Device for the generation of neutron and x-ray radiation

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to the field of plasma technology and fusion, in particular to a device for the generation of neutron and x-ray radiation. The technical result of the invention is to enhance reliability of the device for the generation of neutron and x-ray radiation. The inventive device for generating neutron and x-ray radiation includes a pulsed source of electromagnetic energy, such as explosive magnetic generator breaker current and is connected to the output of the isolator plasma chamber with a preliminary magnetization of the plasma. The device further comprises an inductive element to control the inductance value with the help of the screen, connected in series with the pulsed source and the circuit breaker current and located between them. 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of plasma technology, in particular to a device for the generation of neutron and x-ray radiation due to the receipt of high-temperature plasma.

The known device for the generation of neutron and x-ray radiation, polucheniya device for neutron and x-ray radiation, contains a source of electromagnetic energy in the form of explosive magnetic generator (VMG), circuit breaker current and plasma chamber connected to the output of the isolator.

The disadvantage of this device is that this device have achieved relatively low temperature plasma and, as a consequence of insufficient reliability and relatively low yield neutron and x-ray radiation. This is due to the fact that this device is not pre-magnetization of the plasma, which limits the rate of acceleration when exposed to the plasma magnetic field from flowing through the plasma chamber current and, therefore, limits the degree of plasma heating.

This disadvantage is eliminated in the other device to obtain high-temperature plasma (see USSR author's certificate N 1616386, IPC G 21 B 1/00, Fig. 1 and 4, Veselov, C. N., Demidov C. A., B. N. Korchagin, larzep M. C., E. Pavlovsky With declared 14.03.88 published 09.08.95,, bull. N 22). In this author's testimony describes a device for generating high-temperature plasma containing a pulsed source of electromagnetic energy, such as explosive magnetic generator, ASMI and the resistor, connected in series with the breaker current.

In this device due to the fact that the preliminary washing is due to the diffusion of the magnetic flux through a resistor (see Fig. 4), connected in series with the circuit breaker current, it is difficult to perform an optimum ratio between the amplitudes of the currents preliminary (for magnetization of the plasma) and the core (for acceleration and plasma heating) washing, resulting in reduced reliability of the device.

Task - creating device for research of process of heating of magnetized plasma to 2 Kev and the possibility of obtaining x-ray and neutron radiation.

The technical result of the invention is to enhance reliability of operation of the device for the generation of neutron and x-ray radiation.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in comparison with the known device for obtaining high-temperature plasma containing a pulsed source of electromagnetic energy, such as explosive magnetic generator breaker current and is connected to the output of the isolator plasma chamber with a preliminary magnetization of the plasma, it is new that saleimoa screen, located between the pulse source and the circuit breaker and connected in series with them.

Introduction in the proposed device, the inductive element to the screen for adjusting the inductance value and its location between the pulse source and the circuit breaker ensures that the physical processes in the prototype and the proposed device are at different stages. In the prototype, the magnetization of the plasma is carried out using a current pre-feeding (Ipre), and the acceleration and plasma heating occurs by a current of the main power supply (Icore). The main washing the plasma chamber is provided through the use of breaker current, a preliminary washing is due to the diffusion of magnetic flux from a source of electromagnetic energy (VMG) through a resistor. Until the open-circuit current pre-feeding duration, the amplitude of the current flowing through the resistor current VMG and the resistor, and the resistance value of the resistor depends on the leaked current and alternating current, this value will change. The voltage across the resistor will be equal to

Up(t)=IEast(t)Rp(t)

where: IEast(t) - talk to them is Cania current through the resistor.

In the plasma chamber through a resistor diffuses magnetic flux value:

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The current pre-feed will be determined by the following ratio:

< / BR>
where LCam- is the inductance of the camera.

The amplitude of the DC main power supply (Icoremax) is expressed by the following ratio:

< / BR>
where:

IEast0the amplitude of the current pulse source at the time of break (tbit);

LEast- is the inductance of the pulse source;

LCamthe inductance of the camera;

Ipre0- the current preliminary feeding at time tbit.

To obtain the maximum possible temperature in the plasma, and consequently to achieve the maximum yield of neutron and x-ray radiation the ratio of the currents in the primary and pre-washing must be in strict accordance with the composition and pressure of the gas in the plasma chamber and, depending on these factors is within 3 to 5. For device A. C. N 1616386 the ratio of the currents of the main and preliminary washing (K) will be expressed by the following ratio

< / BR>
In this device due to the fact that p is consequently connected with the circuit breaker current it is difficult to perform an optimum ratio between the amplitudes of the currents of the preliminary and main washing. This is because the magnitude of the magnetic flux diffusing through the resistor in the plasma chamber during pre-feeding, depends on the magnitude of the current flowing through the resistor current VMG and by variation of the current in the VMG will change and the ratio between the currents of the primary and pre-washing. It should also be noted that the resistance value of the resistor depends on the current passing through it. This is because the resistance value of the resistor increases proportionally until melting of the material of the resistor) increase the amount of heat in the resistor, i.e. the resistance of the resistor increases proportionally IEast2. From the expression for the ratio between the currents of the primary and pre-washing it is seen that the amplitude of the current in the VMG and variations in the resistance of the resistor depending on the current VMG lead to oscillations and the magnitude of the ratio K. the ratio between the currents of the primary and pre-washing can go beyond the optimal range. This will lead to the reduction achieved in the plasma temperature and the device.

In the proposed device until the open-circuit current pre-feed flows through the inductive element and the voltage, which is implemented on inductive element inductance Lindis the magnitude of the magnetic flux (fpre, which passes through the inductive element in the camera, will be: on the other hand: fpre(t) = Ipre(t)LCam.

Here:

Here t is the time of current flow through the inductive element.

This shows that the current preliminary feeding Ipre(t) is determined only by the current pulsed source of electromagnetic energy IEast(t) (current VMG) and the ratio of the inductances of the plasma chamber and the inductive element.

The amplitude of the current (Ipre0) pre-feeding in the proposed unit will be:

< / BR>
The amplitude of the DC main power supply is equal to:

< / BR>
where IEast0the amplitude of the current pulse source of electromagnetic energy at the moment of breaking the circuit (tbit);

LEast- the inductance of a pulsed source of electromagnetic energy;

LCamthe inductance of the camera;

Iancestors of primary and pre-washing will equal:

< / BR>
From this expression shows that the ratio of the currents of the main and preliminary washing, the proposed device does not depend on the fluctuations of the current in the VMG, and is determined only by the values of the inductances VMG, the inductive element and the plasma chamber. Thus, the selection of the values listed above inductances we create the optimal ratio of the currents of the primary and pre-washing, which does not depend on the fluctuations of the current in the VMG, thereby improving the reliability of the device.

In Fig. 1 schematically illustrates the device, and Fig. 2 shows an inductive element. Device for the generation of neutron and x-ray radiation includes a pulsed source of electromagnetic energy (1), for example explosive magnetic generator breaker current (2) and is connected to the output of the isolator plasma chamber (3) with pre-magnetization of the plasma. In addition, the device includes an inductive element (4) with a screen (5) for regulating the inductance located between the pulse source (1)and circuit breaker (2).

As the plasma chamber with a preliminary magnetization of the plasma taken the camera, consisting of a compartment acceleration (7) in order that the annular gap between the electrodes (8) and (9) is made in the form of a nozzle (11) of Laval, and compartment brake (10) is in the form of an annular gap between the coaxial electrodes, which are continuations of the electrodes (8) and (9) and closed between the side opposite to the nozzle (11), a metal cover (12). The electrodes (8) and (9) are made of oxygen-free copper and are separated from each other by a ceramic insulator (13). The plasma chamber is filled with deuterium or calibrated deuterium-tritium gas mixture at an initial pressure of ~ 10 Top, the outer diameter of the camera can be changed within 60... 400 mm

The source of electromagnetic energy is made in the form of a helical explosive magnetic generator with exponential current increase, basic elements of which are internal cylindrical conductor (21) provided with an explosive charge (CC) (22), and a helical outer conductor (23), located coaxially.

