wool felt. In the claimed as the invention the seal is produced without the use of layers of fiberglass and adhesive mastic and seal the joints of adjacent sections are in the form of a right angle in cross section, i.e., has a completely different design and geometric shape in comparison with the known seal. Also known filter for moisture and prevent particles from peat soil mixture layer drainage layer made of a polymeric film or of glass fibre mats (In the book "building Construction, building physics. Abstract information. Gosstroy of the USSR, vol.9, Moscow, 1976). In a known highly porous filter material fiberglass use with horizontal stacking between layers of soil in areas of greenery in urban areas at depths of 0.15-0.5 m to protect from rainfall and irrigation water. In the proposed same the invention the sealing of the joints of the strips of the screen is from a highly porous layers, arranged in the form of a right angle in cross section, i.e., has a different geometric shape in section. Widely known from practice facilities per the fast transversal filter prism maps for reclamation, but in the famous dams, filter, prism performs at a distance not exceeding 500 m In the claimed the same invention, the distance between adjacent filter prisms depending on the slope reaches 1500 m, which significantly reduces the time of construction of check dams. Thus, the discussed claimed similar signs perform other functions in comparison with the known or the same functions, but with different parameters or quantities and geometric shapes, allowing you to obtain a new technical result consists in increasing the durability of the grout reliability of the dam, reducing construction time, the maximum utilization of local building materials, which demonstrates the compliance of the proposed facility to the criterion of "inventive step".

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 shows a protective earthen dam with a single plane of the screen in the section. In Fig.2 shows a protective earthen dam with two planes of the screen cross section (option). In Fig.3 shows a scheme of the construction of protective earth dam upstream type (option).

Protective earth dam (Fig.1) includes a trench 1, seal 2 thickness of 10-2 is full-time type the plane of the screen 3, made of sections of the conveyor belt or elastic waterproof, durable polymer materials, protective horse thrust prism 4 from rough soil macro-grained rock, grass-roots thrust prism 5, is made of macro-grained rock material (boulder, and gravel soil, gravel or sand-gravel mixtures), the body 6 of the dam from local soils, pavements 7, made of gravel with a grain size up to 40 mm and having a convex Crescent-shaped.

In Fig.2 shows a protective earthen dam with two planes of the screen (option), which illustrates the trench 1, seal 2, a screen 3, a protective horse thrust prism 4, downstream protective prism 5, the body of the dam 6 of the local soils, road clothing 7.

In Fig. 3 shows a diagram of the protective earth dam upstream type (variant), which illustrates the plane of the screen 2, the internal resistant protective prism 4, external, hard prism 5, the body of the dam 6, road clothing 7, cross filter lens 8 of the macro-grained rock filter soils, dredge 9, main slurry line 10, distributing slurry line 11, of metal pipes laid on horodowich supports (not shown), releases water-sand slurry shall protect the area from flooding protective dirt dam, displayed in Fig. 1, is performed in the following sequence.

