Installation reformer for converting reagent in the reaction products (variants) and the method of implementation of the reformer
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to installations reformer, namely the setting of the plate type reformer. The technical result of the invention is to provide a compact units with increased efficiency. According to the invention the installation reformer is a package of heat transfer plates, between which is placed a catalytic plate, and provided with internal or external reservoirs for reagents. Catalytic plate is in direct contact with heat-conducting plates in such a way that its temperature does not differ from the temperature of the heat-conducting plate, which can be designed to provide a mode close to isometric, in the plane of the plate. Can be used one or more catalysts, distributed along the flow direction in the plane of the heat-conducting plates in additional embodiments of the invention. The system can operate in the mode of steam reforming and partial oxidation. When working in the mode of reforming steam thermal energy for the reaction of the steam reforming process is supplied from the outside due to radiation and/or heat transfer to t the OTE in partial oxidation of the natural gas is oxidized in the presence of a catalyst combustion and reforming catalyst. The reaction products are carbon monoxide, hydrogen, steam and carbon dioxide. Since the plate of the catalyst is in direct thermal contact with the heat-conducting plates inside the package can not develop excessive temperature. The design of the plate may be modified to combine different versions of the collectors, which provide one or more input and output holes for input, preheat and output reagents. 3 S. and 33 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The invention relates to installations reformer and, in particular, to installations that converts a source fuel into a fuel suitable for use in electrochemical converters. More specifically, it relates to the reformer plate type, suitable for steam reforming or reforming with partial oxidation.The use of conventional hydrocarbon fuels as fuel reactants to the fuel cells is well known in the art. Hydrocarbon fuel is usually preprocessed and converted into simpler reactants before entering the electrochemical Converter. Usually pre-processing is proposin the formation of oxides (for fuel cells, running on hydrogen (H2), which produces the necessary fuel.A typical installation of the steam reforming process, which are widely used in engineering, contain the reformer unit, consisting of a catalytic material, which accelerates the reaction of the reforming and the combustion chamber, providing heat for the endothermic reforming reaction. Steam from the steam source is usually served in the reformer unit. The combustion chamber typically operates at temperatures which are significantly higher than the temperature required for the reforming reaction, and operating temperatures of conventional fuel cells, for example, fuel cells solid oxide electrolyte. For this reason, the combustion chamber must operate as a standalone unit, independent from the fuel element, and as such, it significantly increases the size, weight, cost and complexity of the entire energy system. In addition, the combustion chamber is not necessarily arranged in such a way as to use excess heat from the fuel element. Moreover, the consumption of excess fuel in the combustion chamber limits the efficiency of the energy system.Typical pipe installation reformingoultural material, on the surface of which has a coating of catalyst reforming process. Pipe diameter typically ranges from 9 to 16 cm, length of the heated section of the pipe is typically 6 - 12 m the Zone of combustion is usually made outside of the pipes and represents the combustion chamber. The surface temperature of the pipe is supported by combustion at 900oC in order to ensure appropriate catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel flowing inside the pipe, steam at a temperature in the range 500 - 700oC. the Effect of such traditional pipe installation reformer is based on the heat transfer through conduction and convection inside tubes for distribution of heat required for reforming.Installation of plate type reformer known in the art, an example of such installation is described in U.S. patent N 5015444, Koga and other Installation reformer, described in the patent, has alternating flat gap, which ignored the mixture of fuel/vapor and fuel/air. The combustion flow fuel/air inside the slits provides heat for the reforming process flow of the mixture of fuel/vapor. The drawback of this design is that the act of setting the reforming process is based on the heat transfer between the co and others, describes the combined structure (fuel cell)/(set reforming, which uses alternating layers of plates of the fuel elements and the installation of the reforming process. Heat transfer from the exothermic fuel cell to endothermic installing the reforming process is carried out through the separation plate. The disadvantage of this design is that it is difficult to achieve, if at all possible, the temperature uniformity in the structure (fuel cell)/(installation reformer), which is especially important for compact and highly efficient chemical or electrochemical systems. This structure (fuel cell)/(set reforming process also requires the use of a complex piping system for supplying a flow of reagents to alternating layers of fuel cells and installation reformer.Electrochemical converters such as fuel cells, known as the system for the direct conversion of chemical energy derived from the source of fuel into electrical energy using an electrochemical reaction. One of the types of fuel cells used in power systems, is a fuel cell is the temperature, approximately 1000oC.A typical fuel cell consists of a number of blocks of the electrolyte, which are the fuel and oxidizing electrodes, and a similar number of connectors placed between blocks of electrolytes to ensure a consistent electrical connection. Electricity occurs between the electrodes in the electrolyte in the electrochemical reaction, which is triggered when a fuel, such as hydrogen, is fed to the fuel electrode and the oxidant, such as oxygen, is fed to the oxidizing electrode.Typically, the electrolyte is a conductor of ions with low on resistance of the ion current and, thus, provides movement of the ion of interest from one of the interface electrode-electrolyte opposite to the interface electrode-electrolyte in the working mode of the Converter. The electric current may be fed to an external load with connecting plates.Conventional fuel cell with solid oxide electrolyte also contains, in addition to the above parts, the electrolyte, on the opposite surface of which is coated with porous materials fuel and oxidizing electrodes. Electronically electrode, which, as a rule, is in an oxidizing atmosphere, usually made of a perovskite having a high electric conductivity, for example, margantsovistyh lanthanum doped strontium (LaMnO3(Sr)). The fuel cell