The reforming process comprising ammonia production
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a process for the preparation of natural gas for ammonia production. The method of processing natural gas to produce ammonia includes the selection of natural gas under pressure, choking, burning as fuel, heating gas, the hydrogenation gas desulfurization according to the technological scheme of the process reformer of ammonia production, the throttling is subjected to 30-45% of the natural gas supplied under a pressure of 3.8-5.0 MPa, which is sent for burning as fuel, and the rest natural gas after filtration sent directly heated by the heat of exhaust gases of the reformer furnace for use in technology. The use of the invention allows to reduce energy consumption, to exclude from the scheme number of complex in the operation and repair of apparatus, such as a compressor and pre-heater natural gas, and to make full use of all the components of natural gas. 1 Il. The invention relates to processes of reforming natural gas to produce ammonia, used in the production of mineral fertilizers, and can be IP is geologicheskiy the reforming process of natural gas for ammonia production, described in , in which the feedstock is natural gas comes from the factory network under pressure of 1.0-1.2 MPa with a temperature of minus 40 to plus 35oC block compression of natural gas. Natural gas is supplied into the original network from the main pipeline after choking on gas distribution station (GDS) with a pressure of 4.5 - 5.0 MPa - to 1.0-1.2 MPa. In Assembly natural gas is divided into two streams: one for technological purposes, the other for burning as fuel. It is to maintain a constant low pressure in the fuel system gas pressure in the original network, and at the entrance to the unit is supported by automatic regulators at the level of 1.0-1.2 MPa. Constant high pressure natural gas for technological needs (reforming process) is provided by komprimirovannom this special gas compressor natural gas, which increases the pressure up to 4.5 MPa. The compressor is implemented process polytropic compression, in which natural gas is heated to a temperature not higher than 200oC. To prevent "water hammer" before natural gas compressor sets the separator apparatus in which gas is separated gas condensate, condenser is and is led to the fuel system, that increases the consumption of natural gas for the production technology of ammonia. To maintain in winter conditions in komprimirana natural gas temperature 20-35oC at the inlet to the compressor natural gas (which is required for normal operation of this unit) and compensate for heat loss by throttling, before the compressor is mounted heater natural gas. This heat exchanger is heated by steam, which also increases the energy consumption for the process of rehoming. After compressor natural gas is sent to fire the heater system and hydro - desulfurization, where it is heated to a temperature of 370-400oC and further along the technological scheme of reforming process for the production of ammonia.The disadvantage of this process are the large energy loss in the throttling of natural gas at GDS, which has to be compensated by high-energy compression in the compressor natural gas and heated by steam in the above-described heater, isolation and exclusion from the process of reforming the number of components of natural gas.Closest to the claimed combination of essential features for a process patent RF N 2117520 where in the production met the first main process flow of the heated to 80oC in the tube space of the recuperation heat exchanger high-pressure heat circulating gas with a temperature of 105-110oC, and the second thread after throttling and heat in methanol heater to a temperature of 50-60oC to use as fuel gas. The techniques of this process to use in the preparation of natural gas in ammonia production, it is impossible for two reasons:
a) the relative quantity of gas allocated for use as fuel, does not provide the heat balance of the process of ammonia production;
b) is the relative amount of gas does not provide reactions and phase transformations in the process of ammonia production in the optimal mode.Featured in this patent is the analogue of the method of heating of natural gas up to 80oC in the tube space of the recuperation heat exchanger high-pressure ammonia production is inefficient, does not provide the necessary in the production process of ammonia preheating temperature of 150-200oC. It ultimately leads to higher cost of gas for fuel.The aim of the invention is to reduce energy consumption in the technology implementation process reforming process is carried out on the concept, shown in the drawing.Natural gas from pipeline under high (3.8 to 5.0 MPa) pressure is supplied to the unit. Here, the throttling is only a part (30-45%) of the supplied natural gas, which is used for burning as fuel. The remainder of natural gas after filtration from the solid mechanical impurities is supplied to the heater, built-in oven primary reforming of natural gas, where it is heated to a temperature of 150-200oC due to the heat from flue gases and is sent directly to fire the heater system and hydro - desulfurization, where it is heated to a temperature of 370-400oC and then fed to the hydrogenation and desulfurization according to the technological scheme of the process of reforming.The advantage of the proposed process is a significant energy savings through the use of new:
1) quantitative ratios in the scheme of throttling the flow of natural gas;
2) coolant in the process of preheating.In addition, provides practically complete utilization of all components supplied to the unit of natural gas, because of the scheme eliminates the separation process of scheme 1 (see at the end of the description).The scheme has a relatively high consumption of natural gas, due to the large energy loss by throttling natural gas at GDS, which are compensated by high-energy compression in the compressor, natural gas and heating steam in the above heater. Upon its sale of gas condensate, consisting of hydrocarbons WITH2-C5, serivece in the fuel system.The reforming process of natural gas for ammonia production in sootvestvii with the proposed invention was implemented according to the scheme 2 (see the end of the description).When carrying out reforming excluded processes implemented in complex and energy-intensive natural gas compressor and heater natural gas. The last device is replaced by a simple tubular heat exchanger and is used as coolant discharged into the atmosphere heat of the flue gases of the reformer furnace instead of an expensive pair. Not subjected to throttling, and therefore not supercooled natural gas does not require additional separation. This gas is not supplied into the compressor, and is sent directly to the tubular deploom the camping and overheats the whole gas condensate, consisting of hydrocarbons WITH2-C5. This thread already after the first heat exchanger so overheated against the saturation pressure, the possibility of gas condensate drip excluded, i.e. impossible surges.With the implementation of the scheme managed to avoid high-energy and cost-effective operation and repair of the compressor natural gas, separator gas condensate and steam heater natural gas. Increased process reliability, reduced steam consumption for own needs of production by about 20 t/h and the consumption of natural gas decreased by 290 nm3/hour.Bibliography
1. Process regulations ammonia production capacity of 450 thousand tons/year for domestic and partly imported equipment. The technological part. Severodonetsk, 1983, 380 S. The method of processing natural gas for ammonia production, including the selection of natural gas under pressure, choking, burning as fuel, heating gas, the hydrogenation gas desulfurization according to the technological scheme of the process reformer ammonia, characterized in that grossulariaceae fuel and the rest natural gas after filtration sent directly heated by the heat of exhaust gases of the reformer furnace for use in technology.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.
FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.
EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.
3 cl, 1 dwg