First on the planned route of the dike along the coastline construct trench 1 depth of not less than 0.5 m from the surface of the flooded area and 1.0 m from the projected flood level mechanized with the use of bucket, auger, rotary, chain, plough and other trenchers. After the construction of trench 1 at the bottom of the horizontally stacked layers of the seal 2 of mineralovoloknistyh plates (mats) or strips of geotextile felt type, then horizontally stacked layers seal 2 set manually or by mechanical means section of the screen 3 vertically wide side and the long side is along the axis of the dike, in the gap between the vertically defined sections of the screen and the inner wall of the trench relative to the reservoir stack layers seal 2 at right angles to the horizontal, the previously laid layers seal, and the gap between the inner wall of the trench 1 about the axis of the dam and the wall section of the screen 3 fall asleep previously excavated from the trench 1 soil with subsequent compaction. Next, using automoviles equipment or scraper occiput both internal and protect what taneem (compacting) pneumococcal various modifications or reusable drilling loaded trucks. Before compacting the filled ground level by the graders. Sections of the screen in a vertical position during construction of the protective layers of the dam is kept vertical posts made of wood or scraps of metal fittings or pipes of small diameter (not shown). A heaping items 4,5,6 protective dam first tier terminate at a height below the top section of the screen 3 by the value of 0.25-0.30 m for reliable coupling adjacent sections of the screen 3 in the vertical plane. The distance from the top of the first tier earthen body 6 of the protective dam to the top sections of the screen less than 0.25 m will not provide a sufficiently reliable joint seal 2 adjacent sections of the screen 3 in the vertical plane, and a distance greater than 0.3 m, will lead to increased consumption of materials and therefore the cost of construction and all protective measures. After the construction of the first tier at the junction of the surface of the soil body 6 of the protective dam to the top section of the screen 3 flush with the inner side relative to the long axis of the protective dam horizontally stacked layers seal 2 with a width of stripes not exceeding 0.25 m Number of layers of the seal 2 is prescribed depending on the size of particles of soil, placed in the body of the dam, and shall indicate the section of the screen 3 vertically wide party, strengthening them in a vertical position by means of vertical posts made of wood, metal reinforcement or scraps of metal pipes (not shown) fixed in the soil in contact with the top sections of the screen 3 from the side of the reservoir, watercourse. Section of the screen is attached to the vertical posts using annealed wire and pre-done in sections of the screen 3 holes (not shown), and then in the gap between the top of the screen 2 sections of the lower tier serving over the earthen body 6 and the bottom section of the screen 3 of the upper tier, stack seal 2 of the elastic layers of highly porous material, and the bottom of the vertically stacked layers adjacent to the horizontally stacked layers at right angles. Next, produce a heaping parts 4,5,6 protective earth dam by the method described above in dumping of the first tier. All subsequent tiers are increasing by the same procedure. The top tier occiput device pavement 8 power up to 15 cm, Crescent-shaped pieces of gravel size up to 40 mm the Building protective earth dam completed.

The way to protect the area from flooding after the construction of the dam is as follows.

Approaching frooi prism 4, parallel to the long axis of the protective embankments to protect against wave action construct a breakwater in the form of riprap from krupnovesovogo next to the water-insoluble rocks, waste concrete and concrete environmentally friendly building designs, etc., building materials, taking into account the fact that the depth of submergence below the average forecast level will not exceed one meter, and temporary with regard to storm surges of about 2.5 m To reduce the longitudinal and transverse velocities and reduce the impact of wave action on the protective dam, between the protective seawall and breakwater are sown or planted water-loving vegetation (reed, cane, willow and so on). With the increasing of water level above the base of the screen protective dams will form of filtration flow in the direction of protected areas through the body of the dam. As the movement of seepage water will wash fine sandy and silty-clay particles of the hard inner protective prisms 4, and to transport them into highly porous space of the layers of the seal 2, made of layers mineralovoloknistyh plates (mats or geotextile felt type, carrying out such treatment is the use of protective dams, bypassing this screen 3 below the bottom of the trench 1, extending thus the path of the filter, resulting in a decrease of the pressure filtration flow in the body of the dam and outlet baseflow on the surface of the protected territory. The invention according to variant (Fig. 1) can be used to protect areas from inundation during flood all coastal flooded parts of the valleys of streams and ponds.

