The method of demercurization of objects contaminated with mercury "e - 2000", and the composition for demercurization "e-2000+"
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to methods of cleaning of premises from mercury, in particular for demercurization of industrial buildings, laboratories, research institutes, medical and health care institutions, schools, pre-schools, apartments. In the way of demercurization of the premises, including the application of surface contaminated with mercury solution of polysulfide with the subsequent removal of the obtained compounds of mercury or by deposition, according to the invention on a surface put 10 - 15% solution of ethoxylated alcohol (monoalkyl ether of polyethylene glycol CnH2n+1O(C2H4O)m, where n = 16 - 18; m = 21) and after exposure for at least 15 min put polysulfide solution, which is used as a 4 - 10% solution of calcium polysulfide with exposure time for at least 8 hours Composition "e-200+" for demercurization of objects contaminated with mercury, contains sulfur-containing substance, a surfactant, complexing agents and water, according to the invention as a sulfur-containing substances it contains calcium polysulfide, as the surfactant is ethoxylated alcohol, and as polysulfide calcium 5 - 9; ethoxylated alcohol - 10 - 15; diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (stabilizer) - 0.2 to 0.5; water - other; it decreases the concentration of mercury vapor in indoor air to MAC (MAC= 0.0003 mg/m3). 2 S. p. f-crystals, 1 table. The invention relates to a method of cleaning objects from mercury, in particular for demercurization of industrial buildings, laboratories, research institutes, medical and health care institutions, schools, pre-schools, apartments.Demercurization of the objects of the urban environment - residential, public and industrial premises contaminated with mercury is the actual problem in ecology.Often the causes of mercury contamination are violations of the rules of execution of works with mercury-containing devices, rules for storage and transport of mercury, industrial accidents, which is the reasons for the formation of pockets of air pollution in residential and public buildings mercury vapor or fumes of Hg-containing devices. In this regard, a greater importance is the elimination of mercury pollution, i.e. demercurization of the objects of the urban environment, which includes mechanical and chemical treatment volume is the question about the type and properties of the final products of the interaction of chemicals (hereinafter called "demercurization"), used for mercury removal, mercury vapor and mercury adsorbed by different surfaces. As the mercury removal efficiency is largely determined by the stability of the final reaction product, are promising drugs that can transform mercury into mercury sulfide is its most stable connection that meets the natural form of mercury is cinnabar.A comparative analysis of different demercurization conducted in laboratory conditions (compared drugs, the effects of which, theoretically, makes a sulphide of mercury), performed using atomic absorption, x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis has shown the following table.(Agent based on calcium polysulfide provisionally designated as "e-2000" - the name of the method).As can be seen from the table, in the processing of mercury contaminated materials with solutions of sodium sulfide, the main form of mercury in products of neutralization are soluble in water or unstable connection. This leaves a significant amount of free mercury - from 13.8 to 66.8%.Under the influence of polysulfide of sodium sulfide content of mercury is 2 efficiency with polysulfide of sodium the content of free mercury is 2.2%. However, the sulfide form of mercury (its most stable connection) in the products of demercurization is missing.Despite the relatively high content of sulfide form (49,1%) in the products of demercurization formed by using sodium thiosulfate, a significant amount of free mercury (20,5%) does not allow to consider this drug is effective dedicated to.In contrast to the above, the effects of the drug on the basis of calcium polysulfide provides conversion of mercury, mainly in the sulphide of mercury (up to 820%), in addition, the products of demercurization present presulfiding form, i.e., mercury adsorbed sulfide ion, over time, converted to the sulfide of mercury.From the prior art known way of cleaning the premises from mercury handling contaminated surfaces and accumulation of mercury in an aqueous solution of ferric chloride with subsequent removal of water-soluble mercury compounds detergents (see Pugacheva PP Work with mercury in vitro.- M.: Chemistry, 1972, S. 305).Also known purification method of the premises from mercury handling contaminated surfaces M CL 22 In 43/00, 1968).However, these methods are not efficient enough, because it does not provide the reduction of mercury vapor in air to the maximum permissible concentration (MPC = 0.0003 mg/m3).There is also known a method of demercurization of the premises, consisting in successive surface treatment solutions of copper sulfate, potassium iodide and sodium thiosulfate A. S. USSR N 1157103, 22, 43/00, 1983The disadvantage of this method is the high aggressiveness of the drugs used: formed by the reaction of gaseous iodine is toxic and detrimental to the devices and equipment.As a prototype of the invention, the authors selected the method of treatment of mercury contaminated surfaces with a solution of sodium polysulfide (see Pugacheva PP Work with mercury in vitro.