typically is rich in fuel, or reducing, the environment, and is usually made of cermet grade, for example, zirconium dioxide with Nickel (ZrO2/Ni). The connecting plate in a fuel cell with solid oxide electrolyte is usually made from a material with electronic conductivity, resistant to both oxidizing and reductive environment.Still in engineering there is a need for such facilities, which use excess heat from the fuel element, for the purpose of reforming. In particular, there is a need to use design, in which the installation reformer combined with electrochemical Converter.Thus, the object of the invention is to provide a compact installation reformer through the use of technology for effective heat transfer to ensure uniform temperature (isothermal) surface energy balance in the system, and improve coefficientsa reformer supplied reagents.The object of the invention is to install the reformer plate type, having superior thermal characteristics, which can be combined with the fuel element for the effective use of thermal energy. In addition, the invention relates to a plate installations reformer, which can be used either in the mode of the steam reforming process, or mode of reforming with partial oxidation. When the installation is used in the mode of the steam reforming process, the heat source may be a fuel cell, and a pair of output products of the fuel element. Steam may be supplied from any external source, such as steam boiler, or by feeding the output products of the fuel cell system piping in the installation of the reforming process. As a heat source may also be used in the combustion chamber. When the installation is used in the mode of reforming with partial oxidation, it is burned relatively small portion, for example about 25%, the input of a reagent gas for supplying heat for the endothermic reforming reaction. Installation reformer preferably has the ability to work in automatic mode, the heat balance, which does not require the partial oxidation, uses excess heat from thermal element.Another object of the invention is to install the reformer plate type, in which the catalyst is in direct thermal contact with thermally conductive plates, oriented, for example, elongated in the direction of gas flow so as to maintain the average in terms of the temperature of the plate to ensure the effective reaction of the reforming process, and to eliminate or reduce the possibility of areas of local overheating, which could damage the catalyst or materials of construction installation reformer. The term "plan" is used to refer to flat surfaces or sides of the plate.Another object of the invention is the installation of the reforming process, making use of the excess heat from the fuel element, for endothermic reactions installation mode reforming with steam, and in the mode of reforming with partial oxidation.Another object of the invention is to install the reformer plate type, in which preheating of the feed reactants to the installation plate type reformer, which uses the input reservoir so that the reagents can be introduced into the installation reformer separately and then thoroughly mixed inside the unit before serving in the oxidation section and section reformer installation.Installation of a reformer in accordance with the invention uses an improved thermal characteristics, which facilitates the efficient reforming of fuel. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the installation of the reformer contains a flat design of the catalyst plates which are interleaved with the conductive plates. The last characteristic significantly improves thermal characteristics of the installation of the reforming process, which allows to obtain a relatively compact design of the installation. Thus, installation of the reforming process can be thermally and physically combined with electrochemical Converter for efficient reforming of hydrocarbon fuel and generate electricity.Installation of a reformer in accordance with the invention eliminates the disadvantage of the known installations: large dimensions due to the use of the above techniques for effective heat transfer to ensure temperature uniformity (whether the amount of material required for reforming is supplied reagents. In addition, as thermal energy required for endothermic reforming reactions, use of excess heat from a thermally integrated electrochemical Converter. For example, in the normal mode Converter allocates excess heat (heat loss), which is used to maintain the operating temperature corresponding to the temperature required for the reforming process (in the range of from about 500 to about 700oC). Compactness and simplicity collectors are significant factors that provide cost-effective design reformer and system integration.The above and other objectives, features and advantages of the invention will become clear from the following description, illustrated in the drawings in which the same reference numbers refer to the same parts in all these species. The drawings illustrate principles of the invention, and although they are made not to scale, shows the relationship of the sizes.Fig. 1, the cross - sectional view of one embodiment of implementation of the external installation of the reforming fuel in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 2A-2B - species p is
Fig. 3 - the General plan of the electrochemical Converter Assembly, which may be a reformer;
Fig. 4 is a detailed overall view of the electric element and the coupling element of the electrochemical Converter, which may be a reformer;
Fig. 5 is a view of cross-sectional Assembly electrolytic element and the coupling element in accordance with the invention, illustrating the passage of the reactants through the external system headers;
Fig. 6 is a graph showing that the connecting plate of a heat transfer area between endothermic reforming process, the area of the exothermic combustion and area ekzotermicheskogo fuel cell, the consequence of which is to obtain isothermal in the plan mode.In Fig. 1 presents a view of the cross-section of the installation reformer 10 in accordance with the invention. Installing the reformer 10 includes a number of conductive plates 12 and catalytic plates 14, which are interleaved for the formation of the packet structure of the reformer 13, which is formed along the axis 28. Installing the reformer contains the header 16, which communicates with the internal parts 12A, 14A of the plates 12, 14. Installation of reform is Inga can be used in steam reforming and reforming with oxidation. The heat required for the process of reforming, can be obtained inside by partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel or summed externally from an external source of heat, as shown by wavy lines 26 to the reformer 10 using radiation heat transfer or convection. The reagent, which must be subjected to reforming in the system 10, is supplied to the plant by axial manifold 16.The reagent preferably contains a mixture of hydrocarbon fuel and means of reforming process, for example, air, oxygen, water or CO2that pre-mixed or before entering into the reservoir 16, or inside the plant reformer. Shows the installation of the reformer 10 includes at least one collector, on which a mixture of fuel/tool reformer is fed to the reforming process, and does not provide for separate feeding of the components of the mixture according to various collectors. Supply of pre-mixed reagents in the installation of the reformer 10 provides a relatively simple design. The mixture of reagents 22 is introduced into the reservoir 16 through suitable means, such as pipelines.The mixture 22 is supplied to the inner part of the installation reformer at Cana the us 14. The channels can have any protrusions or recesses on the surface, which can be made by stamping and which form a through passage for reactant flowing from the reservoir 16 to the outer peripheral surface 13A of the packet structure of the reformer 13. Channels can also be formed through the use of heat-conducting plates or catalytic plates, which are made of a porous material, or the surface is coated with the catalyst material to allow passage of the reagent through the installation of the reformer.Examples of such various devices and configurations of the plates shown in Fig. 2A-2C. In Fig. 2A shows the composite structure of the catalytic plates 14 and the conductive plate 12. On the surface of the catalytic plates preferably applied catalytic material 36, which is in direct contact with the heat conducting plate 12. Shows the heat conducting plate 12 are stamped with channels for the passage of the reagent. The mixture 22 is inserted in the axial manifold 16 and enters the channels of the reagent from which it goes to the peripheral edges megaplasticheskoi installation structure of the reformer.The catalytic material installation reforming case of using a porous material installation reformer. The use of a porous material reduces the requirements for stamping plates described installation reformer.In another implementation, shown in Fig. 2B, the installation of the reformer 10 includes a plate pack 38 or simply represents a column formed of a composite material containing the conductive material and the catalytic material. This composite plate 38 can be obtained by inclusion of a suitable heat-conducting material in a suitable catalytic material. Received packet structure operates exactly the same as the packet structure 13 of the reformer shown in Fig. 1, 2A and 2B and described above.Specialist in the art will understand that there are other embodiments of the installation of a reforming process, for example, those in which the catalytic plate 14 made of a porous material and the catalytic material is in the pores. The use of porous materials is one of the strengths of the existing external installations reformer, as in this case, reduced requirements for containment system reformer without compromising effectiveness.The mixture of reactants is subjected to a reforming process within complex patterns referencesi material, associated with the catalytic plates 14, accelerates the reforming hydrocarbon fuel into simpler components of reaction. The flow of the mixture of reactants introduced into the reservoir 16 may contain H2O, O2and CO2in addition to hydrocarbon fuels. For example, methane (CH4) can be catalytically converted to a mixture of hydrogen, water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.If the installation reformer operates in steam reforming, it is served mixture containing natural gas (or methane) and steam. The catalyst of the reforming process in the presence of steam may be deposited on a catalytic plate reformer in the form of a ring having a certain width. Thermal energy to the reforming reaction preferably is fed radially inward from the sealed casing via the heat conducting plate 12. The thickness and conductivity of these plates are selected to provide sufficient radial heat flux (or plan) to provide the endothermic reforming reaction. The conductive plate may have protrusions that are fixed in the axial manifold 16 to preheat the supplied reagents, as described in detail below.If ostrovany gas (or methane) and air or oxygen. One or more types of catalysts for reforming can be placed on a catalytic plate in the form of rings. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the plate may have an internal ring containing catalyst combustion 92, and the outer ring 90, which contains a catalyst, accelerating the reforming of methane with water vapor (steam reforming) and carbon dioxide. Heat for this endothermic reforming reactions is supplied radially from a ring of combustion to the ring of reforming the plate 12. Can be entered also the catalysts for other reactions, such as reactions conversion of oxides, which convert CO in the presence of H2O in H2and CO2. The thickness and thermal conductivity of the heat conducting plate 12 are selected to provide sufficient radial heat flow between the internal ring and external combustion ring reformer to provide the endothermic reforming reactions. The heat conducting plate 12 also provide sufficient radial heat flux from the ring of combustion to preheat incoming reactants in the input channels 24 to almost working temperatures, for example at least 300oC, approximately. Thermal ene who was Joh 20.Describes how to install the reformer 10 can be used for the reforming of such reagents as alkanes (paraffin hydrocarbons), hydrocarbons associated with alcohol (hydroxyl), hydrocarbons associated with carboxy, hydrocarbons, associated with CARBONYLS, hydrocarbons, associated with alkenes (olefins hydrocarbons), hydrocarbons associated with esters, hydrocarbons, and related esters, hydrocarbons, associated with amines, hydrocarbons, associated with aromatic derivatives, and hydrocarbons associated with other organic derivatives.Ring material reformer installation reformer 10 can be placed in such a way and using this mixture of materials to ensure the maximum yield of gas produced in the reformer.Catalytic plate 14 may be made of any suitable catalytic material reforming process which operates in the temperature range from approximately 200oC to about 800oC. examples of the types of materials that can be used include platinum, palladium, chromium, chromium oxide, Nickel, Nickel oxide, Nickel containing different compositions, and other suitable transition metal is the material of the reformer, as shown in Fig. 2A and 2B. Thus, the catalytic plate 14 of the present invention can contain any multi-layered lamellar structure of the reforming process, which contains a suitable catalyst, accelerating the reforming hydrocarbon fuel to the desired reaction products.The heat-conducting plate 12 may be made of any suitable conductive material, including metals such as aluminum, copper, iron, steel alloys, Nickel, Nickel alloys, chromium, chromium alloys, platinum and non-metals such as silicon carbide and other composite materials. The thickness of the conductive plate 12 may be selected so as to ensure the minimum temperature gradient in the plane of the plate 12 and support, thus, the isothermal region to ensure optimal conditions of the reforming reactions and reduce thermal stresses in plates reformer 14. The heat-conducting plate 12 preferably should provide close-to-isothermal mode of operation (plate 12). Isothermal surface formed by the plate 12, increases the efficiency of the entire process of reforming process by providing an almost uniform temperature and heat transfer on p which indicate the isothermal mode along the axis of the package (the outer peripheral surface of the batch installation reformer 13) due to the uniform distribution of the mixture of reagents through the channels for reagents, preventing, thus, the occurrence of "cold" or "hot" areas inside the plant reformer. As a result, improves thermal characteristics of the installation reformer 10 and increases the efficiency of the entire system. Used in the description, the term "isothermal" involves almost constant temperature, which only varies slightly in the axial or radial directions. The present invention is expected to change temperature of about 50oC.The converted fuel or reaction products are displayed along the peripheral portion 13A of the packet structure 13 of the reformer, as shown by wavy lines 30. The reaction products, i.e. the products of the reforming fuel, on the periphery makes it relatively easy to collect reagents. Fluid output products then going hermetic casing 20 and is output from the output pipe 32. Thus, a sealed casing 20 is a peripheral manifold.In yet another variant of the technical implementation of the invention, the mixture of reagents 22 may be injected into a peripheral manifold formed by the casing 20, and then in the batch structure 13 of the reformer on the peripheral part of the article is 14 and then displayed on the axial manifold 16.The possibility of assignment of the transformed mixture of the reagents, at least for a large portion of the periphery of the package, and preferably almost the entire periphery, the peripheral surfaces in contact with the reagents, eliminates the need for sealing and sealing materials. Thus, the external installation of the reformer 10 in accordance with the invention will have a simple, compact and attractive design.Sealed casing 20 is preferably of heat conducting material, for example, from metal. In the described embodiment, the technical implementation of the invention the sealed casing 20 perceives thermal energy emitted from an external source, and then pereizuchit this energy packet structure 13 and, respectively, in heat conducting plate 12. Plate 12 transmits thermal energy required for the implementation of the reforming reaction, from the peripheral surface 13A of the structure 13 to the collector 16 of the reactants.In another embodiment, the technical implementation of the invention the outer mounting surface of the reformer 10 is in contact with the inner surface of the pressure-tight casing, which enables the transfer of heat by conduction to the heat conducting the aqueous casing of cylindrical shape. The pressure inside the tank preferably from about atmospheric to about 50 atmospheres.To obtain uniform distribution of the axial flow of reagents following technique is used. The channels 24, which enters the flow of reagents, designed to drop the total pressure of the flow of reagents in the reagent was significantly greater than the pressure drop of the flow of reagents in the reservoir 16. In other words, the resistance of the channels 24 to flow substantially greater than the resistance to the flow axis of the collector 16. In accordance with a preferred implementation of the invention, the pressure of the flow of reagents in the channels 24, approximately ten times higher than the pressure of the flow of reagents in the reservoir. This pressure difference provides the longitudinal and radial uniform distribution of the reagents along the length of the manifold 16 and the channels of reagents 24 and, significantly, from the top to the bottom of the packet structure 13 of the reformer. Uniform pressure distribution provides a mode uniformity of temperature along the axis of the installation of the reformer 10.In accordance with the preferred option of the technical implementation of the invention, the package structure 13 reforms from, about 0.05 mm to about 5 mm, the Term "column" as used in this description, suitable for different geometrical structures, which are obtained by stacking the plates and have at least one internal collector reagent that serves as a pipeline for the mixture of reagents.Specialists in the art will understand that you may be used and other geometric configuration, for example, having a rectangular shape with an internal or external reservoir. Can be assembled in the package plate having a rectangular shape, and connected to an external reservoir for the supply of reactants and removal of products of the reforming process.The relatively small size of the plates 12, 14 installation reformer 10 allows to obtain a compact installation plate type, which performs a reforming hydrocarbon fuel to the desired reaction products and which can be easily integrated into existing energy systems and installations. Describes how to install the reformer 10 can be thermally integrated electrochemical Converter, for example, a fuel cell with solid oxide electrolyte. In special applications, in which the converted fuel, e.g. the renewable fuel element.In accordance with another variant of the technical implementation of the invention, the installation design of the reformer shown in Fig. 1, can also be used as a combustion chamber plate type.In particular, the hydrocarbon fuel may be oxidized in the presence of air or other oxidizing agents with or without using a catalyst. A variant of the combustion chamber contains a heat conducting plate 12 and the catalytic plate 14, which in turn are added together, as described in relation to the installation of the reformer shown in Fig. 1. The combustion chamber may be used inlet manifold 16 to enter into the combustion chamber supplied reagents. Incoming reagents may contain hydrocarbon fuel and an oxidant, for example air. The hydrocarbon fuel and the oxidant can be fed into the combustion chamber separately or can be pre-mixed. For example, if making plates 12, 14 are gas-tight materials, reagents or mixed before entering the combustion chamber, or inside the inlet manifold. Conversely, if each plate is formed from a porous material, the reagents must be entered separately. The reagents were is the combustible or oxidizable reactant is displayed on the periphery of the package of the combustion chamber. The oxidized reagent or a weekend products contain CO2H2About other sustainable products of combustion, depending on the fuel type.The heat-conducting plate of the combustion chamber is identical to the plate used in the installation of the reforming process, and serves to transfer heat by conduction plate in a plane so as to form an isothermal surface. The thickness of the conductive plate are selected in such a way as to maintain a minimum temperature gradient in the plane of the plate to obtain the isothermal region, providing optimal conditions for combustion reaction with the reduced allocation of NOxif the oxidant is air, and reduces thermal stresses that occur in the catalytic plates 14.In addition, isothermal mode can be maintained uniform distribution of the reagents along the axis of the package, which prevents the occurrence of a package of "hot" and "cold" zones. The result is improved overall characteristics of the combustion chamber and increases its efficiency.Described combustion chamber further comprises channels reagents 24 described above in connection with installation of the reformer 10. Ka the agents 24 was significantly greater than the pressure drop of the flow of reagents in the reservoir 16. More specifically, the resistance of the channels 24 to flow substantially greater than the resistance to the flow axis of the collector 16. This pressure difference provides the longitudinal and radial uniform distribution of the reagents along the length of the combustion chamber.The oxidation products can be displayed on the peripheral part of the combustion chamber. Derived fluids can be trapped in the sealed casing 20 surrounding the combustion chamber.In another embodiment, the technical implementation of the invention, the combustion chamber may contain stacked plates of a composite containing a conductive material in a mixture with a suitable catalyst. Received packet design is mainly similar to batch design reformer 13, shown in Fig. 1 and described above.In another embodiment, the technical implementation of the invention, the combustion chamber may contain a cylindrical column formed from the composite heat-conducting material and a catalyst obtained by embedding a suitable heat-conducting material in a mixture with a suitable catalyst. The resulting structure of the reformer operates basically similarly Pak is above in connection with installation of the reformer, equally applicable to the combustion chamber.In Fig. 3 shows a General view of the installation of the reforming process, a built-in electrochemical Converter. Electrochemical Converter 40 with the internal installation of the reformer shown in Fig. 3, consists of alternating layers of electrolytic plate 50 and the connecting plate 60. As the material of the connecting plate is commonly used a good conductor of heat and electricity. Holes or reservoirs formed in the structure, form pipelines for gaseous fuel and oxidant, for example, the input reagents. The channels for the flow of reactants formed in the connecting plate, Fig. 4, contribute to the distribution and collection of these gases.Plates 50, 60 electrochemical Converter 40 with the internal installation of the reforming process are retained in the package by using the couplers 42 with the springing. The coupler 42 includes pinch bolt 44 passing into the Central manifold oxidant 47, as shown in Fig. 4, with nut 44A. The two plates 46 mounted on each of the ends of the electrochemical Converter 40 with the internal installation of the reforming process, provide uniform compression package alternating electrolytic and coupling plasteri Assembly.In Fig. 3 - 5 show the main fuel cell electrochemical Converter 40, which contains an electrolytic plate 50 and the connecting plate 60. In one embodiment, the technical implementation of the invention the electrolytic plate 50 may be made of a ceramic material, for example, stabilized zirconium material ZrO2(Y2O3), conductor of oxygen ions and a porous material oxidizing electrode 50A and the porous material of the fuel electrode 50B posted on it. As the material of the oxidation electrode can be used perovskites, for example, LaMnO3(Sr). As the material of the fuel electrode can be used, for example, ZrO2/Ni-ZrO2/NiO.The connecting plate 60 is preferably of a jointing material having electrical and thermal conductivity. Materials suitable for the manufacture of the connecting plate are metals such as, for example, aluminum, copper, iron, steel alloys, Nickel, Nickel alloys, chromium, Nickel alloys, platinum, platinum alloys, and nonmetals such as silicon carbide, La(Mn)CrO3and other conductive materials. The connector is Telem between fuel and oxidant. In addition, the connecting plate 60 transmits heat by conduction in the plan (for example, the surface of the plate so as to provide an isothermal surface, as will be described below. How this can be best seen in Fig. 4, the connecting plate 60 has a Central hole 62 and the number of intermediate holes arranged in concentric circles. The third outer row of holes 66 is located along the outer cylindrical or peripheral part of the plate 60.The connecting plate 60 may have a textured surface 60A, which preferably is a regular structure of the recesses, which can be performed using known forming techniques and which form a series of connecting channels reagents. Preferably regular patterns of recesses are formed on both sides of the connecting plate. Although the intermediate and outer series of holes 64 and 66 are shown with a certain number of holes, expert it is clear that it can be used any number of holes and their location on the plate also can be any, depending on requirements of the system, the flow of reagents and their input in the installation.Similarly, El is e located opposite corresponding openings 62, 64 and 66 of the connecting plate 60.As shown in Fig. 4, between the electrolytic plate 50 and the connecting plate 60 may be mounted element 80 of the flow control reagents. Regulatory element 80 provides the necessary resistance of the fluid between the plates 50, 60, providing the restriction of the flow of reagents in the reagent. Thus, the regulatory element 80 improves the uniformity of flow. The preferred element is a wire mesh or screen, but also any suitable design may be used provided that it ensures the restriction of the flow of the reactants at a given level.In accordance with Fig. 4 electrolytic plate 50 and the connecting plate 60 in turn are installed in the package so that match their corresponding holes. The holes form the axial (relative to the batch) reservoirs, through which the fuel elements are available reagents and through which the discharged products of the oxidation of the fuel. In particular, the Central holes 52, 62 form the inlet manifold 47 oxidant, concentric holes 54, 64 form the inlet manifold 48 fuel and matching holes 56, 66 Fort is part of the connecting plate provides output channels for spent fuel, which are communicated with the external environment. Channels reagents connect the input manifolds 47 and 48 of the reagents from the peripheral zone of the installation of the reformer 40, providing, thus, the drainage out of the spent fuel.Electrochemical Converter with a built-in installation reformer is a packet structure of cylindrical shape, and at least an electrolytic or connection plate has a diameter of from about 2.54 cm to about 51 cm and a thickness of from about 0.05 mm to about 5,1 mmElectrochemical Converter 40 with a built-in installation of a reformer in accordance with this invention has the additional features described below. In the case of using a pair of built-in installation reformer is introduced a mixture of the reactant gases containing natural gas (or methane) and steam. The catalyst 90 steam reforming process (Fig. 5) applied on the annular surface before the material of the fuel electrode 50B electrolytic plate 50. Thermal energy for the reaction of the reformer is passed radially plate 60 to the ring reformer. The thickness and thermal conductivity of the plates are selected to provide sufficient radial flow of heat between the internal number is reminga and pre-heating of the injected reagents.Built-in installation of the reforming process can also work in partial oxidation. In this mode, described in the Converter 40 is supplied to the gas mixture containing natural gas (or methane) and air or oxygen. One or more types of catalysts can be distributed in the form of rings before the fuel electrode 50B electrolytic plate 50. As shown in Fig. 5, the electrolytic plate includes an inner ring with a catalyst combustion 92, the outer ring 90 with catalytic reforming of methane with water vapor (steam reforming) and carbon dioxide. Thermal energy for these endothermic reforming reactions is transmitted radially from a ring of burning 92 to the ring reformer 90. Can be entered as catalysts for other reactions, such as reactions conversion of oxides and other Thickness and thermal conductivity of the heat-conducting plates are chosen to provide sufficient radial heat flow between the inner ring of the combustion chamber 90 and the outer ring reformer 92 to maintain the endothermic reaction and preheating of the injected reagents. Additional heat energy can be obtained from the exothermic reaction of the fuel element, passing on fuel is 40 catalyst combustion 92, the reforming catalyst 90 and a catalyst for the conversion of oxides (which can also be applied in the form of a ring, following the ring of the catalyst reformer 80) can be also applied to an element of the flow control located between the electrolyte and the conductive plates.In the installation of the reforming process can be used catalysts, which are mixed in different proportions along the radius to obtain the maximum yield of the reaction products.All signs installation of the reforming process described above in connection with the external installation of the reforming process is equally applicable to the electrochemical Converter with a built-in installation reformer. For example, the connecting plate 60 may include protruding surfaces 72A and 72B tank, each of which can be used for pre-heating of the injected reagents.Electrochemical Converter 40 with a built-in installation reformer may be a fuel cell, for example, fuel cell with solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell molten carbonate, alkaline fuel cell, fuel cell on phosphoric acid fuel cell with a membrane, polyphonic with solid oxide electrolyte. Electrochemical Converter 40 with a built-in installation of a reformer in accordance with the invention has an operating temperature range above 600oC, preferably from about 900oC to about 1100oC and most preferably about 1000oC.The average specialist in the art will understand that the described annular strip electrodes combustion and reformer and the fuel electrode are only representations of the comparative location of zones of electrochemical reactions that occur when using the Converter 40 as installation reformer.In another embodiment, the technical implementation of the invention the electrochemical Converter 40 with a built-in installation reformer can be of any geometrical configuration, for example, rectilinear forms. In this case, the packet structure may contain a rectangular electrolytic plate 50 and a rectangular connecting plate 60 with collectors connected externally to the plates. Materials catalysts and electrodes can be applied stripes on the electrolytic plates perpendicular to the direction of flow of the reactants. As shown in Fig. 5, the fuel flow 24 is directed to perinatality 90 endothermic reforming process, the band catalyst 92 exothermic combustion and the band 50B exothermic fuel cell, creating a virtually isothermal mode, as shown in Fig. 6.In the graph of Fig. 6 depicts the temperature of the injected reagents, for example, hydrocarbon fuels, and products of the reforming process, the installed heat-conducting plate 60 in the process of passing the reactants over electrolytic plate 50. The fuel temperature in the process is determined by the ordinate axis, and the direction of fuel flow is indicated on the x-axis. In the installation of the reforming process that does not use a heat conducting plate for heat transfer in the plan during operation, the fuel temperature varies in a large range in the direction of fuel flow, as shown by line 110. As mentioned above, the injected fuel is preheated protruding parts 72A and 72W. This pre-heating zone 112 corresponds to an increase in fuel temperature to the operating temperature of the Converter 40. During the exothermic partial oxidation or combustion zone 114 fuel temperature still increases until the flow of fuel will not reach the zone of the reformer 116. Endothermic reforming zone requires znachitelbnogo element 118, where it is again heated, for example, due to the relatively high operating temperature environment of the Converter 40. Such a change in fuel temperature 110 resembling a sine wave, reduces the efficiency of the Converter, and also exposes the individual components (electrolytic plate 50) unwanted thermal stresses. Introduction conductive (connective) plate inside the Converter 40 smoothes the temperature changes and allows you to get almost isothermal mode of operation in the plan along the axis of the package Converter at all stages of the process, as shown in figure 120.According to one mode of operation of the electrochemical Converter with a built-in installation of catalytically reforming process converts hydrocarbon fuel using H2O, resulting in H2and CO, which in turn come in a section of a fuel cell (for example, on the fuel electrode 50B), which produces electricity. It formed a weekend products CO2and H2O. Thermal energy exothermic reaction of the fuel element is transferred by conduction in terms of heat conducting plates to maintain endothermic the integrated installation of the reforming process oxidizes the hydrocarbon fuel with the formation of H2and CO, which come in a section of a fuel cell, which produces electricity. Formed products CO2and H2O. Thermal energy exothermic reaction of the fuel cell is passed to the plan due to the heat conductive plates 60 to maintain the weakly exothermic reaction of the reforming process using partial oxidation.Electrochemical Converter with a built-in installation reformer can be placed in the casing to work under pressure.Another significant feature of the invention is that the exposed heating surface 72D and 72S heat the reagents coming from external reservoirs 47 and 48 of the oxidant and fuel to the working temperature of the Converter. In particular, the protruding surface 72D, which is included in the oxidant manifold 47, heats the