The way to protect the area from flooding protective dirt dam, shown in Fig.2, is as follows. Along the coastline, on the planned route being constructed parallel to the two vertical trench 1 on the distance between them equal to the width of the dam. Later in the trench, on their bottom horizontally stacked layers of the seal 2 of the highly porous mineralovoloknistyh plates or strips of geotextile felt type, then on the previously laid horizontally layers seal 2 install section of the screen 3 vertically wide party, when this section of the screen 3 in a vertical position supported by vertical posts made of wood, metal rod or piece of pipe (Fig.2 is not shown). After installation of the sections of the screen 3 in trench 1 in the gap between Scania 2 thus, in place of articulation of horizontal and vertical layers seal is formed a structure in the form of a right angle. Then in the gap between the walls of the trench 1 and the vertical layers of the seal 2 fall asleep earlier excavated soil with subsequent compaction. Then using automoviles and grab technique occiput internal protective hard the prism 4, the external thrust prism 5 from macro-grained rock material (okoly rocks, boulders, pebbles, gravel and other), occiput the body of the dam 6. Dumping lead layers. Power layers 3 m After filling each layer perform levelling and layout grader and dozer equipment from compacting pneumococcal or multiple passage of loaded vehicles. Filling the first tier end at a height less the height of the sections of the screen 3 first tier 0.3 m Then the surface of the body of the dam 6, at the junction of the bottom section of the screen 3 stacked horizontal layers seal 2 wide bands of 0.3 m, then at a distance of 0.2 m from the bottom section of the screen towards the bottom of the pool is installed vertically next section of the screen 3, fixing them in a vertical position by means of vertical columns and annealed wire (Fig. 2 does not show the s layers of the seal 2. Then the above scheme continue to build internal protective hard prism 4, external hard prism 5 and the body of the dam 6. After dumping the last tier on top of the body of the dam 6 occiput pavements 7 with a capacity of up to 0.15 m convex Crescent shape of the rocky soil with sizes up to 40 mm At the top of the inner plane of the screen 3 should be at levels exceeding the mark of storm surges or wave heights, and the height of the outer plane of the screen 3 is half the screen height of the inner plane. Ends of the building protective earth dam by filling the breakwater of the shaft krupnovesovogo material at a distance of about 20 m from the dam in the direction of flow (reservoir) and planting (planting) water-loving vegetation between the dam and the breakwater. The building protective earth dam completed.

The way to protect the area after the construction of the dam (Fig.2) is as follows.

As the water level rises within the water body (pond) water filtration flow begins to move towards protective earth dam, carrying suspended particles, which collateral porous space of the seal 2, made of highly porous to mineralogists bypassing the inner bottom plane of the screen 3 below the bottom of the trench 1 with a pressure loss of filtration flow. Further filtration flow with less pressure reaching the plane of the filter 3 downstream slope when filtering through the seal 2 screen 3, collateral its suspended particles, forming therein a shielding layer. At the same filtration flow at a lower pressure bypasses the screen 3 below the base of the outer trench 1, again reducing the pressure of the flow, which will eliminate the release of seepage to the surface. Because the crest of the dike is covered with pavement 8 of rubble, and its width is equal, as a rule, 8 m allows the traffic, the protective dam in the period of operation should be used in the initial period as the audit of the road, then after compaction and filling of the dam up to the design level road can be translated to a higher category with improved road surface.

This variant (Fig.2) protective earth dam can be used to protect areas from flooding when the level of the Caspian sea, and to protect areas from inundation by flood waters along rivers and water bodies during construction of the protective groundwater dams for storage organization slimes, tailings beneficiation and metallurgical enterprises, dumps and other series from flooding.

The proposed method provides for protection from flooding of coastal areas of the Caspian sea.

The essence of the problem. For 60 years the retreat of the sea free from water drying gradually developed and built. Currently, there is a rise of the water level in the Caspian sea and, accordingly, there is a flooding of large areas, including residential. In the published article (Hydraulic engineering No. 11 November 1997, in the section "Ecology and hydraulic engineering", Art. "the Problem of the Caspian sea level fluctuations" Ed. D. the so-called aserin A. E. p. 1-9), in paragraph 2 of the conclusions reported: "In the foreseeable future, a possible position of the average annual level of the Caspian limited marks minus 26 - 30 m abs."

The way to protect the coastal areas of the Caspian sea is envisaged as follows.