Breaker current (2) contains a severed conductor (14), installed between the cylindrical dielectric truefinereptile (16) and dielectric strigeidae (15). Truefinereptile (16) is made with a dielectric cumulative grooves (17). On the surface of the inner conductors (18) opposite the location of truepositives, Ostanin inductive element (4), and on the other, with the inner electrode (8) the plasma chamber (3).

The inductive element (see Fig. 2) is a multiple-helix of conductive material, such as copper, insulated coils. The cross-section of the turns of the spiral inductive element must be long enough to skip all the current VMG. Screen (5) is made in the form of two metal parts of the coupling (semi-cylinders made of postojannogo cylinder cut along a generatrix into two equal parts, and installed relative to each other with a gap symmetrically), which can move the azimuth on the value of1along the inductive element to contact with his coils and thereby shorting part of its coils and reduce the amount of inductance and radially on the value of2(see Fig. 2), increasing or decreasing the gap between the screen and the inductive element. Bringing the screen to the inductive element, we reduce the inductance of the inductive element.

The structure of the device includes a contactor (6). It is designed for zakolachivaniya inductive element at the time of tripping of the breaker. In this case, the electromagnetic energy accumulated in the inductive shunt, during the time the working conditions of the circuit breaker current (2).

The device operates as follows. After filling in the plasma chamber (3) deuterium and deuteriumtritium mixture of gases in explosive magnetic generator (1) is the compression of the magnetic flux due to the motion of the walls of the inner cylindrical conductor (21) under the action of pressure of the products of detonation of the explosive charge (22), consistently trailing coils of the helix (23). During the whole time of operation of the pulse source (1) part of magnetic flux is transferred into the chamber (3) through the inductive element (4). This part of the magnetic flux creates in the electrode chamber (8) and (9) the current Ipre(t), which until the moment of breaking of the conductor (14) increases with time in proportion to the current IEast(t), i.e., by the exponential law.

When the current from a pulse source (VMG) reaches its maximum value, is the gap of the conductor (14) with the help of cumulative jets formed at the collapse shaped grooves (17) in truefinereptile (16) when exposed to a shock wave from the explosive charge (19). At the same time due to the impact of the shock wave in truefinereptile (16) from the explosive charge (19) is the closure of the conductor (14) and the contact of the contactor (6) is triggered for the ka (14) and part of the conductor (24). Electromagnetic energy inductive element, equal in this case is dissipated in this circuit and not in areas of discontinuity of the conductor (14), which will facilitate the operation of the circuit breaker (2). (With an increase in the energy released in the places of rupture of the conductor resistance value of the circuit breaker is reduced and the formation time of the current pulse in the load increases).

When the destruction of the conductor (14) current in it begins to decrease, at the ends of the torn area of the conductor there is a voltage (EMF of self-induction), which forms in the plasma chamber the pulse current of the main power supply. Under the action of high voltage between the electrodes (8) and (9) is the ionization of the gas in the chamber (3). The resulting plasma in the compartment acceleration (7) under the action of increasing the magnetic field from the DC main power supply is accelerated in the direction of the Laval nozzle (11). At the exit of the nozzle (11) plasma acquires a speed exceeding alferovsky the speed of sound (H - magnetic field strength, plasma density). At the exit of the nozzle (11) the plasma is decelerated and heated in the shock wave, which is formed in the cell inhibition (10) at the exit of the nozzle (11) due to the back pressure of the magnetic field of a current preliminary feeding.

The UP>-3with the lifetime of the plasma is 10 μs, while the neutron output can be more than 1013n/a imp.

Due to more reliable implementation of the optimal ratio between the amplitudes of the currents of the main and preliminary washing is accelerated research cycle processes in plasma heating.

Device for the generation of neutron and x-ray radiation, containing a pulsed source of electromagnetic energy breaker current and is connected to the output of the isolator plasma chamber with a preliminary magnetization of the plasma, characterized in that the device further comprises an inductive element to control the inductance value with the help of the screen, and the specified inductive element is connected in series with the pulse source and the circuit breaker current and sits between them.

 

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