oxidant, and the protruding surface 72S, which is included in the header of fuel 48, heats the fuel. Plate 60, having a high coefficient of thermal conductivity contributes to the heating of the injected reagents by heat transfer by conduction from the band of the fuel element to the protruding surfaces to heat the reactants to the working temperature. So what accounts for compact design of the Converter, which can be integrated in the energy system to obtain increased efficiency.Described electrochemical Converter 40 shown in Fig. 3 to 5, can serve as chemical transformation and obtain the right products and at the same time, along with getting products to generate electricity.Under this option the technical implementation of the invention the electrochemical Converter 40 is adapted to receive electricity from an external source that triggers an electrochemical reaction within the Converter and restores the selected contaminants present in the incoming reagent, into less harmful products. Thus, for example, electrochemical Converter 40 may be connected to the source of the spent fuel, containing the selected pollutants, including NOxand petroleum products. The Converter 40 catalytically restores pollutants into less harmful products, for example, N2O2and CO2.Thus, it can be seen that the invention efficiently performs the goals set above, what becomes apparent from this description. Because , the feature of the material presented in the description or presented in the attached figures, should be considered as illustrative and in no way limits the scope of the invention.It should also be understood that the following claims should cover all generic and specific features are described invention and all statements about the scope of the invention that regardless of the form of expression must be within the specified characteristics. 1. Installation of plate type reformer for converting reagent in the reaction products in the process, made in the form of package structure formed by at least one layer of catalytic material acceleration of the reforming process, and the conductive plates of conductive material, wherein the catalytic material associated with the catalytic plates that are interleaved with the conductive plates with the possibility of transfer of thermal energy to maintain the process of reforming along the plane of the heat-conducting plate by conduction.2. Installation reformer under item 1, characterized in that it is designed for carrying out the process of reforming, including p is RA, between at least two reaction products, and thermal dissociation of one product by means of a catalyst.3. Installation reformer under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the packet structure of the reforming process has at least one axial manifold to enter the reagent in the structure and at least one collector for the reaction products from the batch structure reformer.4. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the packet structure of the reformer has an open peripheral surface for exchanging heat energy with the external environment.5. Installation reformer under item 1, characterized in that the packet structure of the reforming process has at least one axial collector reagent to enter the reagent inside and peripheral output device to output the reaction products from the peripheral part of the packet structure of the reformer.6. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that it is equipped with heat-conductive hermetic casing surrounding packet structure reformer, and has a peripheral axial manifold, passing between the inner casing surface and the outer surface of the packet structure, and the structure of the reformer with heat-conducting plate by radiation, conduction or convection, and means for introducing the reaction products in the peripheral axial collector for trapping reaction products sealed casing.7. Installation reformer under item 6, characterized in that it is equipped with a sealed casing of cylindrical form, supporting the installation of reforming under pressure.8. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that the heat-conducting plate includes means for providing an isothermal mode in the plane of the heat-conducting plate.9. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 8, characterized in that the packet structure of the reformer contains at least one axial collector reagent to enter the reagent in the packet structure of the reformer and the heat-conducting plates have protrusions, made with plates as a unit, which is fixed in the axial collector reagents for pre-heating of the injected reagent.10. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 9, characterized in that the flat surfaces of thermally conductive or catalytic plate provided with channels for the passage of the reagent on the surface of the plate, maintaining constant the pressure drop, obese the pressure drop of the flow of the reagent within the axial manifold.11. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 10, characterized in that the catalytic or the heat-conducting plate made of a porous catalytic material from which is formed a channel for the passage of the input reagent through at least a portion of the plate.12. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 - 11, characterized in that the heat-conducting plate is made of at least one non-metallic material, for example, silicon carbide, or a composite material, or of metal, such as aluminum, copper, iron, steel alloys, Nickel, Nickel alloys, chromium, chromium alloys, platinum and platinum alloys, and catalytic plate made of ceramic base plate on which a coating of catalytic material, platinum, Nickel, iron oxide, chromium or chromium oxide.13. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 - 12, characterized in that the catalytic material selected from the group of materials containing platinum, palladium, Nickel, Nickel oxide, iron, iron oxide, chromium, chromium oxide, cobalt, cobalt oxide, copper, copper oxide, zinc, zinc oxide, molybdenum, molybdenum oxide, and other suitable transition metals and their oxides.14. The mouth is at the same time, O2N2O CO2, alkane, a hydroxyl, a hydrocarbon associated with carboxyla, hydrocarbons, associated with the carbonyl, olefin hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons, associated with ether, hydrocarbons, associated with a complex ether, hydrocarbons associated with an amine, a hydrocarbon associated with aromatic derivatives, and hydrocarbons associated with other organic derivatives.15. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 14, characterized in that it is provided with means for supplying the products obtained in the plant reformer to the fuel element.16. Installation reformer under item 14, characterized in that it hydrocarbon fuel and at least one of the substances, N2And CO2are endothermic catalytic reforming process using the energy of the external fuel element, the transmitted heat-conducting plate by heat conduction in the plane of the plate, and education in the reforming of N2WITH H2O and CO2.17. Installation reformer under item 16, characterized in that it hydrocarbon fuel and O2subjected to catalytic combustion and reforming, resulting in the formation of H2WITH H2O and CO22subjected to catalytic reaction conversion dioxide to obtain the CO2and H2.18. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 17, characterized in that the packet structure of the reformer has a cylindrical shape and at least a catalytic or heat-conducting plate has a diameter of from about 2.54 cm to about 51 cm and a thickness of approximately 0.05 mm to approximately 5.1 mm19. Installation reformer for converting reagent in the reaction products in the course of its work, containing the folded package heat-conducting plate and at least one catalytic material accelerate the process of reforming, characterized in that the catalytic material dispersed throughout the thickness of the plates, made of a porous heat-conductive material capable of transmitting thermal energy to maintain the process of reforming along the plane of the plates by conduction.20. Installation reformer under item 19, characterized in that the structure of the reformer has at least one axial call the market reformer and, perhaps peripheral output device to output the reaction products from the peripheral part of the structure of the reformer.21. Installation reformer under item 19 or 20, characterized in that it is equipped with heat-conductive hermetic casing for operation of the reforming pressure surrounding packet structure reformer, and has a peripheral axial manifold, passing between the inner casing surface and the outer surface of the packet structure for exchanging thermal energy with the environment or with the structure of a reformer by radiation, conduction or convection, and possibly means for introducing the reaction products in the peripheral axial collector for trapping reaction products sealed casing.22. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.19 to 21, characterized in that the structure of the reformer contains tools to ensure isothermal mode in the structure of the reformer.23. Installation reformer under item 19, characterized in that the structure of the reformer contains at least one axial manifold to enter the reagent in the structure of the reformer and has protruding parts made with the structure as a whole and included in the axial collector reagent for prewar the collector, located in the structure of the reformer, the channels passing through the reagent in the transverse plane patterns of reforming and maintaining a nearly constant pressure drop, providing a uniform flow of reactants along the axis of the structure of the reformer, and the pressure drop in the flow of the reactants passing through the channels is substantially higher than the pressure drop in the flow of reactants within the axial manifold.25. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.19 to 24, characterized in that the conductive material is a non-metallic material, such as silicon carbide, a composite material or metal, such as aluminum, copper, iron, steel alloys, Nickel, Nickel alloys, chromium, chromium alloys, platinum or alloys of platinum, and the catalytic material is platinum, palladium, Nickel, Nickel oxide, iron, iron oxide, chromium, chromium oxide, cobalt, cobalt oxide, copper, copper oxide, zinc, zinc oxide, molybdenum, molybdenum oxide and other suitable transition metals and their oxides.26. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.19 to 25, characterized in that the reagent contains a hydrocarbon product, O2N2O CO2or hydrocarbon fuel, H2O and CO2overview2and energy of the external fuel element is used to provide the endothermic reforming reaction by transferring its heat-conducting material and that, perhaps, the reagent contains a hydrocarbon fuel and O2that are subjected to catalytic combustion and reforming, resulting in the formation of H2WITH H2O and CO2and energy from at least one exothermic combustion reaction or external reforming fuel cell is used to provide the reaction endothermic reforming process by transferring its heat-conducting material.27. Installation of a reformer according to any one of paragraphs.19 to 26, characterized in that it has means for supplying the products obtained in the plant reformer to the fuel element.28. Method of reforming reagent in the reaction products by setting reformer plate type, containing at least one catalytic material to make the conversion faster and the heat conducting plate of heat conducting material, collected in the package, characterized in that the catalytic material is applied on a catalytic plate, which set alternating with heat-conducting layer is reforming, through conduction along the surface of the heat conducting plate.29. The method according to p. 28, characterized in that the peripheral part of the surface structure of the reforming process open to exchange thermal energy with the external environment.30. The method according to p. 28 or 29, characterized in that the structure of the reformer perform axial collectors to enter into it reagent and removal of reaction products from the peripheral part of the structure of the reformer.31. The method according to any of paragraphs.28 to 30, wherein the set of conductive heat sealed casing around the structure of the reforming process for forming a peripheral axial manifold and to ensure the operation of the reforming pressure, direct products of reaction in the peripheral axial collector for trapping sealed casing.32. The method according to any of paragraphs.28 to 31, characterized in that create a virtually isothermal mode, in the plane of the heat-conducting plate, and if desired, along the longitudinal axis of the structure of the reformer.33. The method according to p. 28, wherein forming at least one axial collector reagent to enter into him reagent supply one of the inner or outer edges of the heat conducting a pre-heating of the injected reagent.34. The method according to p. 28, characterized in that the axial form a reservoir within the structure of the reforming process, form channels between conductive and catalytic plates, creating a pressure drop in the flow of reagent passing through the channels between the heat-conducting plate and a catalytic plate, which is substantially higher than the pressure drop in the flow of the reagent in the axial manifold.35. The method according to any of paragraphs.28 to 34, characterized in that one of the plates, the conductive or catalytic, made of a porous heat-conductive material and form in it the channels through which the injected reagent passes through the plate.36. The method according to any of paragraphs.28 to 35, characterized in that the structure of the reformer is combined with an external fuel element and transmit thermal energy of the fuel element, the conductive plates by thermal conductivity in the plane of the plates.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.
FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.
EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.
EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
2 cl, 2 dwg