To protected areas along the coastline with the mark of the land surface minus 26 abs. m construct the inner and outer trench 1 at a distance equal to the width of the dam, allowing the use of the dam after construction as the revision of the road width of the road is usually 8.0 m), a depth of 0.5 m or more, i.e., to minus 26.5 m and width 0.5 m, the voice of geotextile felt type which set of partition strips of the screen 3 from the conveyor belt or waterproof elastic films, strips of high strength polymeric materials, and then in the gap between the inner walls of the trenches 1 and sections of the screen 3 from the side of the reservoir stack vertical layers seal 2 so that the vertical layers when laying them on the previously stacked horizontal layers seals were linked at right angles to the incision, then the gap between the screen 3 and the external walls of the trench 1 relative to the reservoir fall asleep soil removed during the excavation of trenches 1 and subsequent compaction. The vertical stacking of the sections of the screen when the construction is achieved by mounting sections of the screen 3 wire to a vertical metal or wooden poles fixed in the ground (not shown). Then with the help of dumping equipment or autorepeat occiput ground parts 4,5,6 dam. Internal protective hard the prism 4 occiput of macro-grained rock or block of material, the outer thrust the prism 5 and the body 6 of the dam occiput from local soils and construction materials of different particle size distribution. The dumping ground parts of the dam are simultaneously on all fronts I or penetration of loaded vehicles. Before you seal the surface of the soil, laid in a constructive elements 4, 5, 6 dams, level and plan-graders or bulldozers. Finish construction of the first tier of the dam at a height less the height of the top of the screen 3 0.25-0.30 m, i.e. on the magnitude of overlap of adjacent sections of the screen 3 in the vertical direction. Then aligned on the surface of the body of the protective dam 6 in contact with the vertical section of the screen 3 of the lower layer, pressing firmly to her, placed horizontally layers seal 2 of mineralovoloknistyh plates or strips of geotextile, and then seal 2 stack vertical section of the screen 3, further into the gap between the top of the lower section and the bottom subsequent sections stacked vertically layers of the seal 2 on the previously stacked horizontal layers at right angles. Next, the dumping ground parts of the dam 4, 5, 6 carry out as and when the construction of the bottom tier. Completed the construction of protective dams by dumping its crest road service 7 riprap layer thickness up to 15 cm with a grain size up to 40 mm convex Crescent shape. At a distance of 20 m from the inner protective hard prism 7 in the side of the pond and parallel to the dam carry out the construction of salesasia of stone-hat sketches with weight atdnet (reed, reed, willow, and others).

The construction of the dam is completed.

At the bottom of the screen 2 is located at minus 26.5 abs. m and its top at minus 22.75 abs. m the Maximum height of the dike above the earth's surface marked 26.0 abs. m will be 3.25 m and in areas with higher elevations of the relief it will be much lower. With the beginning of the flooding this method will provide a reliable membrane protecting the area from flooding. On crossing protective dam watercourses suit lapels along the shoreline upstream and across the stream arrange bridge crossings of collector type. In the construction of protective earth dams should be possible to use the existing positive landforms, exceeding the mark of minus 26 abs. m, which will significantly reduce the cost and construction time. It is also necessary to maximize the use for building protective ground dams existing embankment existing roads and Railways, using them as body protective dams with the device screen by the above methods in one or two planes on both sides, or alternatively with one hand, which will significantly reduce the cost of the TCA 25.5 m is 0.5 m, and given Nagorno-storm phenomena of 2.7 m At flooding to the level of 26.0 abs. m the water pressure will be zero and the dam will protect the territory only from storm surges (currently flooding of lowland areas of the Caspian depression in the period of surge waves up to 20 km inland of the coastal zone).

Variant (Fig. 3). The method to protect the building protective earth dam upstream type. This option involves the construction of trench 1 under the plane of the screen 3 at a distance from each other, the seal 2 of the highly porous mineralovoloknistyh materials, in the screen plane 3, horseback resistant protective prism 4, grassroots resistant prism 5, the body of an earth dam 6, pavement 7, the transversal filter of the prism 8, the dredger 9, main slurry line 10, distributing slurry line 11, poliovirus 12 of corrugated hoses with a diameter of 100 mm with stoppers (not shown), characterized in that in order to speed up construction and reduce construction costs in areas close to water bodies, watercourses during the construction of the protective earth dam, perpendicular to its long axis, at a distance from each other construct a filter prism for the detention of the largest particles in the bag filter prisms ranges from a few up to 1500 m depending on the length of the constructed upstream of the dam and the slope of the terrain of the coastal strip. The diameters and the length of the main slurry line 10 and the distribution of the slurry line 11 made depending on the performance of the dredger and slopes slopes above slurry pipeline.

The method of construction of the alluvial soil of the dam is as follows. First, along the coastal strip on the planned highway construction trench 1 at a distance from each other in depth not less than 0.5 m from the surface topography and 1.0 m from the average predicted flood level without taking into account Nagorno-wind effect, such as the coastal zone of the Caspian sea from the mark of the relief 26 abs. m, then on the bottom of the trench 1 (not shown) horizontally stacked layers of the seal 2 of mineralovoloknistyh plates, mats, strips of geotextile felt type, later in trench 1 on pre-Packed seal 2 sets vertical section of the screen 3 from the conveyor belt or waterproof, durable, elastic polymer film, providing a vertical position by means of the vertical posts fixed in the ground made of wood, metal reinforcement or scraps of small diameter pipes (not shown). After installation of the screen 3 in the gap between the inner wall of the trench relative to the reservoir and the wall of the screen 3 of the criminal code is e, the space between the inner wall of trench 1 and the strip section of the screen 3 fall asleep earlier excavated from the trench with soil compaction. Then using dump or scraper equipment occiput layers with a capacity of 0.3 m with advanced leveling and layout-graders or bulldozers followed by compaction pneumococcal or heavy-duty vehicles occiput horse-resistant protective prism 4 and lower thrust prism 5 from macro-grained rock soil or construction material. Simultaneously with the start dumping grassroots resistant protective prism 4 and horseback resistant prism 5 occiput transversal filter prism 8, and mounted dredge 9 within the coastal zone of the reservoir, mount the main slurry line 10, distributing slurry line 11 with pulpotomy editions 12 of flexible, rubberized corrugated hoses with a diameter of 100 mm with stoppers (not shown) for reclamation of the body of the dam 6. Slurry lines mounted on wooden piles or horodowich supports (Fig.2 is not shown). Pulp, being filtrated through a highly porous material seal 2 screen 3, collateral these pores suspended particles of the pulp, making these materials in a waterproof screen, while the main flow of the pulp is directed along the dam on the natural slope of the dam, depositing most large particles along the path d is filtering through that prism linger under her small particles, except for the most thin and muddy sediment. The transversal filter of the prism 8 is also carried out afflux filtration flow of the pulp, which dramatically reduces the rate of flow, which ultimately leads to an increase in the rate of increase of the body of the dam. The clarified water with silt particles is given outside of alluvial land (maps reclamation), along the route of the dam down to the terrain through the cross filter lens 8, landfilling of macro-grained rock of the local soils. After reclamation of the first tier of the dam and seal alluvial soils produce the capacity for the next level according to the method described above with the only difference that the body 6 of the dam in this case constructed by reclamation. After the construction of the last tier in the upper part of occiput pavements 7 of gravel with grain size up to 40 mm convex, Crescent-shaped in profile, with a capacity of up to 15 cm, thus forming the crest of the dam. After reclamation the first card build further on the above-described technology to complete the construction of the proposed site.

The construction of protective dams upstream type is completed.

The height of the dam in the surface elevations of the earth, equal to 26 abs. m, swenne to decrease. The magnitude of the pressure upstream of the flooding of the territory up to the level of 25.5 abs. m is 0.5 m (excluding storm surges). The amount of pressure with regard to storm surges be $ 2.7 m

The protective dam upstream type is as follows.

