Dental probe

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to medical equipment and can be used in dentistry in the diagnosis of caries. Dental probe contains a metal rod with a tip and a handle connected with the receiver of acoustic signals. The receiver output is connected to a frequency filter, the bandwidth of which more than 10,000 Hz. The input of the display unit with the indicator connected to the output of the frequency filter, and the output is the output of the probe. The invention makes it possible to objectively evaluate the mechanical properties of dentin and to increase the reliability of the diagnosis. 12 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to medical equipment and can be used in dentistry in the diagnosis of caries.

Known dental probe, consisting of a thin rod with a handle (see , for example, U.S. patent N 4886454, publ. 12.12.89 and U.S. patent N 5725373, publ. 10.03.98). Such devices are used in dentistry for determining the state of the gums, periodontal disease, etc., the Main disadvantage of this device is the inability of its use in the diagnosis of caries due to the fact that a thin rod made of soft plastic.

Known the terms and definitions, edited by AK. B. C. Petrovsky, a Small Soviet encyclopedia, 1982, T. 1, S. 395). The main disadvantage of this device is the low reliability of determining the extent of the carious lesion dentin. Diagnosis of caries using such a probe as follows: physician, moving the tip of the probe on the sample surface the so-called pigmented dentin and pressing it firmly to the surface, based on a subjective analysis of their visual, tactile and auditory sensations evaluates the hardness of the dentin, which is directly linked to the degree of caries lesion. As a rule, the darker color and less than the hardness of the dentin, the greater the degree of caries lesion. The subjective nature of diagnosis determines the main disadvantage of dental probes, namely a high probability of setting an incorrect diagnosis of the condition of bone tissue.

Closest to the proposed device and adopted for the prototype is a device for ultrasonic detection of dental caries (UK Application PCT W095/04506 publ. 16.02.95) containing metal rod with a sharp object, the transmitter and receiver of ultrasound, a source of electrical power,SIC partition (enamel-dentine, the dentin-pulp) and from defects in tooth ultrasonic signal. Thus, the possibility of close contact ultrasound radiating surface of the device and the surface of the tooth. This method of detection is quite effective. However, this device is very difficult and expensive. In addition, the result of the detection depends on the sound resistance of the contact layer that inevitably arise between the ultrasound radiating surface of the device and the surface of the tooth, which in turn depends on the topography of the tooth and effort with which radiant pad is pressed against the tooth. Control the values of these parameters in the device is not provided, which reduces the reliability of detection.

The problem to which this invention is directed, is to increase the reliability of the result and speed of diagnosing the condition of dentin without substantial increase in the cost of the procedure.

This task is solved through achieving a technical result, which is more objective assessment of the mechanical properties of dentin, which is manifested in the interaction of the tip of the probe with the surface of the examined tissue.

Specified technical resultou, fastened with a receiver of acoustic signals, the display unit including a display, a receiver of acoustic signals connected to the input of frequency filter with a bandwidth of over 10000 Hz, and the input of the display unit connected to the output of the frequency filter, and the output is the output of the probe.

The display unit includes the electronic key and the source of electrical power, and the control input of the electronic key is an input of the display unit, and an indicator connected to the power source via the electronic key.

The display unit may include sequentially electrically connected amplitude selector indicator, and a source of electrical power connected to the power input of the amplitude selector, and an indicator connected to the output of the amplitude selector.

Additionally, the output of the receiver of acoustic signals can be connected to the series-connected second frequency filter with a bandwidth of 1000 - 6000 Hz, the second amplitude selector and the second indicator display unit, and the source of electrical power is additionally connected to the input of a second power of the amplitude selector.

Amplicom electric power through the voltage regulators.

Pen probe may have a cavity, while the receiver of acoustic signals is located within the cavity in place of fastening of the handle and a thin metal rod.

The receiver of acoustic signals can be located on the surface of a dental probe.

The receiver of acoustic signals may be in the form of a microphone or a piezoelectric element.

The indicator may be in the form of an led or LCD display.

Dental probe may further comprise vukobrat, the entrance of which is acoustically coupled with the tip of the probe, and the output connected to the input of the receiver of acoustic signals. In addition, the tip of the probe may be further provided with a vibrator.