- M,1972, S. 304).The disadvantage of the prototype is that the treatment of mercury contaminated surfaces by using a polysulfide of sodium leads to the formation of sulphide of mercury, followed by dissolving it in excess of the reagent and the formation of the compound from which it is possible to regenerate mercury, i.e. demercurization effect is short-lived. Moreover, the drug is not ASS="ptx2">The technical problem solved by the invention is to increase the efficiency of mercury removal areas while achieving sustainability (perpetuity) of treatment effect from mercury.The solution of this task is ensured by the fact that the method of demercurization of objects contaminated with mercury - "e-2000", which includes applying to the surface contaminated with mercury solution of polysulfide with the subsequent removal of the resulting mercury compounds or their deposition on the treated surface, according to the invention, first, on the surface cause a 10-15% solution of ethoxylated alcohol, which monoalkyl ether of polyethylene glycol CnH2n+1O(C2H4O)mwhere n= 16-18; m = 21, and after exposure of this solution for at least 15 min cause 4-10% solution of calcium polysulfide with exposure time for at least 8 hoursThe technical result of the use of the proposed invention is the implementation of preobrazovaniya mercury, mainly in mercury sulfide, which reduces the concentration of mercury vapor in indoor air to MAC (MAC=0.0003 mg/m3).In some cases (Strait insignificant amount of mercury in hospitals the floor), it is advisable to have an effective demercurization drug for emergency removal of mercury contamination and prevent mercury contamination of the entire room.With this in mind, the authors proposed a composition for demercurization called "e-2000+"which is analogous to the "e-2000".From the prior art (in part) known composition for demercurization, including sulfur-containing compound, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and water ( see U.S. patent N 2774736, M CL 252-197, 1956).However, this composition is not effective, i.e., its application does not provide the reduction of mercury vapor in air to the maximum permissible concentration (MPC = 0.0003 mg/m3).The closest analogue of the invention (composition for demercurization) is a composition for demercurization of objects contaminated with mercury containing sulfur-containing compound, complexing agents and water (see A. C. USSR N 1051103, M grade 09 To 3/00, 81 g).However, this composition is intended mainly for mercury removal from metal surfaces and are not suitable for processing premises.The technical problem solved by this variant of the invention, ausetalia, accidental spills of mercury, for example in hospitals and apartments (destruction of thermometers, fluorescent lamps, and so on), while achieving long-term (within the limits of perpetuity) of treatment effect from mercury.The solution of this task is ensured by the fact that the composition of the "e-2000+" for demercurization of objects contaminated with mercury containing sulfur-containing substance, complexing agents and water, according to the invention, it further comprises a surfactant is ethoxylated alcohol, as sulfur-containing substances - calcium polysulfide and as complexing agents - diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid - HCOOCH2N [CH2CH2N(CH2COOH)2]2with the following ratios, wt.%:
The calcium polysulfide - 5-9;
Ethoxylated alcohol - 10-15;
Diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (stabilizer) - 0.2 to 0.5;
Water - The Rest.With less than specified, the contents of the ingredients, the mercury removal efficiency decreases with a higher - efficiency increases slightly, but significantly increases the cost of the composition and increases the flow of components.Tehnicheskie objects mainly, mercury sulfide and providing (to reduce the concentration of mercury vapor in indoor air to MAC.The proposed method of demercurization as follows.Contaminated with mercury surface pre-applied solution of polyoxyethylene alcohol, which wets the surface and penetrates into all its defects (micro irregularities, cracks, gaps). When this occurs, the dispersion of contaminants and stabilize the resulting dispersion, resulting in a film of dirt containing adsorbed mercury, one's pressing away from the surface. Subsequent exposure of a solution of calcium polysulfide leads to the transformation of mercury into mercury sulfide is its most stable form. This dissolution of the formed sulfide of mercury in excess of the reagent (calcium polysulfide) does not occur.It was established experimentally that the minimum required time for dispersion of contaminants is at least 15 minutes a Time subsequent exposure of a solution of calcium polysulfide is not less than 8 hours.Note*Industrial ethoxylated alcohols are produced in Russia under the brand name "Oxanol", in the United States the industrial premises are given in examples 1-5.In the implementation of the demercurization using the "e - 2000+" plus it includes a surfactant is ethoxylated alcohol wets the surface and disperses mercury contamination in the solution layer of the composition, where the mercury reacts with calcium polysulfide. The complexing agents - diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid provides stability demercurization of the drug, which increases the cleaning effect from mercury. (This drug is called by the authors - "e-2000+").Thus, the effect of the drug "e-2000+" similarly, the combined effect of the above (method) monoalkyl ether of polyethylene glycol and calcium polysulfide.The results verify the validity of the proposed composition shown in example No. 6 (part of demercurization shown in example # 4, was carried out with the use of the drug "e-2000+" in the classrooms of schools N 1113; 7; 14; 50; 171; 397; 353; 518; 588; 1215).Example 1. On the surface /linoleum, tile/ contaminated with mercury, put a solution of ethoxylated alcohol / monoalkyl ether glycol CnH2n+1O(C2H4O)mwhere n = 16-18; m = 21, carefully cultivating cracks, defects poverhnostyah calcium, the impact of which is carried out within 8 hours After this products demercurization removed with a cloth moistened with water.Example 2. On the