During floods the water level rises above the base of the protective dam, with filtration flow will form the shielding layer in the seal 2 screen 3 clogging highly porous space mineralovoloknistyh plates or strips of geotextile suspended particles of the pulp, then filtration flow will be directed to bypass the bottom of the screen 2 with a decrease in pressure. Then filtration flow, having met on his way the outer surface of the screen 3, will bypass the filter under the bottom of the trench 1 screen 3, reducing the secondary pressure flow, which ultimately prevents the release of groundwater to the ground surface with the outer side of the dike.

Characteristics of some types mineralovoloknistyh products.

GOST - 9573-96 produced mineral wool four grades (P-75-1000.5000.50; P-125-1000.500.50; P-175-1000.500.50; P-225-1000.500.50), where P - plate:

75 - volumetric weight plates, kg/m3;

1000 - length PLP-75 - 20; P - 125 - 12; P - 175-4.

Compressibility after sorption moisture (%) max:

P-75-26; P-125 -16; P-175-6.

Water absorption in % by weight - not more than 30.

PH pH 4 and more.

Note. By agreement with the consumer is allowed to make plates of other sizes. At the Norilsk mining and metallurgical combine plant mineral wool products are often made of slabs with a length of 2.0 m and a width of 1.0 m

When using plates harmful factors are dust mineral fibers and volatile components of the synthetic binder: a pair of phenol, formaldehyde and ammonia.

For respiratory protection must be applied respirator SHB-1 "LEPESTOK" according to GOST 12.4.028, gauze bandages and other dust respirators. For skin protection use protective clothing and gloves in accordance with standard norms. Transported products made of mineral wool by all modes of transport on pallets packages, Packed with paper or plastic film, as well as in covered wagons. The dimensions of the transport packets, suitable for transportation vehicles of all kinds, must comply with the requirements of GOST-24597. Plate during transportation dollars is S="ptx2">

In the Far North and remote areas Packed plates shall be supplied in wooden crates according to GOST 18051.

In accordance with GOST 21880-94, Ministry of Russia, Moscow, mineral wool mats are made of three types (M1, M2, M3), where M1 - brand Mat.

Mats M1 is made without okladnykh materials using for insulation work at temperatures of insulated structures from minus to plus 180 700oS. mats mark M2 as okladnykh materials using a metal mesh, fiberglass brand TKT with the temperature of the insulated structures to 700oC. M3 as okladnykh materials used fabric, mesh, canvas, non-woven, material fiberglass with the temperature of the insulated structures up to 400oC.

The nominal dimensions of the mats M1-100-1000.500.60 GOST 21880-94:

where 100 is the volumetric weight, kg/m3;

Length from 1000 to 6000 mm with an interval of 5000 mm;

Width - 500; 1000 mm;

The thickness of the- 40; 50; 60; 70; 80; 100; 120 mm

The conveyer belt comes in rolls (coils) with a length of 100 m and a width of from 800 to 2000 mm (In book A. I. Basov Mechanical equipment and processing factories of heavy non-ferrous metals, M, metallurgy, 1984, S. 14).

2. The increase in impervious reliability at the expense of the device screen in two planes.

3. Increase of ecological safety by eliminating filtering through the body of the dam.

4. The declining groundwater levels in the downstream due to the increase in path filter from the top of the water in the bottom associated with the device screen in two planes at a distance from each other.

5. Improving the sustainability of the dam is due to the fact that the protective prisms made of coarse materials with high strength and deformation properties, but also due to the spread form the protective dam, ensuring its high stability.

6. Reduced construction time and cost reduction at the expense of high mechanization of construction activities and use of local soils and construction materials.

7. The presence of suspended particles in the filtration flow increases the rate of formation of the shielding layer in a highly porous layers seal screens.

8. Because mineralovoloknistye plates are manufactured from chemically neutral rocks, they will be neutral to rot, corrosion, teach planes at a distance from each other on the width of the carriageway of the road will provide the durability and reliability of protective dams even accidental destruction of the internal screen.

10. Because the crest of the dike is simultaneously used as roads, increased reliability due to the possibility of a quick inspection of the dam, and especially after stormy weather and to take urgent measures to repair the dam if it is damaged.

11. Solved a major social problem, to avoid the eviction of residents from flooded areas.

12. Solved the environmental problem, as expressed in the protection of not only residential areas but also cemeteries, burial sites, municipal landfills, etc.

1. The way to protect the area from flooding, including the construction of protective dams of local soils, which provide a breakdown of the route, training grounds, the excavation of trenches, laying sections of the screen with offset benches each subsequent layer to the previous overlap the underlying strips overlying, wherein the screen is constructed from strips of the conveyor belt by stacking sections of the screen vertically wide party on pre-stacked horizontal layers of the elastic seal highly porous material, for example, mineralovoloknistyh plates or strips of geotextile felt type, as long trench vertical stack layers of the seal of the same material.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the vertical layers of the seal, set adjacent to the horizontal layers of the seal at the junction, between adjacent sections of the screen height and at a right angle in the cut.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that section of the screen upper tier set shifting relative to the sections below tier on the width of the vertical layers of the seal in the direction of ground slope.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that to increase impervious reliability in areas supposedly flooded with a constant wave activity in the conditions of storm surges and storm weather, the protective dam erected with the screen in two vertical planes located at a distance from each other.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the plane of the screen placed at a distance from each other equal to the width of the crest of the dike.

6. The method according to p. 4 or 5, characterized in that the height of the screen top of the slope is made greater than the height of the screen downstream of the slope.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the height of the screen top of the slope accept two times the height of the screen grassroots jednego the expected level of flooding.

9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the bottom of the trench under the screen have below average expected level of flooding of 1.0 m

10. The method according to p. 1 or 4, characterized in that to increase the speed of construction on the parcels located near water bodies, protective dams constructed upstream manner, with the arrangement of the transversal filter of the prisms spaced from each other along the axis of the dam along its length.

11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the distance between the transversal filter prisms along the axis of the dam along its length to accept a value of up to 1500 meters

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used for storage in the gidrootvalov industrial waste, such as ash and slag thermal power plants, tailings radioparadise

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used for storage of industrial waste, such as ash and slag thermal power plants, tailings radioparadise

The invention relates to the mining industry

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used for the storage of granular waste businesses within the area occupied by the hydraulic mine dump long-term storage of waste

Drive aqueous waste // 2157869
The invention relates to hydro-technical construction, but rather to the drives aqueous waste, emergency flow which represents a danger to communities, enterprises and/or the environment

The invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely for the construction of earth dam from permafrost veil in the body and cause

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular can be used to combat pollution of the atmosphere by dust and gas, water, chemical elements, which are washed by rains, as well as to restore the natural landscape disturbed areas

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in the final stages of construction of a dam with a clay membrane element

Hydraulic structure // 2140485
The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used in the construction of the dam from local materials, which can pass flood costs through its crest and downstream slope

Dam // 2126868
The invention relates to hydraulic construction and is intended for use in mining enterprises in the construction of tanks and ground materials

The invention relates to hydraulic construction, in particular to methods of struggle with filtering cut through the bottom and the surface slopes, such as canals, drainage ditches, or in the conduct of mining operations

The invention relates to hydraulic construction

The invention relates to the construction of underground drives, in particular to methods for reducing seepage leaks from the drive, created for the collection of waste drilling fluids, drill cuttings and drilling wastewater

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular can be used to combat pollution of the atmosphere by dust and gas, water, chemical elements, which are washed by rains, as well as to restore the natural landscape disturbed areas

The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and can be used in mining industry and construction for the protection of watercourses from pollution filtration wastewater and waste management of industrial enterprises

Dam // 2123556
The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in the construction of the dams from local materials in harsh environments, as well as reconstruction of the tip of such dams

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely, waterproofing objects of type dams at their repair

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, namely, the elements to isolate the storage of waste from the environment

An earthen dam // 2090694
The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and can be used in the construction of earth dam with diaphragms made of plastic material, preferably asphalt

The invention relates to hydraulic construction, namely, devices for hydraulic storage of granular waste
Up!