Numerous experimental studies of the authors helped to identify differences in the spectral composition of the sound signals that occur when moving from a pressing force of the tip of the rod dental probe on the surface of the dentin depending on the extent of the carious lesions. So in the spectrum of the acoustic signal that occur when moving the probe tip intact dentin, mainly present oscillations with frequency d is the vibration at frequencies of 1000 Hz and 6000 Hz with an amplitude of at 3-4 times the amplitude of the oscillations to intact dentin, there is a higher frequency up to 17 kHz with a maximum in the region of 13 kHz. In the study of intact dentin acoustic signals with frequencies over 10 kHz virtually absent.

The invention is illustrated by the diagrams of electrical signals and circuits shown in Fig. 1-6.

Fourier spectra of the acoustic signals obtained in the above-described cases, shown in Fig. 1.

In Fig. 2 presents a schematic diagram of a dental probe.

In Fig. 3 presents a functional diagram of the dental probe with display unit including a display, an electronic key and a source of electrical power.

In Fig. 4 shows a functional diagram of the transmitter with a display unit including a display, the amplitude selector, and a source of electrical power.

In Fig. 5 shows a functional diagram of a dental probe, further comprising a second frequency filter with a bandwidth of Hz 1000-6000 mm., the second amplitude selector and the second indicator display unit.

In Fig. 6 shows a design drawing of the dental probe containing the receiver of the acoustic waves inside the cavity of the handle where it is attached to a thin metal rod, iwaisako the registration and analysis of amplitude and frequency spectrum of the acoustic signal, occur when moving from a pressing force of the tip of the dental probe on the sample surface dentin of human teeth. In discovered and studied by the inventors physical phenomenon according to the above characteristics of the acoustic signal from the extent of the carious lesion dentin, namely in the presence of high-frequency (10 kHz) component of the acoustic signal arising in the diagnosis of decayed dentin, and in the absence of such component in the spectrum of the sound signal from the intact dentin lies the physical essence of the invention. As a result of numerous laboratory studies the authors confirmed the effect of increasing the reliability of the diagnosis of dentin caries using the proposed device. Experimentally proved also is to increase the reliability of diagnosis of dentin caries in the early stages of its development when analyzing the amplitude of a sound signal that occurs when moving from a pressing force of the tip of the dental probe on the sample surface dentin of human teeth in the frequency range from 1 to 6 kHz. In particular, the authors have shown that the amplitude of the acoustic signal in this spectral range for Kerio is on. The spectral composition of the signal from the intact dentin is shown in Fig. 1 a, and from caries - Fig. 1 b.

The inventive device (Fig. 2) consists of a metal rod 1 with a tip and a handle 2 attached to a receiver of acoustic signals 3 made in the form of a microphone or piezoelectric element and located near the probe tip. The output of the receiver 3 is electrically connected to the input frequency of the filter 4, which transmits electrical signals with a frequency above 10000 Hz. The output of the filter 4 is electrically connected to the input of the display unit 5, which includes the indicator 6, made for example in the form of an led or LCD display. The display unit 5 in addition to the indicator 6 may contain electronic key 7 (Fig. 3), made for example in the form of a transistor, and a source of electric power 8. In this case, the output frequency of the filter 4 is connected to the input of the electronic key 7, which can serve as the base of the transistor and the led 6 is included in its emitter-collector circuit. The power supply 8 may be connected through a switch to the power input of the amplitude selector 9 (Fig. 4). In this case, the output frequency of the filter 4 is connected to the input of the amplitude selector 9, and the led 6 to the output amplitude of ihod filter 4, as input power to the amplitude of the selector 9 is a second input of the comparator is electrically connected to a power source 8, for example, through a voltage regulator.

In Fig. 5 shows a diagram of the proposed dental probe, allowing to provide increased reliability of determining the extent of the carious lesion dentin. For this purpose, the acoustic output of the receiver 3 is connected to the signal path from carious dentin consists of the second frequency filter 10 with a bandwidth of 1000 - 6000 Hz, the second amplitude selector 11 and the second indicator 12. In contrast to amplitude selector 9 amplitude selector 11 must be configured to the selection signal with a high amplitude.

Required for a dental probe movement can be produced not only by the hand of the physician, but with the help of vibrator 13 (Fig. 6), which is equipped with the tip of the probe. This is especially advisable if necessary diagnostic plots of the surface of the dentin small area, as well as hard-to-reach areas of the tooth tissue. For such purpose you can position the receiver of acoustic signals 3 inside the cavity 14 of the handle 2 in the place of its attachment to thin the definition of signals 3.

The device operates as follows. The electrical signal output from the receiver of acoustic signals 3, resulting from moving the clamping force of the edge of the metal rod 1 dental probe along the sample surface dentin that is fed to the input frequency of the filter 4, mainly to allow the electrical signals with a frequency above 10000 Hz. The presence of a signal at the output of the frequency filter 4 clearly indicates the presence of a high-frequency component in the spectrum of the acoustic signal, and this means that the movement of the probe tip is on the surface carious dentin. In this case, the output signal frequency of the filter 4 is fed to the input of the display unit 5, and then the indicator 6. As input of the display unit 5 can serve as the base of the transistor or the comparator input. The presence of a signal on the base of the transistor provides a current flow in a circuit, the emitter-collector of the transistor and the display output on the display 6. The absence of the output signal on indicator 6 will mean the absence of pathological changes in the dentin. If the display unit 5 of the amplitude selector 9, made in the form of a comparator, the signal from the output of h is to be placed, submitted to the second input of the comparator 9 from the electrical power supply source 8, for example, through a voltage regulator, leads to the appearance of the signal at the output of the display unit 5. The presence in the spectrum of the acoustic signal from carious dentin oscillations with a frequency range from 1 kHz to 6 kHz with an amplitude exceeding the amplitude of the oscillations in the same range from the intact dentin, can further diagnose the condition of the dentin. In particular, when connecting the receiver output acoustic signal 3 to the input of the second frequency filter 10, which transmits electrical oscillations in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 6 kHz and an electrical output connection of the filter with the input of the second amplitude selector 11, made for example in the form of a comparator, the presence of a high signal at the output of the second frequency filter 10 provides the appearance of a signal on the second display 12. Obviously, this can only occur in case of excess submitted to the second input of the second amplitude selector 11 voltage corresponding to the amplitude from carious dentin.

1. Dental probe containing a metal rod with a tip and a handle, skreplennyi acoustic signals connected to the input of frequency filter with a bandwidth of over 10000 Hz, when the input display unit connected to the output of the frequency filter, and the output is the output of the probe.

2. Dental probe p. 1, wherein the display unit includes an electronic key and a source of electrical power, and the control input of the electronic key is an input of the display unit, and an indicator connected to the power source via the electronic key.

3. Dental probe p. 1, wherein the display unit includes an amplitude selector and a source of electrical power connected to the power input of the amplitude selector and the input of the amplitude selector is input to the display unit, and an indicator connected to the output of the amplitude selector.

4. Dental probe p. 3, characterized in that the output of the receiver of acoustic signals is additionally connected in series connected second frequency filter with a bandwidth of Hz 1000-6000 mm., the second amplitude selector and the second indicator display unit, and the source of electrical power is additionally connected to the input of the second power of the amplitude selector.

5. Dental probe PP.3 and 4, characterized in that applicationscope supply through the voltage regulators.

6. Dental probe p. 1, wherein the handle has a cavity and a receiver of acoustic signals is located within the cavity in place of fastening of the handle and a thin metal rod.

7. Dental probe under item 1, characterized in that the receiver of acoustic signals is located on the surface of a dental probe.

8. Dental probe under item 1, characterized in that the receiver of acoustic signals in the form of a microphone.

9. Dental probe under item 1, characterized in that the receiver of acoustic signals in the form of a piezoelectric element.

10. Dental probe under item 1, characterized in that the indicator is made in the form of LEDs.

11. Dental probe under item 1, characterized in that the indicator is made in the form of a liquid crystal display.

12. Dental probe under item 1, characterized in that it is equipped with an additional zvukoprovodnost, the entrance of which is acoustically coupled with the tip of the probe, and the output connected to the input of the receiver of acoustic signals.

13. Dental probe under item 1, characterized in that the tip of his rod is further provided with a vibrator.

 

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EFFECT: high objectivity of received data; accelerated examination; high accuracy of differential diagnosis.

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