surface, the cement, the concrete contaminated with mercury, put a solution of ethoxylated alcohol /monoalkyl ether glycol CnH2n+1O(C2H4O)mwhere n 16-18; m = 21. The active substance - 10% by weight. After 15 min produced a drawing of a 10% aqueous solution of calcium polysulfide. Products demercurization with these surfaces are not removed. The final stage of demercurization is performing cement screed.The use of the proposed method for mercury removal at sites contaminated with mercury (schools, industrial building, storage of mercury-containing units for military purposes), has shown its high efficiency (see also attached to this application Acts).Example 3. (Production test conducted in the premises of the store units).Produced the disposal of mercury-containing materials (cement dust, damage soil, debris) through the transfer of mercury in stable compounds that do not pose an environmental threat.DeMarker the organization, - 3000 m2.As a result of executing the above complex demercurization works provided the reduction of the amount of mercury vapor in the air to MAC (MAC = 0.0003 mg/m3through the transfer of mercury, zagryaznyavshie materials of construction of the store (plaster walls, cement floor, put ground), in its most stable compound is a sulfide of mercury, do not pose environmental hazards that proves the effectiveness of demercurization activities.Example 4.In order to eliminate mercury contamination identified in the cabinets of physics and chemistry in schools of Central administrative district, Moscow) NN 19; 40; 123; 1240; 1258; 1323; 343; 1276; 643; 34:45; 232; 235; 30; 82; 1113; 7; 14; 50; 171; 397; 353; 518; 588; 1215; 1203; 414; 1278; 1652, performed complex demercurization activities, which included: a detailed survey on mercury pollution (determination of total mercury content and its forms), chemical treatment facilities, disposal of mercury-containing materials (backfill of underground space, cement screed) through the transfer of mercury in stable compounds that do not pose an environmental threat.Demercurization implemented using the implementation of the above complex demercurization works has brought the health and environmental status of objects (mercury) in conformance with regulations, that proves the effectiveness of demercurization activities.Example 5.In order to eliminate mercury pollution in the premises of the factory shell, converted into administrative offices, a complex demercurization activities, which included: a survey of the facility on mercury pollution (determination of total mercury content and its forms; chemical processing facility; disposal of mercury-containing materials (construction waste, garbage, cement dust, put ground) through the transfer of mercury in stable compounds that do not pose an environmental threat.Demercurization performed using the proposed technology "e-2000".As a result of executing the above complex demercurization works has brought the health and environmental status of the object (mercury) in conformance with regulations that proves the effectiveness of demercurization activities.Example 6. On the surface /linoleum, tile/ contaminated with mercury, are part of the "e-2000+"carefully treating the cracks and surface defects. On osteceni the uti in the air after 6 months. and 1 year after neutralization showed that the state of the object (mercury) corresponds to the set standards.Thus, the above examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method of demercurization of the premises and the proposed composition for mercury removal.It should be noted that the composition of the "e-2000+" effective with rapid elimination of a relatively small mercury pollution and demercurization with it can be done by the staff of hospitals, clinics, etc. without the involvement of specialists.The main advantage of the proposed method and composition is guaranteed the perpetuity of the effect of demercurization (due to the formation as a result of demercurization stable compounds). 1. The method of demercurization of objects contaminated with mercury "e-2000", which includes applying to the surface contaminated with mercury solution of polysulfide with the subsequent removal of the resulting mercury compounds or their deposition on the treated surfaces, wherein the first surface put 10-15% solution of ethoxylated alcohol and after exposure of this solution for at least 15 min cause 4-10% rastvorye objects contaminated with mercury containing sulfur-containing substance, complexing agents and water, characterized in that it additionally contains a surfactant is ethoxylated alcohol, as sulfur-containing substances - calcium polysulfide and as complexing agents - diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid of SOON2N[CH2CH2N (CH2COOH)2]2when the following ratio of components,
The calcium polysulfide - 5-9
Ethoxylated alcohol is 10 to 15
Diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid - 0,2-0,5
Water - The Rest
FIELD: soft abrasive materials based on mixed aluminum and iron oxides.
SUBSTANCE: method includes blending of raw components and subsequent heat treatment. Solutions of aluminum and iron sulfate with ammonia bicarbonate admixture heated to 40-600C are used as raw materials to produce slurry of aluminum and iron bicarbonates. Precipitate is separated by filtration, washed and dried. Heat treatment is carried out at 1150-12000C to provide solid solution expressed by general formula Al2-xFexO3, wherein x = 0.30-0.37. Mass part of iron oxide in finished product is 20-25 mass %. Abrasive materials of present invention are useful for finished polishing of metal parts, have polishing ability of 0.37-0.40 mg/min.cm2, provide roughness RZ = 0.07-0.08 mum after polishing and 85-90 %-yield of high-precision accepted metal parts.
EFFECT: environmentally friendly abrasive materials of improved quality.
1 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg