The way of generating electricity (variants) and a device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The method and the device are used to generate electricity. Achieved highly efficient electricity generation through the use of suitable for boiler fuel, such as cheap coal, heavy oil or plastic waste, and in some cases by the use of suitable for gas turbine fuel, not having a harmful effect on the environment, at low hardware costs. In this device, the first suitable for boilers, the fuel is separated into distillate and residue by means of partial processing. This distillate ( in some cases together with suitable for gas turbine fuel) served in the gas turbine and produce electricity. Then, emerging from the gas turbine exhaust gas resulting from combustion, served in the boiler. Then the rest (in some cases together with suitable for boiler fuel) is burned to obtain water vapor. Later in this pair produce electricity. Such method and apparatus would allow to generate electricity with high efficiency through the use of inexpensive suitable for low-grade boilers topl is those which improves the efficiency of the use of this fuel. 3 S. and 12 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for power generation, in which a fuel suitable for boilers, such as coal or heavy oil is separated into distillate and residue through the implementation of partial processing, and then the fuel for gas turbines, derived from the distillate, or a combination of these fuels for gas turbines and other suitable gas turbine fuel fed to the gas turbine, the fuel for gas turbines or suitable for gas turbine fuel is burned to produce electrical energy, or, in another case, boiler fuel, which includes this residue, or a combination of balance and is suitable for boiler fuel and/or other suitable for boiler fuel fed into the boiler, these fuels burn, to obtain water vapor, and using a steam turbine to produce electricity. The present invention relates to a method and device for re-combustion of the exhaust gas, in which exhaust gas discharged from the gas turbine, served in the boiler and used for burning boiler fuel.

There are three groups of methods of power generation, which convert the Urbina, namely, the first way is to generate electricity using boilers and steam turbines; the second method is generation of electricity using gas turbines; and the third method is a method with combined cycle, which use a combination of the first and second methods.

In the way of generating electricity using boilers and steam turbines in use as a fuel residual oil, crude oil, oil residue or coal. In addition, the electrical energy produced by the propulsion turbine using steam with high temperature and high pressure generated by the boiler. However, thermal efficiency and relatively low, namely from 38 to 40% compared to the PTS (PTS: higher heat of combustion; thermal efficiency of electricity generation is expressed in relation to the PTS, except where otherwise stated).

Further, in the method using a gas turbine as fuel use liquefied natural gas (LNG), kerosene or light oil (gasoil). Further, the fuel is burned in the compressed air, and then fired by heating the compressed air by the heat of combustion. Electric energy waraba and high pressure. Although thermal efficiency in this case is from 20 to 35%, the temperature of exhaust gas leaving the turbine, high, for example from 450 to 700oC, and, thus, it is possible to utilize the heat of this gas.

Further, in the case of turbine air cooling ribs, the gas temperature can be raised to 1300-1500oC. Thus, the generation efficiency can be improved. Therefore, the exhaust gas can be used more efficiently.

For a method of power generation using combined cycle, which is the combination of these two methods of electricity generation, fuel use of LNG. Electricity is produced by burning fuel in the compressed air and the propulsion gas turbine using gas with high temperature and high pressure. Further, the exhaust gas fed into the recovery boiler to generate steam. Thus is the way of generating electricity through the use of steam turbines. Conventional gas turbine is characterized by a high thermal efficiency, components from 46 to 47%. Therefore, if you install a new hardware zmoznosti generate electricity using the existing production capacities, then construct a new installation, using the method of power generation using combined cycle, allowing to obtain high thermal efficiency.

However, in the case of the method of power generation using combined cycle using LNG fuel storage, namely LNG, are very expensive, and there may arise the problem of supplies of LNG.

Western countries have experience in the use as fuel for gas turbines crude oil and oil residue, in addition to LNG and light oil. However, there are a lot of problems due to impurities contained in crude oil and oil residue. In addition, there are indications that operating expenses are higher than when using a light oil and LNG. In this case, it is desirable that the content of impurities in the fuel used in gas turbines was limited to the following values: total content of sodium and potassium is not more than 0.5 parts per million by weight; the content of vanadium is not more than 0.5 parts per million by weight. Especially affect each other component of salt is sodium component of salt, potassium and vanadium component. This leads to the lowering point byvaet the adherence of the ash component to the blades.

In another case, when thermal way of generating electricity as a fuel feedstock, in addition to oil and LNG, using coal and heavy oil, available in abundance in nature. Next, pursued the study of how more efficient use of raw materials and fuel. For example, investigated the process of electricity generation using combined cycle integrated gasification (CCIG), where as the gasification furnace use the oven in which the gasification is carried out in the flowing layer and in which gain values overall thermal efficiency of about 43% to 47%. However, in the case of using such a method for use of coal and fuel oil in the way of electricity generation using combined cycle it is necessary to convert raw fuel into gas, and then purify the resulting gas.

With the method of gasification of all types of crude fuel problems associated with the need for more production capacity for preprocessing of the raw fuel, the necessity of having the gasification furnace is a special type and special type of boiler which works together with this the gasification furnace, and that the spent fuel is formed a large amount of gas, with the need for additional production capacity for dust removal and gas cleaning, with the necessity of processing the remaining molten ash, even if the fuel that is intended for use in a steam turbine, is gasified and the gas is purified.

In Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, vol. 118, October, 1996, p. 737 describes a method of power generation using combined cycle, in which the coal is subjected to gasification at high temperature in the presence of oxygen and water vapor, the resulting gas is fed to the gas turbine and burn it, and then carry out the generation of electricity by driving a gas turbine by using the generated high-temperature combustion gas, and, in addition, the electricity production is also carried out by feeding the char remaining after coal gasification in a fluidized bed boiler, the combustion of the char and driving a steam turbine by using the obtained water vapor.

This method, however, is fraught with problems, which consists in the fact that the ingredients that cause corrosion of turbine blades, such as sodium salt, potassium salt and soemu arises the need to remove these ingredients. In addition, with this method the problem lies in the fact that since your system, consisting of a combination device for gasification, gas turbines and boilers with fluidized bed is specific, then the use of this equipment requires significant adjustment of the equipment used in this method, the boiler, which has a surface radiation heat transfer and the surface of the conventional heat transfer, for example, in such a system, as the existing system boiler/steam turbine, and thus in practice an obstacle for the application of this method is that that it can be used when installing new equipment. In addition, when using this method, there is also the problem lies in the fact that the cleaning gas produced at high temperatures, must be performed at a low temperature, therefore, there are large energy losses and the total cost of the equipment becomes excessively high.

A brief statement of the substance of the invention

The aim of the present invention is to produce electricity with high efficiency through the use of inexpensive suitable for boilers of low-grade fuel, which may not be Making use of this fuel.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a method by which the cost of production capacities and low degree of negative impact on the environment low.

Another objective of the present invention is a method and device that is placed in close proximity to the fuel source, such as installation or plant for processing oil, to generate electricity through the use of cheap fuel.

The authors present invention thoroughly researched electricity generation using different fuels. The authors present invention has established the following facts. Namely, first, found that the characteristics, quality, yield and calorific value of the obtained distillate meet the requirements of fuel used for gas turbines that reach the division of budget and low-grade suitable for boiler fuel, such as coal, crude oil and heavy oil, distillate and residue by appropriate delivery of partial processing, such as distillation light ends distillation (distillation), thermal decomp is I by burning. It was also found that the characteristics, quality, yield and calorific value of the residue suitable for use as fuel for boilers. Also found that the obtained quantity of the distillate and residue are suitable for the method of power generation using combined cycle, which is a combination of electricity generation using gas turbines and generate electricity using a steam turbine. Moreover, reached generate electricity with high efficiency and at low cost by using cheap equipment, by means of electricity generation using gas turbines, using as fuel for the gas turbine distillate, or a combination of the distillate and is suitable for gas turbine fuel, and by generating electricity using a steam turbine, using residue, alone or combination of balance and is suitable for boiler fuel as boiler fuel for steam generation. In addition, the achieved electricity generation with increased efficiency in the implementation of the re-combustion in the boiler, by filing in the boiler exhaust gas, the environment, the efficient utilization of fuel, derived from plants for the distillation of crude oil, resulting from the use of advanced get this fuel is suitable for gas turbines, use suitable for boiler fuel, obtained on the same installation, and combustion of these fuels in the boiler. Thus, the authors have accomplished the present invention.

Namely, the first embodiment of the present invention is a method of power generation, which includes the following stages: separation suitable for boiler fuel (T) in the distillate (D) and the remainder (About), through the implementation of partial processing suitable for boiler fuel (T); the use of fuel for the gas turbine (G), is obtained from the distillate (D), alone or a mixture of these fuels for gas turbines (G) and is suitable for gas turbine fuel (G') as fuel for the gas turbine (S); the use of the remainder (About) alone or a mixture of this residue (O) and at least one fuel selected from the group consisting of a suitable fuel for boilers (T), and other species suitable for boiler fuel (T') as a boiler fuel (To); generation of electricity by burning this toplinarstvo burning boiler fuel (K) in the boiler and by driving a steam turbine by using the obtained water vapor.

Through this effectively get fuel, suitable for use in a gas turbine and a steam turbine, from inexpensive or low-grade fuel, suitable for boilers, namely fuel, which can be used in boilers, but cannot be used in gas turbines, such as coal and heavy oil. In addition, you can use different kinds of inexpensive and low-grade suitable for boiler fuel, by combining them with various kinds suitable for gas turbine fuel. Thus, the use of these fuels can be extended. Moreover, from the point of view of environmental pollution, but also from an economic point of view, the energy is effectively carried out by selecting the best possible fuel types. When using such fuels to make electricity. Therefore, compared with the use of suitable fuel for boilers (T) as a boiler fuel (K), the efficiency of power generation increases sharply.

In addition, in one of the sub-options of the first variant implementation of the present invention (hereinafter referred to as the second embodiment of the present invention), boiler fuel (K) again, SGI, the STATCOM can burn through utilization of the amount of heat that remains in the exhaust gas from the gas turbine, as well as through the use of residual oxygen, the amount of which varies from 10 to 15%. Therefore, the efficiency of power generation can be increased to about 46%.

Furthermore, in another modification of the first variant of the method of power generation according to the present invention (hereinafter referred to here is called the third embodiment of the invention), steam for energy get through the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to the boiler-exchanger and boiler fuel (To) re-burn by feeding to the boiler exhaust gas leaving the boiler.

Thus, steam for electricity generation can be obtained through utilization of the heat remaining in the exhaust gas from the gas turbine. In addition, the rest can burn through utilization of the amount of heat that remains in the gas flue of the boiler, and through utilization of residual oxygen, the amount of which varies from 10 to 15%. As a consequence, achieving high efficiency of power generation.

In addition, in ants), next here is sometimes called the fourth embodiment of the present invention, partial processing is a partial separation, which includes at least one operation selected from the below-specified group consisting of distillation light ends, flushing (washing), distillation (the pickup), extraction and decantation.

Thus, from the foregoing it is clear that you can actually use different methods used in the practice of partial separation processing suitable for boiler fuel.

Furthermore, in another modification of one of the embodiments of the present invention (from the first to the third of its variants), then here is sometimes called the fifth embodiment of the present invention, partial processing is a processing by the partial decomposition, which includes at least one operation selected from the group consisting of thermal decomposition, carbonization, water-gas gasification, gasification, incineration, hydrogenation, liquefaction and microwave irradiation.

Thus, it is clear that you can actually use different methods using is the version of the fourth or fifth embodiments of the present invention (hereinafter sometimes called the sixth embodiment of the present invention), partial processing is carried out at a temperature in the range from 250oC to 500oC.

Through this you can obtain a distillate with a thermally favorable terms. Moreover, the amount of impurities such as Na, K, Ca and V, contained in the distillate, can be significantly reduced.

Further, in another modification of one of the embodiments of the present invention (from the first to the sixth of its variants), hereinafter sometimes called the seventh embodiment of the present invention, the ratio of the calorific value of the distillate (D) and the remainder (About) ranges from 20-60% to 80-40%.

Thus, suitable for boiler fuel economically get distillate having a calorific value suitable for electricity generation using combined cycle, which uses re-combustion of the exhaust gas. In addition, power generation can be carried out with high efficiency through re-combustion with exhaust gas, and distillate used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the rest is used in the boiler.

Further, in another modification of one of the variants OMIM of the embodiment of the present invention, at least one gas component (V) and one oil component (H) is recovered from the distillate (D), and then the gas component (V), the oil component (H) or a combination of gas component (V) and the oil component (H) used as fuel for the gas turbine (G).

Thus, it is possible to prevent the adulteration of fuel to a gas turbine component, moisture and impurities dissolved in it.

In addition, the sub-option eighth option of implementing the present invention (hereinafter sometimes called the ninth embodiment of the present invention), the oil component (H) is separated into a purified distillate (C) and VAT residue (O') by the pickup oil component (H). Next, the purified distillate (C) use as fuel for the gas turbine (G), and VAT residue (O') is used in the boiler. Thus, from the distillate, which you can get from any type suitable for boiler fuel, you can get fuel for gas turbines, which is not korregiruet the blades of the gas turbine, even after prolonged use. In the case when the distillate contains initially a small amount of impurities, the weight percentage of these impurities can be reduced even further.

Thus, since the amount of sodium and potassium is less than 0.5 parts per million by weight, and the content of vanadium is also not exceed 0.5 parts per million by weight, even if the gas turbine is used continuously for a long period of time, the turbine blades almost korrodiruet.

Further, in another modification of the eighth or ninth embodiments of the present invention (namely, in the eleventh embodiment of the present invention), the gas component (V) is burned with a gas turbine for burning gas and oil component (H) or purified distillate (C) is burned with a gas turbine for burning oil.

Thus, generation of electricity using gas turbines can effectively and stably be carried out by burning the gas component and the oil component.

In addition, d is rgii, includes: a device for partial processing by which separation is carried out is suitable for boiler fuel (T) in the distillate (D) and the remainder (About), by performing partial processing suitable for boiler fuel (T); a gas turbine that is driven by combustion of fuels for gas turbines (A), as described in the first embodiment of the present invention; an electric power generator for a gas turbine, which generates electricity using the set in motion of the gas turbine; boiler, which produces steam by burning fuel boiler (B), as described in the first embodiment of the present invention; steam turbine that is driven by using steam generated; and an electric power generator for the steam turbine, which generates electricity with the help set in motion a steam turbine.

Thus, fuel, suitable for use in a gas turbine and a steam turbine, effectively produced from inexpensive and low-grade suitable for boiler fuel, such as coal and heavy oil, and the resulting fuel can be used to exp what about fuel for boilers, or various kinds suitable for gas turbine fuel. Therefore, the use of these fuels can be extended. In addition, from an environmental and an economic point of view, the electricity production is now carried out by selecting the best possible fuel types.

Further, in the sub-option twelfth option of implementing the present invention (namely, in the thirteenth embodiment of the present invention), a device for feeding exhaust gas intended for the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to the boiler.

Thus, the rest can burn through utilization of the amount of heat that remains in the exhaust gas from the gas turbine, as well as through the utilization of residual oxygen, the amount of which varies from 10 to 15%. As a result, power generation can be carried out with an efficiency of electricity generation, amounting to approximately 46%.

Further, in another modification of the twelfth variant of implementation of the present invention (namely, in the fourteenth embodiment of the present invention), also available: HRSG, which is served after the feeder in the boiler exhaust gas, the exhaust from the boiler.

Thus, the steam to generate electricity can be produce by recycling heat remaining in the exhaust from the gas turbine gas. In addition, the rest can burn through utilization of the amount of heat that remains in the exhaust gas, the exhaust from the boiler and through the utilization of residual oxygen, the amount of which varies from 10 to 15%. This results in high efficiency of power generation.

In addition, in accordance with the present invention offers another way of generating electricity (hereinafter referred to here called the fifteenth embodiment of the present invention), which comprises the following steps: placing the device to generate electricity according to the present invention near production facilities, which are suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel are in the same place; supply suitable for gas turbine fuel to the gas turbine and the subsequent burning it suitable for gas turbine fuel; electricity generation through gas turbine, using to bring the trapping fuel in the boiler and burning it suitable for boiler fuel, using the exhaust gas emerging from the gas turbine; and generation of electricity by driving a steam turbine by using the obtained water vapor.

Thus, it can be achieved electric power output with good efficiency through the effective utilization of exhaust gas and tar, without the installation of special equipment for partial processing.

Further, in one of the sub-options of the fifteenth variant implementation of the present invention (namely, in the sixteenth embodiment of the present invention), the production capacity is chosen from the group consisting of the installation or plant for the purification of oil, steel plant, chemical plant and complex, which includes at least one setting selected from the installation or plant for the purification of oil, steel plant and chemical plant.

Thus, it is possible to effectively utilize to generate electricity large quantities suitable for turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel, not throwing them in the environment and do not carry, as compared with the case where these fuels simply burn in to the STV.

Namely, first, a method of power generation, which includes the following stages: separation suitable for boiler fuel to distillate and residue through the implementation of partial processing suitable for boiler fuel; the use of distillate as fuel for the gas turbine; and using the remainder as boiler fuel; fuel supply to the gas turbine to the gas turbine in which the fuel is burnt; the generation of electrical energy by driving a gas turbine, using the obtained combustion gas generated by burning the fuel for the gas turbine; supply of boiler fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel boiler, in which this boiler fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel burn; and generation of electricity by driving a steam turbine by using the obtained water vapor.

Further, we offer another way of generating electricity, which includes the following stages: separation suitable for boiler fuel to distillate and residue through the implementation of partial processing suitable for boiler fuel; the use of distillate in to the La gas turbine fuel and fuel for the gas turbine to the gas turbine, in which these fuels are burned; the generation of electricity by driving a gas turbine, which is driven with gas resulting from combustion and intended to bring into the movement of the turbine produced by burning these fuels; supply fuel boiler and is suitable for boiler fuel in a boiler, which burn these fuels; and generation of electricity by driving a steam turbine by using the obtained water vapor.

In addition, in the case of one of the embodiments of the above methods of power generation according to the present invention, suitable for boiler fuel (T or T') is a fuel selected from the group consisting of coal, low-grade coal with a quantity of volatile substances is not less than 20% by weight, coke, coke, fuel oil, oil residue, pitch, bitumen, petroleum coke, carbon black, bituminous sand, sand oil obtained from bituminous sand, oil shale, shale oil obtained from oil shale, orinocco tar, Orimulsion, which is an aqueous suspension of orinocco tar, asphalt, asphalt emulsion (namely, the received from natural materials, such as wood, grass, solid fats and vegetable oil or filter pressly sludge, waste plastics, combustible waste and mixture of these materials.

In addition, in the case of one of the embodiments of the aforementioned method of power generation according to the present invention, suitable for gas turbine fuel (G') is a fuel selected from the group comprising hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propene, butane and the like, butene and the like, hexane and the like, heptane and the like, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, dimethyl ether, diethyl ether, liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, light oil (gas oil), component decomposition of the heavy oil, the boiling point of which at atmospheric pressure is not above 500oC, natural gas, coal bed methane, gas from organic waste, blast furnace gas, Converter gas, gas by-produced in chemical plants and containing hydrogen gas, gasification of coal and heavy oil (namely, the gas produced during the gasification of coal or heavy oil), gas carbonization of coal, gas, water-gas coal gasification (and there is a or gas thermal separation of heavy oil (namely, light oil or gas obtained by thermal separation of heavy oil, light oil or gas thermal decomposition of heavy oil, light oil or gas oxidative degradation of heavy oil, light oil or gas thermal decomposition of heavy oil, light oil or gas oxidative degradation of heavy oil, the fermentation gas and mixtures of these substances.

In the case of one of the embodiments of the aforementioned method of power generation according to the present invention, suitable for boilers, the fuel is subjected to partial processing, is a coal, heavy oil or a mixture of coal and heavy oil.

In the case of one of the embodiments of the aforementioned method of power generation according to the present invention, exhaust gas, the exhaust from the gas turbine, served in the boiler. Next, boiler fuel and/or suitable for boiler fuel burn by feeding them air.

In the case of one of the embodiments of the aforementioned method of power generation according to the present invention, the combustion in the boiler by using only exhaust method of power generation according to the present invention, microwave irradiation is carried out by applying hydrocarbons suitable for fuel boilers (T).

In the case of one of the embodiments of the aforementioned method of power generation according to the present invention, the water - gas gasification carried out by gas and water vapor for heating directly to suitable for boiler fuel (T).

In the case of one of the embodiments of the aforementioned method of power generation according to the present invention, the gasification incineration is carried out by applying air or oxygen and water suitable for boiler fuel.

It is also proposed another device to generate electricity, which includes a device for partial processing, gas turbine generator, gas turbine, boiler, steam turbine and generator for the steam turbine. It is a device to generate electricity is used to perform the following operations in power generation:

(1) operation power generation, which includes the following stages: separation suitable for boiler fuel to distillate and residue by osushestvljali turbine; the use of residue as boiler fuel; fuel supply to the gas turbine to the gas turbine where the fuel is burned; the generation of electricity by driving a gas turbine using to ensure movement formed during the combustion gas obtained by burning fuel for gas turbines; supply fuel boiler and is suitable for boiler fuel to the boiler where the boiler fuel burn and suitable for boiler fuel, and electricity generation by burning these fuels in the boiler and driving a steam turbine by using the obtained water vapor;

(2) operation electricity generation, which includes the following stages: separation suitable for boiler fuel to distillate and the residue, by performing partial processing suitable for boiler fuel; the use of distillate as fuel for the gas turbine; and using the remainder as boiler fuel; supply suitable for gas turbine fuel and fuel for the gas turbine to the gas turbine, in which these fuels are burned; the generation of electricity by driving a gas turbine by using top is a; supply of boiler fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel in a boiler, which burn these fuels; and generation of electricity by driving a steam turbine by using the obtained water vapor;

(3) operation electricity generation, which includes the following stages: separation suitable for boiler fuel to distillate and the residue, by performing partial processing suitable for boiler fuel; the use of distillate as fuel for the gas turbine; and using the remainder as boiler fuel; fuel supply to the gas turbine to the gas turbine in which the fuel for gas turbines burn; generation of electricity by driving a gas turbine by using the formed during combustion of the gas used to drive a turbine, derived from fuel combustion for gas turbines; supply of boiler fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel, which is a type of fuel that is different from the above-mentioned suitable for boiler fuel in a boiler, which burn these fuels; and generation of electricity by driving a steam turbine by using policay: separation suitable for boiler fuel to distillate and a residue, by implementing partial processing suitable for boiler fuel; the use of distillate as fuel for the gas turbine; and using the remainder as boiler fuel; fuel supply, suitable for gas turbines and gas turbine fuels to a gas turbine in which these fuels are burned; the generation of electricity by driving a gas turbine by using the formed during combustion of the gas used to drive the movement of the turbine obtained by burning these fuels; submission of other types of suitable fuel for boilers and this boiler fuel in the boiler, which burn this boiler fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel; and generation of electricity by driving a steam turbine by using the obtained water vapor.

In the embodiment, the above-described device for electricity generation according to the present invention, the exhaust gas, the exhaust from the gas turbine, served in the boiler and the residue is burned by feeding him air.

In the embodiment, the above-described device for electricity generation according to the present invention, the combustion in the boiler implementing the present invention, offers the following fuels and ways of relating to the carbonization of coal.

Namely, first, a fuel to generate electricity, which is obtained by separating the coal, which, in particular, has a content of volatile substances is not less than 20% by weight for distillate and residue by implementing partial decomposition of the coal, with the subsequent use of distillate as fuel for gas turbines, and using the remainder, which is a carbonized residue, coke or coke as fuel in boilers for steam turbines.

In addition, it is proposed a method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, in which partial processing is the carbonation, in particular, carbonization by thermal decomposition; the carbonation is carried out at a temperature not exceeding 500oC, and the implementation of the gas component and/or oil component is separated from the distillate and used as fuel for gas turbines.

Next, we offer a fuel to generate electricity through a gas turbine, which is obtained by using the obtained gas component and/or netani per million by weight and vanadium component (V) in an amount of not more than 0.5 parts per million.

Further, in accordance with the present invention, a method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, in which the coal is separated into distillate and residue by implementing partial decomposition of the coal, and in which the distillate is used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the remainder is used as boiler fuel for steam turbines.

In addition, in accordance with the present invention, it is proposed a method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, in which the coal is separated into distillate and residue by heating coal in the course of from 0.1 to 10 seconds at a heating rate of from 10 to 100000oC per second, with the aim of making a quick partial thermal decomposition, and in which the distillate is used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the remainder is used as boiler fuel for steam turbines.

Further, in accordance with the present invention it is proposed a method in which the generation of electricity from combined cycle using fuel for gas turbines, which is derived distillate obtained by the above-mentioned rapid partial thermal RA">

In accordance with this invention, offers the following fuels and ways of relating to microwave irradiation coal.

The present invention relates to a fuel to generate electricity, which is obtained by separating the coal, which, in particular, contains volatile substances in an amount not less than 20% by weight for distillate and residue by implementing partial decomposition of coal using microwave irradiation, with the further use of this distillate as fuel for the gas turbine, and using the remainder as a boiler fuel in the boiler of the steam turbine system.

Further, in the case of this fuel, the operation of partial decomposition is a microwave irradiation, which is, in particular, at temperatures below the 50oC, preferably from 100 to 1000oC, and in the presence of a hydrocarbon, preferably in the presence of aliphatic compounds, alicyclic compounds, or aromatic hydrocarbon, each molecule of which contains from 1 to 20 carbon atoms (namely, the carbon number is from 1 to 20), or in the presence of hydrocarbon gas, gaseous fuel for turbines palasovye component and/or an oil component as fuel for gas turbines.

In addition, it is proposed a method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, in which the coal is separated into distillate and residue by implementing partial decomposition of coal using microwave irradiation, with the further application of this distillate as fuel for the gas turbine and using the remainder as a boiler fuel in the boiler of the steam turbine system.

In accordance with this invention, offers the following methods partial water-gas gasification of coal.

Namely, we propose a method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, in which the coal is separated into distillate and residue by implementing partial water-gas gasification of coal, with the subsequent use of this distillate as fuel for the gas turbine and using the remainder as a boiler fuel.

Further, in the case of one of the embodiments of this method, partial water-gas gasification carried out by adding water vapor to heat the gas directly.

In addition, in the case of one of the embodiments of the present method, partial water-gas Gazi is I.

In addition, in the case of one embodiment of the method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, the gas component or the gas and oil components are separated from the distillate, and gas component or the gas and oil components are used as fuel for gas turbines. In addition, this method of obtaining fuel for electricity generation the ratio of the calorific value of the distillate to this indicator sediment ranges from 30-45% to 70-55%.

In accordance with the present invention offers the following ways of dealing with the partial gasification of coal by burning.

Namely, we propose a method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, in which the coal is separated into distillate and residue by implementing partial gasification of coal by burning, with the subsequent application of this distillate as fuel for the gas turbine and using the remainder as a boiler fuel.

Further, in one embodiment, the implementation of this method, partial gasification incineration carried out by adding to the coal air or oxygen or water vapor. In addition, in the case of another variant of the OS is the exercise of hydrogen, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide or mixtures thereof.

Further, in one embodiment, the implementation of this method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, the gas component or the amount of gas and oil components are separated from the distillate, and this gas component or the amount of gas and oil components are used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the ratio of the calorific value of the distillate to this indicator of the balance is from 30-55% to 70-45%.

In accordance with the present invention offers the following ways of dealing with the partial thermal decomposition of the heavy oil.

Namely, we propose a method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, in which residual oil is separated into distillate and residue by implementing thermal decomposition of heavy oil, with subsequent application of this distillate as fuel for gas turbines.

Further, in one embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the heavy oil is separated into distillate and residue through thermal decomposition of the heavy oil, and the remainder is used as boiler fuel.

illat and the rest, through the implementation of thermal decomposition of heavy oil, this distillate is used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the remainder is used as boiler fuel.

In addition, in the case of another variant implementation of the method according to the present invention, the heavy oil is a fuel oil A fuel oil B fuel oil C, obtained at atmospheric pressure the oil residue obtained under reduced pressure oil residue, shale oil, heavy Orinoco oil, Orimulsion, emulsified asphalt, bitumen or mixture of these substances. In addition, thermal decomposition is carried out using the method of cracking way visbreaking (slight cracking), method a delayed coking unit, method of coking in boiling (liquefied) layer, method of plastic coking, fashion contact coking, way EURECA (developed by the company Kureha chemical industry TOoCo., Ltd.). In addition, thermal decomposition is carried out by adding water vapor, air, hydrogen, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide or mixtures thereof. The ratio of the calorific value of the distillate to this indicator of the balance is from 20-60% to 80-40%.

Namely, we propose a method of obtaining fuel to generate electricity, in which a mixture of coal and heavy oil is separated into distillate and residue by implementing partial gasification of the mixture by burning, using the obtained distillate as fuel for the gas turbine and use the remainder as a boiler fuel.

Further, in one embodiment, the implementation of this method, partial gasification incineration carried out by adding air or oxygen, or water vapor to the mixture of coal and heavy oil.

In addition, in the case of another variant implementation of the method, partial gasification incineration shall be implemented by additional hydrogen, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide or mixtures thereof.

In addition, in another embodiment of this method, in partial gasification by burning the weight ratio of coal to heavy oil is in the range from 5:95 to 80:20.

Further, in another embodiment of this method, a gas component or the amount of gas and oil components are separated from the distillate, and this gas component or the amount of gas and oil the spine of the distillate to this indicator of the balance is from 20-60% to 80-40%.

Further, in accordance with the present invention, the above-mentioned device for power generation may also be provided with a separation device for separation of at least a gas component (V) and the oil component (H) of the distillate (D).

In addition, one of the options for the implementation of such a device to generate electricity according to the present invention may also be provided with a device for separating an oil component (H) in the purified distillate (C) and the residue (O').

As described above, the fuel for gas turbines and boiler fuel that meets all the necessary standards, receive fuel ratio, which is suitable for electricity generation, in particular electricity generation by re-burning exhaust gas, coal, heavy oil and the like or a mixture of coal and heavy oil and the like as materials suitable for boiler fuel and the exercise of their partial processing. Compared with thermal efficiency (about 38 to 40%) in the case of electricity generation by burning the full amount of usable fuel for boilers in the boiler and development of electronic who eat ranges from 45 to 47%. This value of thermal efficiency is comparable to the value of thermal efficiency, which is obtained in the case of power generation through gasification of the full amount of the heavy oil. Compared with the gasification of the full amount of the heavy oil, the cost of equipment for the decomposition of the fuel and process liquid-gas distillation in accordance with the present invention is low. Even if you are using a gas turbine, there is no corrosion. In addition, the amount of exhaust gas is small, due to the abundance and cheapness of raw materials, conservation, use of existing equipment and high thermal efficiency. Therefore, the method and apparatus of the present invention have considerable advantages from the point of view of prevention of environmental pollution on a global scale.

In addition, in accordance with the present invention one of various types suitable for boiler fuel, which is disposed only in boilers and are inexpensive, have low values of factor utilization, and which is pressed before treatment, and species are suitable for gas turbine fuel, which is easy to obtain that there are in excess and koswanage to use. This results in increased efficiency of electricity generation. In addition, increasing the capacity of electricity generation can be achieved by a small investment, since it does not require an additional manufacturing capacity for partial processing.

Brief description of drawings

Fig. 1 - process map illustrating the present invention;

Fig. 2 - process map illustrating the process of separating the distillate gas component and a liquid component;

Fig. 3 is a process map illustrating the process of further acceleration of the oil component;

Fig. 4 is a process map illustrating a method of power generation using suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel;

Fig. 5 is a process map illustrating a method of power generation using a combination suitable for boiler fuel, fuel for gas turbines and boiler fuel, which is produced by the implementation of partial processing suitable for boiler fuel;

Fig. 6 is a process map illustrating a method of power generation using suitable the fuel, which are obtained by the implementation of partial processing suitable for boiler fuel;

Fig. 7 is a process map illustrating the process of separating the distillate gas component and a liquid component; and

Fig. 8 is a process map illustrating the process of further acceleration of the oil component.

Detailed description of preferred embodiments of the present invention

In connection with the method and device according to the present invention, the term "suitable for gas turbine fuel (G')" means a fuel that can be used in a gas turbine, and is a flammable gas or flammable liquid with a low density, boiling point of which at atmospheric pressure is 500oC (namely, about 900oF). Practical examples of such suitable for gas turbine fuels are methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propene, butane and the like, butene and the like, hexane and the like, heptane and the like, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, dimethyl ether, diethyl ether, liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, light oil (gas oil), the decomposition of cereplast, gas from organic waste, blast furnace gas, Converter gas, secondary gas produced in chemical plants and containing hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide, gas gas, such as coal or fuel oil, gas carbonization of coal, gas, water-gas coal gasification, gas partial combustion of coal, light oil or gas thermal decomposition of heavy oil, light oil or gas oxidative degradation of heavy oil, light oil or gas thermal decomposition of heavy oil, light oil or gas oxidative degradation of heavy oil, the fermentation gas and the mixture of these substances.

Next, examples of by-product gases that contain hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide and which are formed on various kinds of plants, are hydrogen, obtained by oxidation of a hydrocarbon, or gases in chemical plants, such as a mixed gas obtained by mixing hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Further, in the method and device according to the present invention, the term "suitable for boiler fuel (T, T') is a fuel that cannot be used for gas turbines, but can be used in the boiler, and which represents the coke, coke, residual fuel oil (namely, the fuel And the fuel In the fuel), oil residue (namely, obtained at atmospheric pressure the oil residue and received under reduced pressure oil residue), pitch, bitumen, petroleum coke, soot, tar Sands obtained from bituminous sand sand oil, oil shale, obtained from oil shale, shale oil, orinocco tar, Orimulsion, which is an aqueous suspension of orinocco tar, asphalt, asphalt emulsion, glamazonia mixture (UMC), a mixture of coal with water (UVS), metrologichna pulp, mass, obtained from natural materials such as wood, grass, solid fats and vegetable oil or filter pressly sludge, waste plastics, combustible waste and mixture of these materials.

In the method and device according to the present invention, suitable for boiler fuel designed for partial processing (namely, suitable for boiler fuel (T) for a boiler that is used for the operation of partial processing) may be the same as or different from that suitable for boiler fuel (T'), which is not subjected to partial processing and directly supplied to the boiler. For example, as a suitable dsget be used as boiler fuel, fed directly into the boiler. As an alternative, can be used suitable for boiler fuel, which can be subjected to partial processing, and fuel, which is difficult partial processing or fuel, partial processing which is disadvantageous from an economic point of view, can be used as suitable for boiler fuel, which is fed directly into the boiler.

In this case, in the method and device according to the present invention uses the terms "boiler" and "boiler". When you use just the term "boiler", the term "boiler" means a boiler or boiler system steam turbines, which burn boiler fuel. To denote a boiler designed for recovery of waste heat, use the term "boiler".

Next, examples of the use of coal as suitable for boiler fuel (T) and (T') in the method and device according to the present invention, are lignite, brown coal, low-grade bituminous coal, high-grade bituminous coal, polivitaminny coal, polyatract and anthracite. Preferably, the content of volatile matter in coal was aflalo not less than 30% by weight and to volatile substance corresponded to the ratio of the calorific value of the fuel, used in a gas turbine and the boiler, or so that coal could be obtained distillate, consisting of volatile substances and material, which is the product of thermal decomposition. The preferred coal is a coal of low or average marks, the content of volatile substances in which at least 35% by weight and which can provide distillate corresponding to the ratio of the calorific values of fuels used in gas turbine and boiler, the combination of which is used for re-combustion of the exhaust gas.

As a rule, the smaller the content of volatile matter in the coal, the lower the degree of charring of the coal. Thus, the degree of utilization of such coal is lower. But the reserve of coal is high and the price low. It is therefore very important to find a way of making electricity, which effectively would have used such coal. However, the methods of the present invention are not well known. Moreover, such production is unknown installation or experimental equipment.

Heavy oil used as a suitable fuel for boilers in the present invention, includes the recycled oil contains distillate and heavy component. In the device according to the present invention crude oil can be used as fuel for the gas turbine through the implementation of partial separation or partial decomposition of the oil. In addition, crude oil can be fed into the boiler as suitable for boiler fuel. Moreover, you can use crude oil with low sulfur and high sulfur content. There is no need to increase the salt content to a low concentration such as 0.5 parts per million, before partial processing. In addition, there are no restrictions on the sulfur content distillation.

Conventional heavy oil represents, for example, fuel oil A fuel oil B fuel oil C, obtained at atmospheric pressure the oil residue obtained under reduced pressure oil residue, shale oil.

Extra-heavy oil has a specific gravity of 1.0 or more (60/60oF) (15,6oC) and a viscosity of 10,000 CPs (10000 mPas or less, i.e. at a temperature lower than the temperature of the oil bath, and represents, for example, Orinoco extra-heavy oil, Orimulsion, which is an aqueous suspension of ORALITE.

Bitumen has a specific gravity of 1.0 or more (60/60oF) (15,6oC) and a viscosity of 10,000 CPs (10000 mPas or less, i.e. at a temperature below the temperature of the oil bath, and represents, for example, bitumen Athabasca and bitumen "cold lake".

If necessary, before partially processing the content of impurities such as salts, including salts containing sodium, potassium, calcium and sulfur, such heavy oil can be lowered by washing (water), alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, cleaning with solvents, adsorption, substitution, or biological treatment.

In the description of the method and device of the present invention "partial processing" suitable for boiler fuel indicates a partial separation, partial decomposition or joint application of these operations.

Partial separation is a selection of the distillate and residue, which will be described below, suitable for boiler fuel, using methods of separation, such as heat, low blood pressure, flushing (flushing), dry distillation (distillation, extraction or decantation, without changing the chemical composition of the fuel.

Partial decomposition indicates a change to helices the fuel using thermal decomposition, carbonization, gasification, incineration, water-gas gasification, hydrogenation, liquefaction or microwave irradiation. Therefore, a partial decomposition is accompanied by the allocation of the distillate and residue. After that, if necessary, followed by operations on the allocation of distillate gas component and the oil component, and the operation further selection component light, oil from the oil component.

In the description of the method and device of the present invention "distillate" (L) denotes the component selected from suitable for boiler fuel by partial separation or subjected to partial decomposition suitable for boiler fuel, with partial decomposition or partial decomposition with subsequent separation of gaseous and/or liquid state. Thus, the distillate includes both the condensed and liquefied after evaporation component, and the component selected after you get it in liquid form.

Partial processing of heavy oil, the term "distillate" means a gaseous or liquid component, which has a boiling point below 500oC (900oF) at atmospheric pressure remaining after as mentioned above, the distillate was extracted from suitable for boiler fuel or subjected to partial decomposition suitable for boiler fuel.

Below here is an explanation of partial processing, by description, separately, partial separation and partial decomposition.

First, the following explains the various types of operations partial separation.

"Distillation light ends" in the description of the method and device according to the present invention refers to a method of obtaining volatile substances by heating, for example, raw (crude) oil, followed by the use of steam or inert gas, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide or metadatareader gas as a gas for distillation light ends, and with the subsequent injection of gas for distillation of light fractions in the heated crude oil.

The term "distillation (distillation), which is used in the description of the method and device according to the present invention includes a method of heating, for example, crude oil and receipt of volatiles under reduced or atmospheric pressure, or when excessive in relation to atmospheric pressure, the method simply obtain volatile substances, the method reedstrom adding to the crude oil azeotropically or extracting agent.

In the case when the description of the method and device according to the present invention uses the term "extraction", biomass, with a rich content of the oil component is crushed, if necessary, and separated into an extract and extraction residue by adding the extracting agent. Then extracting agent are separated from the extract, and the extract can be used as fuel for gas turbines. Further, the fibrous part, which represents the balance after extraction, can be used as boiler fuel.

The term "flushing (flushing), which is used in the description of the method and device of the present invention, means the introduction of, for example, crude oil, which was heated at a high temperature and high pressure in a tank with low pressure, with subsequent separation of crude oil into distillate and residue.

The term "decanate" used in the description of the method and device of the present invention, refers to a type of heating, for example, oil shale, followed by separation of the oil shale oil component whose viscosity is reduced by "pouring" oil component without stirring ECETOC emit after partial decomposition, or when the distillate get purified distillate.

Below describes the different types of partial decomposition.

The term "thermal decomposition", as used in the description of the method and device of the present invention, refers to the way in which, for example, crude oil, used as raw material, can be divided at least a distillate containing a component that can be used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the remainder, which can be used as boiler fuel.

Thus, in the case of use in the method and device according to the present invention, thermal decomposition, this thermal decomposition can be carried out without additional operations, or it may be performed via injection into the raw material water vapor or hydrogen. In the alternative, can be made catalytic thermo-contact the cracking catalyst.

Examples of how the implementation of thermal decomposition are a cracking way to obtain a distillate, the way visbreaking (slight cracking) for lowering the viscosity of the residue and method of coking to get distilley these methods can serve as a way of making high-temperature thermal decomposition at a temperature not lower than 1100oC, the method of conducting thermal decomposition by high temperature coking at a temperature in the range from 980 to 1100oC, the method of conducting thermal decomposition by medium-temperature decomposition at a temperature in the range of from 870 to 980oC, to obtain a gas with low calorific value, another method of performing thermal decomposition by medium-temperature decomposition at a temperature in the range from 700 to 870oC, to obtain a gas with a high calorific value, the method of conducting thermal decomposition by low-temperature carbonization at a temperature in the range from 480 to 700oC, the method of conducting thermal decomposition by low-temperature decomposition at a temperature in the range from 480 to 540oC, the method of conducting thermal decomposition by visbreaking at a temperature in the range of from 430 to 480oC way "EURECA" to carry out thermal decomposition at a temperature in the range of from 350 to 480oC, in which there is a simultaneous injection into the material of the water vapor.

In addition, quality indicators obtained residue varies depending on the form of heavy netpreneur, when using method a delayed coking unit, receive asphalt coke, and when using the method of coking in the fluidized bed, fashion plastic coking and method of contact coking get carbody coke.

When carrying out thermal decomposition of heavy oil using the method of visbreaking, thermal decomposition exercise caution, to such an extent that it was not formed coke. Thus it is possible to lower the viscosity of sediment and temperature loss of fluidity. In the method of visbreaking residual oil is separated into distillate and residue by decomposition of residual fuel oil by means of a heating furnace or by the subsequent transmission of residual fuel oil through the reaction chamber, if necessary. The separation of the distillate and the residue can be produced by rapid cooling of the distillate to stop decomposition.

In case of thermal decomposition of heavy oil using the method of coking in boiling (fluid) layer and method of plastic coking residual oil fed into the reactor, and then subjected to thermal decomposition by heating coke, floating in the reactor, whereby fuel oil share n the COP), adhering to the heating coke, send in the heating chamber, in which the residue is heated with coke and gas, withdrawn from the gasifier. After that, the rest return to the reactor. Part of this residue (namely, coke), which is stuck to the heating coke and was sent into the heating chamber, send in a gasifier, in which the residue is then subjected to gasification with air and water vapor. The resulting gas is returned to the heating chamber. Part of the coke in the heating chamber, extract from it in the form of coke, and the remaining amount is returned to the reactor to repeat the cycle.

In the case of application of the method of coking in the fluidized bed, the remainder (i.e., coke), adhering to the heating coke, send in the combustion chamber, in which the residue is heated by air supply. After that, the remainder returned to the reactor to repeat the cycle. Part of the coke in the combustion chamber, extract from it in the form of coke, and the remaining amount is returned to the reactor to repeat the cycle.

If thermal decomposition of the heavy oil is performed using the method of delayed coking of heavy oil is first heated, and the distillate (namely, pair of oil) and the rest (namely, a liquid with a high boiling point). After that, the rest served in the heating furnace. In this heating furnace heavy oil is heated in a short period of time. Then this heavy oil is sent to a coke drum, and then, in the coke drum is separated into distillate and residue. This residue when heated gradually turns into coke. This distillate is served in the above-mentioned distillation column in which the distillate and heavy oil is separated into distillate (namely, a pair of oil) and the rest (namely, a liquid with a high boiling point).

The yields of gas and coke in the case of this method, compared with the method of coking in the fluidized bed and the way the plastic coking, are high.

In the case when thermal decomposition of the heavy oil is carried out using the method EUREKA, residual oil is subjected to preliminary heating, and then served in the lower part of the distillation column, in which this residual oil is separated into distillate and residue (namely, a liquid with a high boiling point). This residue (namely, a liquid with a high boiling point) heated nagivator from its lower part serves water vapor. As a result of this previously subjected to easy decomposition of the residue is subjected to further thermal decomposition. In addition, activated mixing of the residue and the formation of distillate. After a predetermined period of time the reagent is cooled, resulting in the reaction stops.

The distillate includes gas, oil component and condensed water. If necessary, sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide can be removed from the gas component. The oil component sephirot using rectification so that the oil component having a high boiling point, can be mix with raw materials, namely, residual fuel oil, and to allow it to circulate in the system. After the reaction terminated, the balance turns into liquid pitch, and then it is extracted towards the outer part of the system in the form of oil pitch.

Prepare multiple reactors, and then use them, replacing one reactor to the other after a certain period of time. Thus, the operation is carried out through a system of working in semi-continuous mode.

Thermal decomposition explained below by describing taken as pretvorenie plastic waste into oil. Polyolefin, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, dissolved in oil such as light oil, by heating at a temperature in the range from 330 to 350oC for 20 to 120 minutes, during which there is a decrease in its molecular weight. Polystyrene is subjected to decomposition and dissolution mainly by depolymerization by heating at a temperature of 250oC for from 10 to 60 minutes. Then the liquid, which was formed as a result of decomposition and dissolution of plastic waste is separated into distillate and residue by distillation. Further, the distillate can be used as fuel for gas turbines, and this residue can be used as boiler fuel.

In the case of catalytic decomposition (catalytic cracking), you can use the decomposition catalysts such as clay, aluminosilicate, zeolite (in particular, rare earth exchange zeolite and zeolite ultrastable (with respect to Y), Co-Mo, Ni-Mo and Fe, depending on the species used as raw material fuel oil, as well as from species contained impurities.

The conditions required for thermal decomposition of heavy oil vary depending on the form used as the first penetration and methods of technological processing or recycling. Treatment temperature of residual fuel oil is in the range from 350 to 1300oC and depends on the depth of processing. The range of pressure is from atmospheric pressure to 100 atmospheres. Thus, the distillate can be obtained by applying pressure value from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. Reaction time is not more than 10 hours.

In order to enhance thermal decomposition, to raw materials as a modifier can be added hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon, of a portion of the gas component, the oil component or the alcohol.

These methods can be performed using any of the operations carried out in accordance with a periodic process, semi-continuous process, such as the way EUREKA, and continuous process, such as the way visbreaking.

The term "carbonization" in the description of the method and device of the present invention is used to denote the operation of the chemical conversion of coal into a gas component that is not condensed, and the liquid component, which is condensed, and the liquid and solid components, which emit through decanting, by tigania coal in conditions of reduced to the use of water, etc.

The method of carbonization can be either process using a retort, or a process using a device called the coke oven. For the convenience of the coal feeding device for carbonization and unloading from him residue, coal is divided into blocks of normal size or small particles, and then these blocks or small particles of coal fed to the device for carbonization.

Heating coal for carbonization can be carried out by heating the furnace for carbonization carried out from the outside. However, it is preferable that the gas used for heating at a predetermined temperature, for example from 400 to 1300oC obtained by the combustion of fuel fed into the furnace, which is then heat this gas. Thus, the volatile substance is formed in the support gas for heating.

In this case, there are two types of carbonization. Namely, one of them is a low-temperature carbonization, the final temperature of heating in which you are not above 800oC. the Second type is a high - temperature carbonization, the final temperature of heating in which you are not below 800oC. Next, this high-temperature carbonization is carried out at the same time the situation is more preferable. In the case of low-temperature carbonization get a large amount of the oil component and char, which are used as fuel. In contrast, when high-temperature carbonization get coke oven gas and a large amount of coke used in blast furnaces for casting. Next, carbonization, carried out in accordance with the method and device according to the present invention, may include only the carbonization process by thermal decomposition, which is carried out at a temperature not exceeding 500oC, without the stage of sintering. In this case, if coal is used with a certain kind, the rest are in the form of small particles or pieces, as a result of its softening and melting. This is determined depending on the type of boiler for which will be used such forms of balance.

In the description of the method and device according to the present invention, the term "carbonization" means the above-mentioned low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, carbonization by thermal decomposition and combination of these types of carbonization.

As for time of heating during carbonization, the duration of treatment is at a high temperature to 1000oC, which applies in the case of rapid thermal decomposition, may be about 1 minute or more than 1 minute. However, the method of low-temperature carbonization, which is usually set for a long duration of treatment, is preferred.

In the case of carbonization, the gas components depend on the type of coal and the conditions of manufacture of the device. As an example, the gas content below is expressed in % by volume, except where otherwise stated), gas components containing 50% hydrogen, 30% methane, 8% carbon monoxide, 3% hydrocarbon, such as ethylene and benzene as an effective component, and also contain a component of moisture, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and trace elements, such as the monoxide nitrogen, hydrocyanic acid, pyridine, sulfide, disulfide, carbonyl sulfide and tar.

The number or the output of the gas component obtained by carbonization, is from 100 to 200 Nm3per ton of coal, in the case of low-temperature carbonization or carbonization by heat decomposition, and from 300 to 400 Nm3per ton of coal in the case of high-temperature carbonization. Further, the calorific value of these gases, were by thermal decomposition, and from 6200 to 8000 kcal/Nm3in the case of gases, obtained by high-temperature carbonization.

The oil component consists mainly of light oil, tar and alcohol, in the case of carbonation, and it can be used by purification or separation by distillation, and similar operations. The rest is a pitch in which the condensed inorganic substances, such as salts and vanadium. Thus, more desirable fuel for the gas turbine is obtained by distillation and purification of the pitch. In this case, this residue can be added to the boiler fuel.

The amount of alcohol ranges from 50 to 150 liters per ton of coal.

The number of light oil and tar ranges from 90 to 180 liters per ton of coal in the case of low-temperature carbonization and carbonization by heat decomposition, and from 40 to 80 liters per ton of coal in the case of high-temperature carbonization.

The following describes a rapid partial thermal decomposition, which is used in the method and device according to the present invention. Namely, this is a quick partial thermal decomposition of the coal used in the method of obtaining fuel in the Ohm heating of coal with a heating rate of 10 to 10000oC per second for 0.1 to 10 seconds, and in which the coal is separated into a distillate, the main component of which is a volatile substance, and for the remainder, the main components of which are char and coke, and then the distillate is used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the rest is used as fuel for the boiler of a steam turbine.

Further, in accordance with the present invention, power generation using combined cycle is carried out by use in a gas turbine fuel for gas turbines, derived from the distillate, which, in turn resulting from the above quick partial thermal decomposition and using the remainder as a boiler fuel.

Partial gasification incineration, used in the method and device according to the present invention, explained below by describing as an example in case is used as raw material coal.

Namely, in the case of partial gasification incineration in the method and device according to the present invention, the coal, which is used as raw material, is first separated into a distillate containing component to the as boiler fuel. Examples of ways to implement partial gasification incineration are the ways in which use, respectively, the oven with the stationary layer, the furnace fluidized-bed (fluidized bed) layer, a furnace with a flowing layer of the furnace with the molten layer, a furnace with a moving bed, an oven with a combination of stationary and flowing layers, oven with a combination of boiling and flowing layers and oven with a combination of running and molten layers. Conditions of partial gasification incineration depend on these methods of its implementation. In addition, the ratio between the content of various fuels in gas obtained depends on used for oxidation with air or oxygen. To obtain a fuel with a high calorific value, it is preferable to use oxygen. In addition, the fuel having a higher calorific value, obtained by separation and removal of carbon dioxide and the like from the gas obtained by partial gasification incineration, or by increasing the content in the product gas of hydrogen and methane by the reaction conversion and the reaction of the reformer.

The weight ratio between carbon, oxygen (in particular, in the case of using the sushestvennee partial gasification of by incineration. Further, if the weight of the coal to make 1, then the weight ratio of added oxygen to the coal is not more than 1.5:1 and the weight ratio of added water to the coal does not exceed 3. Preferably, the weight ratio of oxygen to coal ranged from 0.1 to 1.2. Preferably, the weight ratio of water to coal ranged from 0.1 to 2.0. The treatment temperature is the temperature of the furnace and is in the range from 600 to 1600oC. the Pressure ranges from atmospheric pressure to 100 ATM. Thus, the distillate can be obtained when using a pressure in the range from atmospheric pressure to 100 ATM or so.

When the weight ratio of water vapor to be added to the coal, close to 3, a shift reaction of carbon monoxide in the direction of the hydrogen. In the result, the weight ratio of hydrogen contained in the distillate increases. The lesser becomes the weight ratio of oxygen and water, especially gasification is similar to the dry distillation (or carbonization). As a result, the gas content decreases and the liquid content increases.

In the case of partial gasification using formed by greasepole, made by burning and coal emit volatile substance.

Partial water-gas gasification used in the method and device according to the present invention, explained below with descriptions taken as an example a case of using coal as raw material. Next, examples of methods of implementation of the partial water-gas gasification are ways, using respectively oven with fixed bed, microwave boiling (fluid) layer, a furnace with a flowing layer of the furnace with the molten layer, a furnace with a moving bed, an oven with a combination of stationary and flowing layers, oven with a combination of boiling and flowing layers and oven with a combination of running and molten layers.

The conditions required for the partial water-gas gasification, depending on which of these methods are applied. Further, if the weight of the coal to make 1, then the weight ratio of added water to the coal is not more than 3. Preferably, the weight ratio of water to coal ranged from 0.1 to 2.0. The treatment temperature is the temperature of the furnace and is in the range from about 300 to 1600oC. the Pressure ranges from atmospheric pressure to 100 tanookie carbon towards hydrogen. In the result, the weight ratio of hydrogen contained in the distillate increases. When the weight fraction of water is approaching 0,1, gasification is similar to dry distillation. As a result, the gas content is reduced.

Heating the coal with partial water-gas gasification can be carried out by heating the furnace to a water-gas gasification outside, while steam coal. However, it is preferable that the water vapor was added to the heating gas having a predetermined temperature, for example, from 400 to 1800oC, which is obtained by burning fuel, and then use this gas heated furnace. As a result, the gas and volatile matter is distilled over.

The source of moisture depends on the type used above the furnace for water-gas gasification, and as this source use water, drainage water, low pressure steam or high pressure steam.

In addition to water vapor, the heating gas can be added hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon, part of the obtained water-gas component and the oil component or the alcohol.

In the case of a partial water-gas gasification, the second device and varieties of coal. In the case of injection in coal water vapor and air, the resulting gas contains as main components, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen. The number or the exit of the heat produced by the gas component obtained by partial water-gas gasification, is from 1000 to 1500 kcal/Nm3. In the case of injection in coal water vapor and oxygen, the product gas contains as main components carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The number or the exit of the heat produced by the gas component obtained by partial water-gas gasification is from 2500 to 4500 kcal/Nm3. The distillate usually contains hydrocarbons, nitrogenous substances, such as ammonia, sulfide such as hydrogen sulfide, and tar, in addition to the above gas component. As an example, in case of partial water-gas gasification conditions, when the reverse ratio is 35%, at 830oC and at a pressure of 70 ATM, as effective components contained 24% hydrogen, 7% methane, 7% carbon monoxide and 4% of the hydrocarbon, and the moisture, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrogenous substances, such as ammonia, sulfides, such as servodata of the products of partial gasification, held by burning it, get the oil component comprising mainly naphtha and tar, and coal as distillate get volatile substance.

Partial hydrogenation, which is used in the method and device according to the present invention, explained below by describing, as an example, a case of using a solid suitable for boiler fuel, such as coal. Partial hydrogenation in this case can proceed without a catalyst, but also can be carried out in the presence of a metal catalyst. If the catalyst is not used, the resulting oil is used as a reusable solvent, and in this case, the treatment temperature and pressure are almost the same as in the case of thermal decomposition and carbonization. However, since hydrogenation is an exothermic reaction, the amount of heat that must be made in the apparatus is very small.

Next, the partial hydrogenation can be performed at temperatures in the range from 400 to 500oC and at a pressure of from 20 to 200 ATM, oil, obtained in the presence of the catalyst for one-time use, such as Co-Mo/alumina, Ni-Mo/clay is ASS="ptx2">

The distillate obtained in this way has a rich content nizkouglerodnogo gas, such as methane. In addition, this distillate has a high calorific value.

Partial liquefaction, which is used in the method and device according to the present invention, explained below by describing cited as an example a case of using a solid suitable for boiler fuel, such as coal. The resulting oil is used as a reusable solvent in which is dissolved solid suitable for boiler fuel, without changes, or, in the alternative, the solid suitable for boilers, the fuel is dissolved in the solvent are reusable, pulverized it into fine powder. In addition, liquefaction perform without the use of a catalyst or using a catalyst similar to the catalyst used during partial hydrogenation, and using such methods as a way IG, fashion EDS, the method Dau, way zinc chloride catalyst, the method of Bergbau-Forshung, the way Saarbergwerke, the method SRC, fashion SRC-II, way Mitsui-SRC, method C-SRC, method H-Coal, extraction solvent, the method selek is-SRT and the way NEGOL. As for the partial liquefaction temperature is in the range from 300 to 500oC and a pressure in the range from 20 to 200 ATM.

If this method is carried out at low pressure, you get large amounts of coke and heavy oil. However, in the case of the method and device of the present invention, such a char and tar can be used in the boiler. Thus, the full liquefaction to carry out not necessarily.

Microwave irradiation, which is used in the method and device according to the present invention is explained below by describing cited as an example a case of using a solid suitable for boiler fuel, such as coal.

Microwave irradiation is an operation, preferably, the implementation of partial decomposition of the fuel in the presence of hydrocarbon, with subsequent cooling of the distillate with water or the like, to thus convert the distillate in the gas component that is not condensed in the liquefied component that can be condensation, as well as a liquid component and a solid component, which is separated from it by means of decantation.

Method of microwave irradiation can is another way, in which the wavelength of the microwave range emitted inside the reactor. Next, the microwave irradiation can be performed using operations appropriate to any of the following systems: periodic system, semi-continuous system and continuous system.

Preferably, the microwave irradiation was carried out in the presence of hydrocarbons.

Examples of hydrocarbons include saturated aliphatic compound, an unsaturated aliphatic compound, a saturated alicyclic compound, an unsaturated alicyclic compound, and an aromatic hydrocarbon, each molecule of which contains from 1 to 20 carbon atoms (namely, the carbon number is from 1 to 20). Particularly preferred hydrocarbon gas. Examples of the hydrocarbon gas include methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, propylene, methylacetylene, butane, butene, butadiene, pentane, hexane, heptane, benzene, toluene, xylene and cyclohexane. The hydrocarbon can be obtained either by heating the liquid hydrocarbon, or by accompanying it with an inert gas.

If there is a hydrocarbon, the hydrocarbon under the influence of microwaves goes into a plasma state. This activates ghazawy component, the liquid component and the rest.

Microwave irradiation can be carried out even under normal (or room) temperature, and even in a hot state. Heating can be accomplished simply by heating the reactor from the outside. However, it is preferable that the hydrocarbon gas is heated to a predetermined temperature, was fed into the furnace, which is then heated by this gas. This gas volatile substance is formed, accompanied by a heated gas. The temperature of the heating is not below the 50oC, preferably from 100 to 1000oC, and more preferably not more than 600oC.

In the case of microwave irradiation, the oil component includes mainly light oil, tar and alcohol component. When carry out the decomposition in the presence of a hydrocarbon, such as hydrogen or methane, the amount of hydrocarbon gas and light gas oil increase.

Partial gasification incineration, which is used in the method and device according to the present invention, explained below by describing cited as an example of a case in which suitable for boiler fuel is a mixture of heavy oil and coal. Even if the device does not have rolled the combustion can be carried out in the presence of a catalyst, representing a combination of an alkali metal such as potassium carbonate catalyst, Ni-catalyst, Ni-dolomite catalyst and Ni-magnesium catalyst.

In the case when the share of coal is greater than the fraction of the heavy oil, the method of implementing partial gasification incineration provides methods of using the furnace, such as an oven with the stationary layer, the furnace fluidized-bed (fluidized bed) layer, a furnace with a flowing layer of the furnace with the molten layer, a furnace with a moving bed, an oven with a combination of stationary and flowing layers, oven with a combination of boiling and flowing layers and oven with a combination of running and molten layers.

In contrast, when the proportion of heavy oil more than the share of coal, as ways of making partial gasification incineration are way plastic coking ERE, the way the UBA for the gasification of heavy oil, the method of gasification, called the way of the shell, the method of partial oxidation (method Texaco) or the way of the coal carrier, which is used instead of the way coke coolant (method QC).

In the case of the method of the plastic coking ERE, a mixture of coal and t is who decomposition on heating with coal or coke, the liquefied in the reactor, and separating the distillate and the residue (namely coal and coke). The residue stuck to heating coal or coke, send in the heating chamber, in which the residue is subjected to heating with coke and gas coming from the gasifier to a temperature of from 600 to 650oC. After that, the remainder returned to the reactor to repeat the cycle. Part of the residue, which was sent to the camera heating, send in a gasifier, in which that portion of the residue is subjected to gasification with air and water vapor at a temperature of from 925 to 975oC. the resulting gas is returned to the heating chamber. Part of the balance in the heating chamber, are removed for use as boiler fuel, and the remainder returned to the reactor to repeat the cycle.

In that case instead of plastic coking ERE used method of coking in the fluidized bed, which is used in pneumatic thermal decomposition of the heavy oil, the residue stuck to the heating coke, send in the combustion chamber, in which the residue is subjected to heating with supply air. After that, the remainder returned to the reactor for postelnoe fuel and the remainder returned to the reactor to repeat the cycle.

For heavy oil with high viscosity, it is possible to use the oven for the decomposition of the oil type Combo Flexicoker.

In the case of using the method of UBA for the gasification of heavy oil, raw materials served in a furnace with a fluidized bed of oil decomposition, in which the raw materials are subjected to decomposition at a temperature of from 500 to 900oC, using oxygen. Then to the furnace is water vapor with oxygen, to thereby reduce the partial pressure of the heavy oil. As a result of this activated decomposition, and water vapor is used to maintain the temperature of the furnace. If the decomposition occurs at a temperature from 500 to 600oC, the oil content increases. If the decomposition occurs at a temperature from 800 to 900oC, increases the amount of gas component. The remainder receive, subjecting the coke to the dispersion in the sticky oil residue, and it can be used as boiler fuel.

Fluidized bed consists mainly of coal, which is loaded into the furnace as raw materials. In addition, it may be of refractory material, having the form of balls.

With the way the VA. Then into this furnace is blown into the air or oxygen. In the raw material is oxidized at a temperature of approximately 1500oC and at a pressure of from atmospheric pressure to 100 atmospheres, and in the case of using air pressure does not exceed 20 ATM, and if oxygen pressure is not lower than 30 MPa. Thus, there is partial gasification. The gas originating from the gasification furnace, washed heavy oil used as raw material, and then used as fuel for the gas turbine, after removing of fine particles of soot and ash. Suspension of heavy oil containing small particles of soot and ash, used as feedstock for gasification furnace, adding to her finely ground coal, after first removing the moisture from it. Departing from the gasification furnace gas is washed with naphtha and the like separated from the distillate of the distillation, and similar operations, resulting from it you can easily remove the moisture.

In the method of air oxidation, despite the fact that the raw material is mixed with nitrogen, the content of which is about 60% receive a gas having a pressure of 20 ATM. And the calorific value of 1000 kcal/m3which is used is exaco, feedstock is mixed with steam and subjected to preliminary heating at a temperature of about 380oC, and then fed into the reactor together with air or oxygen. After that in the reactor the reaction occurs at a temperature of from 1200 to 1500oC and a pressure of from 20 to 150 ATM. The gas leaving the reactor is rapidly cooled with water. Simultaneously there is a shift in the reaction of the exhaust gas in the direction of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Next, the resulting gas is used as fuel for gas turbines. Soot, suspended in water, extracted with the oil component or residual fuel oil and is mixed with the raw material.

In the case of the method of the coal carrier, the raw material is fed into the reactor column, and from the lower part of the column reactor serves water vapor. Next, undecomposed residue containing coal and coke (hereinafter referred to here simply called undecomposed residue), which is heated in the heater, return to the reactor, in which this raw material is subjected to significant thermal decomposition. The distillate obtained during thermal decomposition, out of the upper part of the reactor, and it is used as fuel for gas turbines. Part of the undecomposed residue is supplied from the upper part of the reactor in n is, is it as boiler fuel. Steam is supplied from the lower part of the heater. In addition, the heater is blown into the air and oxygen from its middle part, and undecomposed residue is subjected to combustion, the result is heat. Part of the heated undecomposed residue return from the upper part of the heater in the lower part of the reactor to repeat the cycle. In addition, the resulting combustion gas exits the top of the heater. In this way, in addition to partial oxidation, are also gasification, by operation of the injection of steam to the heater, resulting in water-gas gasification.

In particular, in the case when the share of coal is high, to implement partial gasification incineration is used, for example, the ways in which use, respectively oven with fixed bed, microwave boiling (fluid) layer, a furnace with a flowing layer of the furnace with the molten layer, a furnace with a moving bed, an oven with a combination of stationary and flowing layers, oven with a combination of boiling and flowing layers and oven with a combination of running and molten layers.

In particular, in the case of the above-mentioned methods used in the what olorado contained in the air) and water, which is added to the mixture of coal and residual fuel oil, depends on how the implementation of the partial gasification incineration. Further, if the weight of the mixture of coal and fuel oil to make 1, then the weight ratio of added oxygen to the mixture of coal and residual fuel oil is not more than about 1.0:1 and the weight ratio of added water to the mixture of coal and residual fuel oil is not more than 3:1. Preferably, the weight ratio of oxygen to the mixture of coal and residual fuel oil ranged from 0.1 to 0.5. In addition, the weight ratio of water to the mixture of coal and residual fuel oil is from 0.5 to 2.0. The treatment temperature is the temperature of the furnace and is in the range from about 300 to 1600oC. the Pressure ranges from atmospheric pressure to 100 atmospheres. Therefore, the distillate can be obtained by using the pressure is between atmospheric pressure and 100 ATM.

The source of water vapor depends on the type of the above furnace to implement partial gasification incineration, and as his source use water, drainage water, low pressure steam and high pressure steam. Water can be mixed with coal is th same way water can be fed into the furnace for partial gasification incineration in the form of a fluid mixture of heavy oil and water or fluid mixture from coal, heavy oil and water.

When the weight ratio of added water vapor close to 3, a shift reaction of carbon monoxide in the direction of the hydrogen. In the result, the weight ratio of hydrogen contained in the distillate increases. When the weight ratio of oxygen and water become smaller, gasification is similar to thermal decomposition. As a result, the gas content is reduced and the liquid content increases.

Air, oxygen and water vapor can be added hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and a portion of the gas component, the oil component or the alcohol.

Preferably, the temperature of gasification was not above 1000oC, and more preferably, the temperature of gasification was not above 600oC.

In the device according to the present invention, when the distillate is already converted into a gas or mixture of gas and liquid, a solid substance to it almost not added. However, if necessary, solids mixed into it, MOCI in accordance with the present invention is preferably not higher than 1000oC, more preferably not higher than 600oC, and most preferably not higher than 500oC. as a result, Na salt, salt and compound V is almost not added to the distillate. Fuel for gas turbines, with the preferred indicators (calorific value), you can get so any additional implementation of such simple operations as distillation (rectification).

Although the distillate (D) can be used as fuel for gas turbines (A) as it is used as fuel for gas turbines (And) you can also use non-condensable gas component (V) and condensed liquid component, which is obtained by cooling the distillate.

Sometimes the distillate (D) contains, in addition to the gas component (V), normal nitrogenous compounds such as ammonia, sulfide such as hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons with high molecular weight and tar.

The gas component (V) can be cleaned by rinsing with a liquid component (which will be described below), the oil component and other washing agents. Further, the hydrogen sulfide can be removed using equipment for desulfurization, after removal of dust.

Further, the distillate or gas that will using the cyclone and filter.

The liquid component includes a moisture and oil component (H). Then, if necessary, as fuel for gas turbines use only the oil component (H), removing moisture from the liquid component. Inorganic substance, such as salt, condensed moisture. So, if you are using a gas turbine, it is preferable to use only the oil component (H). Selected moisture contains alcohol, carboxylic acid, and an acidic fraction of tar, and therefore it is mixed with the boiler fuel (To). Next, a liquid component, moisture or oil component can be used after the removal of solid materials using a filter or strainer.

The oil component (H) is a mainly naphtha, kerosene, light oil or tar, and it is obtained through the partial decomposition suitable for boiler fuel (T) and/or receive it as a result of dissolution of volatile substances contained in the fuel (T), in such form as it is.

The oil component (H) can also be used after purification and separation by distillation, and the like. Compounds, such as salts containing sodium, potassium and calcium, and inorganic masochiste get more desirable fuel for gas turbines (G). In this case, the remainder of (O') can be added to boiler fuel (To).

The device according to the present invention can be performed so that the mixture gas component and the oil component was burned in the same gas turbine. Alternatively, the device according to the present invention can be carried out so that the gas turbine combustion gas turbine for burning oil would separate units intended for combustion, respectively, the gas component and the oil component. In particular, in the latter case, it is preferable that one or more gas turbines burning gas and one or more gas turbine for burning oil, respectively, were designed for a single boiler in this device.

The pressure of the gas coming out of the production of the gas turbine, can be equal to the atmospheric pressure. Alternatively, the exhaust from the gas turbine, the gas may be subjected to compression at the release of the gas turbine. Set the value of the pressure of exhaust gas to the amount of atmospheric pressure allows to effectively utilize the energy generated during the combustion gas with high temperature and high pressure. When departing from the oxygen can be disposed of using a conventional boiler, which can operate at atmospheric pressure.

The content of impurities in the fuel for gas turbines (G), for example, the following: sodium and potassium, the amount of which, preferably, is not more than 0.5 parts per million by weight; the content of vanadium is preferably not more than 0.5 parts per million by weight; calcium content is preferably not more than 0.5 parts per million by weight, because the calcium component leads to the formation of the most solid sediment or sludge; and the content of lead, which is preferably not more than 0.5 parts per million by weight, as the lead cause corrosion and reduces the effectiveness of magnesium supplements designed to prevent corrosion.

Thus, it is desirable for the gas turbine fuel can be obtained by partial processing suitable for boiler fuel in accordance with the present invention.

In the case of partial gasification of the mixture of coal and heavy fuel executed by burning, the resulting residue depends on the type of coal and residual fuel oil, mixing ratios, the degree of partial gasification by burning the mixture and the processing conditions. In addition tanetane residue. Next, the remainder of this mixture sometimes get in the fully seksowna. However, one of these States, the remainder of this mixture are chosen according to the type of boiler.

The remainder of the coal is a char, in the case of low-temperature carbonization and coke, in the case of high-temperature carbonization, and is a substance that retains the form of coal, in the case of carbonization by heat decomposition, since it does not sintering. In the description of the method and device according to the present invention, this balance is called the residue carbonation, carried out by thermal decomposition.

Although this largely depends on the type of coal, but the output of coke in the case of low-temperature carbonization is higher than the output of coke in the implementation of high-temperature carbonization. Output balance when carrying out carbonization by thermal decomposition even higher than the yield of char, and sometimes reaches 800 kg per tonne or so.

In the case of microwave irradiation, the balance represents the balance of decomposition products carboxylation, or char, and has Wysokie-gas gasification and partial gasification incineration, the rests get in the form of powder or in the form of lumps resulting from softening or melting, or in the form of coke or char, depending on the type of coal, the degree of partial water-gas gasification of the mixture and of the processing conditions. In the remainder of the condensed ash component, various kinds of salt components, or components causing corrosion of the turbine blade, such as vanadium.

In the case of a partial processing of residual fuel oil, residues are high-viscosity oil, the dried substance or the coke.

In the case of a partial processing of residual fuel oil or coal oil, residues are a mixture of residues described above for the case of processing of coal and residual fuel oil.

In the case of a partial processing of plastic waste, residues are residues from the decomposition and oil with high viscosity.

In the case of the method and device of the present invention, the boiler for combustion residues can perform as incineration residues at atmospheric pressure, and combustion residues under pressure higher than atmospheric. Therefore, the method and apparatus of the present invention can assistida conventional boiler, which is like the surface of the heat transfer by radiation and surface heat transfer by convection, and it does not require large equipment modifications.

In the case of the device according to the present invention, the surface temperature of the pipe of the boiler is low, namely about 600oC. Therefore, even when the boiler are alkali metal salts or salts of alkaline earth metals or component of vanadium (V), the boiler can be used. Next, a characteristic feature of the present invention is that the residue, which condensed these impurities may be burned.

The ratio between the amount of heat consumed by the gas turbine, and the amount of heat consumed by the steam turbine, is from 20 to 60%) : (80 to 40%), in the period when the turbines are in fully working condition. The preferred ratio is from 30 to 55%) : (from 70% to 45%), and the most preferred ratio is from 35 to 50%) : (from 65% to 50%).

Therefore, the ratio between the amount of heat coming from the fuel for gas turbines and coming from a boiler fuel (K) must be in the above range of proportions.

In the case, when is pererabotka suitable for boiler fuel (T), the ratio between the heat capacity of water (or oil component or purified oil component) and calorific value of the residue is adjusted to a value that is within the aforementioned interval ratios. Further, when the electric power is produced using a combination suitable for gas turbine fuel (G'), suitable for boiler fuel (T') and distillate (D) and the remainder (About), obtained by partial processing suitable for boiler fuel (T'), the ratio between the calorific values of fuels for gas turbines and boiler fuel (K) obtained after the implementation of this combination is brought to a value that is within the above interval ratios.

If the ratio of the calorific value fuel for gas turbines to this indicator fuel boiler is too low in comparison with values above interval ratios, the efficiency of electricity production will not be significantly increased. In addition, in order to achieve complete gasification or deep processing, the above ratio of the calorific value that is the interval ratios. In this case, the method and apparatus of the present invention become economically disadvantageous from the standpoint of the cost of equipment and processing.

In addition, the ratio of the calorific values of fuels for gas turbines and boiler fuel, you should be aware that the exhaust gas, the exhaust from the gas turbine, served in the boiler, in which the residues can be burned. In the calorific value and the residual oxygen present in the exhaust gas of the gas turbine, can be effectively utilized. As a result, thermal efficiency can be improved through the implementation of power generation combined cycle, with the re-combustion of the exhaust gas.

In addition, the amount of Na content and content in the fuel for gas turbines (G) or as fuel for gas turbines (A) obtained by mixing originating from distillate fuel for gas turbines (G) and is suitable for gas turbine fuel (T'), can be reduced to such a figure that it was equal to or less than 0.5 parts per million, and, in addition, the V content in the fuel (T) lead to a value of 0.5 ppm or less. As a consequence, m is Lauda corrosion, even with long term use.

In addition, you can use the suitable type of fuel chosen, in accordance with the circumstances of the fuel, little polluting, cheap fuel or from excess fuel, etc., by adjusting the ratio of the calorific values suitable for gas turbine fuel and fuel oil to values above interval ratios.

Thus, in the case of electricity generation in accordance with the method and device according to the present invention, power generation is performed with the use of excessive quantities of kerosene available in the seasons when there is no need to heat living spaces, by using the side gas as suitable for gas turbine fuel, in the case when as a by-product is methane, or using suitable for boiler fuel, such as waste plastics, or by running out of fuel for gas turbines and boiler fuel by partial processing suitable for boiler fuel, when this processing is suitable for boiler fuel. Consequently docrat and environmental characteristics of the device to generate electricity.

The above partial processing suitable for boiler fuel below briefly described from a theoretical point of view, when this drops description total heat loss.

For example, partial processing suitable for boiler fuel having a calorific value 100 mcal (megacalorie) carry out so as to divide suitable for boiler fuel distillate having a calorific value in 45 mcal, and the remainder, having a calorific value 55 mcal. Further, one third of the heating value of distillate (15 mcal) is transformed into electricity, and the remaining amount of distilled water corresponding to the rest of the calorific value of the distillate (30 mcal), turns in the exhaust from the gas turbine exhaust gas resulting from combustion of distillate in a gas turbine. The temperature of this the resulting combustion exhaust gas ranges from 450 to 700oC. This formed during the combustion exhaust gas contains oxygen in an amount of from 10 to 15% by volume. When this is formed by the products of combustion exhaust gas (calorific value which is 30 mcal), and the remainder (the calorific value of which is 55 MK is Menno, 76,5 mcal) of the total calorific value of the remainder is spent on the formation of water vapor. Next, the remainder of the balance, the calorific value of which amounts to 10% (namely, 8,5 mcal) of the total calorific value of the remainder goes to the losses in the form of exhaust gas, the exhaust from the boiler. When power generation is carried out using steam turbines produced by the pair (with a calorific value in 76,5 mcal), the amount of heat in 35,2 mcal is converted into electricity with a thermal efficiency of 46%. In total, only 50,2 mcal from all calorific value suitable for boiler fuel (100 mcal) is converted into electricity.

In contrast, in the case when electricity is produced simply by submitting suitable for boiler fuel boiler, as in the case of conventional devices, 90% (90 mcal) calorific value of fuel is used for generating steam by burning suitable for boiler fuel with calorific value 100 mcal. When electricity is produced by steam turbines, the amount of heat in 43 mcal is converted into electricity, with a thermal efficiency of 48%. Itogi.

Thus, in accordance with the present invention, suitable for boilers, the fuel is separated into distillate and residue by implementing partial processing suitable for boiler fuel. Thus, the fuel for gas turbines and boiler fuel, which are of suitable quality characteristics can be obtained so that the ratio of calorific values of fuels for gas turbines and boiler fuel will comply with the above interval ratio of calorific values. In addition, obtaining fuel and electricity generation using combined cycle are carried out simply and economically.

The above-mentioned relationship between the present invention and the conventional device is described below in more approximate to the conditions of practice, when using a typical suitable for boiler fuel, which is more typical kind of fuel.

If first produce water vapor simply by burning in a boiler coal (higher calorific value (GCV) equal to 6200 kcal/kg) containing 30% volatiles by weight, and when through a steam turbine to produce 1000 MW e is SS="ptx2">

In contrast, in the case of electricity through the device of the present invention, 7398 tons per day of the same kind of coal is subjected to carbonization at 450oC. as a result, receive 2005 tons/day fuel for gas turbines, in accordance with the quantity of volatile substances contained in coal. Next, using this fuel for gas turbines receive 269 MW of electricity through electricity generation gas turbine. The resulting combustion exhaust gas, the exhaust from the gas turbine, contains 13% by volume of oxygen at a temperature of 580oC. So that the exhaust gas, which is a product of combustion and exhaust from the gas turbine, served in the boiler, and the rest can burn. Next, 731 MW of electricity can be obtained by using a steam turbine. Total, it is possible to generate 1000 MW of electricity, using 7398 tons/day of the same coal. In addition, the overall thermal efficiency can be raised to 45%.

In particular, it was found that the coal, such as low-grade brown coal, which is rich in content of volatile substances and the ratio of the calorific value of the distillate to the total calorific value of up to 50%, can be effectively disposed of. Further, compared with the complete gasification of coal, you can easily extract the volatile substance in the form of distillate. In addition, the raw material is not oxidized. Thus, it is possible to obtain a fuel with a low content of impurities such as Na, K or V, while maintaining the initial values of the calorific value through processing at a low temperature.

Further, in the case where 1000 MW of energy produced simply by burning heavy oil (PTS 9800 kcal/kg) using a boiler to generate steam and electricity generation through steam turbine requires 5265 tonnes/day of heavy oil. In this case, the overall efficiency of electricity generation is 40% (based on GCV).

In contrast, in the case of electricity generation in accordance with the present invention, carry out thermal decomposition 4481 tons/day the same heavy oil at a temperature of 480oC, using the method of visbreaking. Next, get 1824 tons/day fuel for gas turbines, using a simplified method of distillation light ends. Next, 312 MW of electricity can be produce by gas turbines using it Topley who will win 13 % by volume of oxygen at a temperature of 580oC. Thus, the residue can be burned by feeding a combustion exhaust gas which exits the gas turbine to the boiler. Even 688 MW of electricity can be produce by using a steam turbine. A total of 1000 MW of electricity can be produce by using 4481 tons/day of the same heavy oil. In addition, the overall efficiency of electricity generation can be increased up to 47%.

In particular, as a heavy oil, you can use different types of raw materials. In addition, compared to the full by this gasification of heavy oil, it can easily be a component, which then can be easily isolated in the form of distillate through thermal decomposition. In addition, the raw material is not oxidized. Thus, it is possible to obtain a fuel with a low content of impurities such as Na, K or V, while maintaining the initial values of the calorific value through processing at a low temperature.

This is also true for the case of using the mixture of coal and other suitable for boiler fuel, or a mixture of fuel oil and other suitable for boiler fuel, or, in particular, to a mixture of coal and fuel oil, in addition to visualisa ratio fuels, for example, lowering the fraction of distillate in the period when there is surplus kerosene, and the use of kerosene as an auxiliary form suitable for gas turbine fuel, or Vice versa, in the case of lowering the share of the remainder.

Further, the device of the present invention is placed in the vicinity of production facilities, such as plant or installation for cleaning oil, steel plant or a chemical plant, which is suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel are in the same place. Further, the device according to the present invention can carry out the above method of power generation using combined cycle, preferably power generation using combined cycle with re-burning exhaust gas, through the use of suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel delivered with each of these installations or plants.

Installation for cleaning oil receives crude oil or other unprocessed raw materials or fuel, and can supply suitable for gas turbine fuel, such as hydrogen, LNG, petrochemical naphtha, aviation gasoline, aget to supply suitable for boiler fuel, such as heating oil And residual fuel oil, residual fuel oil, oil residue under reduced pressure, asphalt, petroleum coke and pitch.

Thus, the device for generating electricity according to the present invention can realize power generation using combined cycle, preferably power generation using combined cycle and re-burning exhaust gas, without the need for special installation for partial processing of the fuel, through the use of suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel, so that the ratio between the calorific values of these fuels was adjusted to the above range correlations between them.

Similarly, in steel plant to blast furnace gas, which contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen, or coke oven gas produced during the production of coke and rich in hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. Further, this blast furnace gas or coke oven gas is used as suitable for gas turbine fuel. In addition, carbon residue, obtained on steel Shawki iron ore, natural gas, heavy oil and coal dust are used as suitable for boiler fuel. Further, suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel use so that the ratio between the calorific values of these fuels was adjusted in accordance with the above interval correlations between these indicators. Consequently, the device according to the present invention can realize power generation using combined cycle, preferably power generation using combined cycle and re-burning exhaust gas, without the need for special installation for partial processing of fuel.

Further, similarly, chemical plant receives at least one of the following raw materials and fuel such as LNG, butane, naphtha, fuel oil or coal, and carries out the synthesis reaction or the like. After that, combustible gases, such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene and furnace gas and/or liquid products boiling point of which at atmospheric pressure is not above 500oC, proceed with this installation or plant, as th is for heavy oil and coal, used as raw material or fuel for chemical plants, can be used as suitable for boiler fuel. As a result, the device for generating electricity according to the present invention can realize power generation using combined cycle, preferably power generation using combined cycle and re-burning exhaust gas, without the need for special installation for partial processing of fuel, using suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel so that the ratio between the calorific values of these fuels was adjusted in accordance with the above interval correlations between these indices.

Examples of such chemical plants or plants are plant or installation for the production of olefin/aromatic products, which is naphtha-cracking plant; a plant for the production of polymers, General purpose, who makes various polymers for General purposes, such as polyolefin, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride; plant or installation for the production of polymers, producing the floor is a low molecular weight chemical compounds, such as ammonia, urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, melamine, Acrylonitrile, methanol, formalin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, vinyl acetate, pentaerythritol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, octanol, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, glycerol, phenol, bisphenol a, aniline, diphenylmethanediisocyanate, tolylenediisocyanate, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, maleic anhydride, acrylic acid, polyacrylic acid, methacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid and acrylic amide.

The method and apparatus of the present invention can be used to combine (or industry), namely the combination of various facilities and plants, such as plant or installation for cleaning oil, petrochemical plant, iron plant, steel plant, food industry and thermal power plant.

Further, the device of the present invention is placed near a coal mine, and in this case, for him to use coal and coal gas as suitable for boiler fuel and is suitable for gas turbine fuel, respectively, so that the ratio between the calorific values of these fuels was tregulatory. Therefore, the device according to the present invention can carry out power generation by combined cycle, preferably, the generation of electricity using combined-cycle and re-burning exhaust gas, without the need for special installation for partial processing of fuel.

Further, the apparatus for generating electricity according to the present invention utilizes methane, which is produced during fermentation of sludge, chicken manure or waste from the production of vegetable cheese produced in the formulation of soy cheese (tofu), and the like, and uses the resulting dry residue, as suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel, respectively, so that the ratio between the calorific values of these fuels was adjusted in accordance with the above interval correlations between these indicators. Thus, the device according to the present invention can realize power generation using combined cycle, preferably power generation using combined cycle and with patki fuel.

Thus, using plants for electricity generation according to the present invention can achieve efficient electricity generation by placing it near production facilities, such as installation or plant for the purification of oil, steel plant or a chemical plant, and through the development of electricity in the same place, namely in the same plant, by the use of suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel produced at the plant. As a result, the electricity can be used not only as energy consumed by this company or individual installations, but also for sale. Therefore, a method and apparatus for generating electricity according to the present invention can compensate for the shortage of electricity during periods of peak demand.

The following describes some embodiments of the present invention in more detail, with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Next, on the accompanying drawings shows only the primary portion of the device generation, which is the embodiment of the present invention. And it is anemia fuel device for the transport of solid substances and equipment for the generation of the heating gas, the auxiliary device for nitrification flue gases, desulfuration and decarbonization, to simplify the drawings is omitted.

Further, an integral part of the implementation of the methods of partial decomposition suitable for boiler fuel are described below in accordance with the following methods and with reference to Fig. 1.

A) CARBONIZATION

In the form shown in Fig. 1 the device is preferably coal 1 pre-dried. Further, coal 1 served in the device for processing by the partial decomposition (in this case, the device for carbonization, in particular a device 2 for low-temperature carbonization). Then coal 1 is heated to a predetermined temperature using a heating gas 15, which is separately produced by burning fuel. Thus, get the distillate 3 accompanied by the heating gas 15. The remainder 4 (in this case, char) are unloaded from the bottom of the device 2 for processing by the partial decomposition.

B) MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

In the form shown in Fig. 1 the device is preferably coal 1 Predna case, the device 2 for microwave irradiation). Then carry out a partial decomposition of coal 1, together with a hydrocarbon gas 15', instead of the heating gas 15. The result is a distillate 3. Next, the rest 4 are unloaded from the bottom of the device 2 for processing by the partial decomposition.

(C) PARTIAL WATER-GAS GASIFICATION

In the form shown in Fig. 1 unit 1 coal fed into the device for processing by the partial decomposition (in this case, the device for partial water-gas gasification, in particular a furnace for gasification with stationary layer) 2, after he had measured the moisture content in the coal 1. Then carry out a partial water-gas gasification of coal 1 at a given temperature at a given pressure and for a given reaction time, together with a heating gas 15', which is separately produced by burning fuel and to which is added the specified amount of water vapor, instead of the heating gas 15. The result is a distillate 3 from the top of the device 2 for processing by the partial water-gas gasification. Next, the residue 4 is unloaded from the lower part of this unit.

D) PARTIAL GASIFICATION OF COAL BY BURNING
sa carbonation.

In the form shown in Fig. 1 unit 1 coal fed into the device for processing by the partial decomposition (in this case, the device for supplying gas with a flowing layer) 2. Then carry out a partial gasification by burning coal 1, to which is added a predetermined amount of air (or oxygen) 17 and water vapor 18, instead of the heating gas 15, at a given temperature at a given pressure and for a given reaction time. The result is a distillate 3 from the top of the device 2 for processing by partial decomposition. Next, the residue 4 is unloaded from the lower part of this unit.

E) PARTIAL GASIFICATION BY BURNING A MIXTURE OF COAL AND HEAVY OIL

In the form shown in Fig. 1 the device 1 mixture of coal and residual fuel oil fed into the device for processing by the partial combustion (in this case, the device for supplying gas with a flowing layer) 2. If necessary, coal and fuel oil can be fed separately to the device 2. Then carry out a partial gasification incineration for mixture 1, to which is added a predetermined amount of air (or oxygen) 17 and water vapor 18, instead of the heating gas 15, when given the top of the device 2 for processing by way of a partial gasification incineration. Next, the residue 4 is unloaded from the lower part of this unit.

F) THERMAL DECOMPOSITION

In the form shown in Fig. 1 the device is suitable for boiler fuel (in this case, residual oil) 1 designed for partial decomposition, served in the device 2 for processing by thermal decomposition (in this case, using the method of visbreaking). Then carry out a partial decomposition suitable for boiler fuel 1 at a given temperature at a given pressure and for a given reaction time. The result is a distillate 3 from the top of the device 2 for processing by thermal decomposition. Next, the residue 4 is unloaded from the lower part of this unit. In this case, when thermal decomposition of heavy oil, there is no need to inject into it the heating gas 15.

In the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, the distillate obtained by using different methods of partial processing, is fed into the combustion chamber 23 of the gas turbine (consisting of the main body 21, a compressor 22 and the combustion chamber 23). Then this distillate 3 is mixed with the compressed air 25 (in this case, instead of compressed air, you can use oxygen-enriched air). After combustion of the turbine in motion with this intended for the propulsion gas turbines resulting combustion gas 27. Then the generator for a gas turbine 24, mounted on the shaft of a gas turbine that generates electricity.

In turn, the rest 4 are served in the boiler 31, in which the remainder of the 4 burn through air supply 35. In the result it produces water vapor 32. Then the pairs 32 serves to steam turbine 33. With his help generator steam turbine 34, mounted on the shaft of a steam turbine that generates electricity. In the steam turbine 33 includes a capacitor 37. Further, the capacitor 37 condenses the water vapor in a state of negative overpressure with respect to atmospheric pressure. Further, the capacitor 37 condenses the exhaust gas discharged from the steam turbine, separating the condensate from the exhaust gas. Then the condensate return to the boiler 31 to repeat the cycle, together with make-up water as water 38 to power the boiler.

In the above device, the high-temperature exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine, the exhaust from the gas turbine can be fed to the boiler 31 using the device for feeding the exhaust gas. In the exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine remains 10-15 % by volume of oxygen. The method of incineration residue 4 (namely, by re-burning atrebates is designed using combined cycle thanks that there is no need for a new supply of air 35 (usually with a normal temperature), and due to the fact that utilized heat of exhaust gas. In addition, treatment with the help of exhaust gas can be performed economically. Therefore, this method is preferable.

Needless to say that the exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine can be added to the air in order to burn the rest.

Further, the heat due to the fact that the first exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine serves in another boiler, and then produce steam. Alternatively, the exhaust gas boiler serving in the boiler. Then in the boiler 31 can be re-incineration residue 4 through the exhaust gas, using the residual heat and 10-15 % by volume residual oxygen that the exhaust gas.

The device for supplying the exhaust gas consists of a gas pipeline for supply of exhaust gas of the gas turbine to the boiler. In addition, if necessary, a device for feeding the exhaust gas can be equipped with a valve, thermometer, flow meter and measuring the oxygen content.

In the device, pakatan the parts, designed for separation methods, which are applied after partial decomposition suitable for boiler fuel. In these parts of the device are used in the operation of heating, pressure reduction, distillation light ends, flushing (washing), acceleration, extraction, decantation (namely, draining water without stirring sediment) and combinations of these operations.

As shown in Fig. 2, the distillate 3 is cooled using a heat exchanger 16 so that the distillate 3 is separated into a gaseous component and a liquid component, which are then washed in gazopromyvateli column 5. Thus, the distillate 3 is separated into a gas component 6 and the liquid component 7. In this case, the liquid component 7 is used as a cleaning agent, which is used in gazopromyvateli column 5. Cleaning agent serves in the upper part gazopromyvateli column 5, where you can make contact of vapor and liquid. Gas component 6 served with a compressor 26 for the gas component in the combustion chamber 23.

Conversely, the liquid component 7 in gazopromyvateli column 5 can be cooled and then submit in the upper part gazopromyvateli column 5.

Although the liquid component 7 itself can be used which are oil component 9, obtained by separation from the liquid component of the aqueous layer 10 by means of passing through the separation tank 8. The aqueous layer 10 can be added to the fuel for the boiler 31.

As shown in Fig. 3, the oil component 9 can be cleaned with cleaning devices (e.g., by distillation). The oil component 9 is applied to a distillation column 11, in which the oil component 9 is separated into a purified distillate 12 and the remainder of 13. The purified distillate 12 is fed to the combustion chamber 23 as fuel for gas turbines. The remainder of the 13 served in the boiler 31 as fuel for this boiler.

Even when using a gas turbine such a treatment sufficient to prevent korrodirovaniju gas turbine, due to vanadium component. As a consequence, the service life of the gas turbine can be increased.

The following describes the case of application as suitable for gas turbine fuel 101 and suitable for boiler fuel 102.

In the apparatus shown in Fig. 4, which is located near production facilities (Fig. not shown), such as installation or plant for petroleum refining, steel plant or a chemical plant, suitable air compressor 22 and the combustion chamber 23). Then the fuel 101 is mixed with the compressed air 25 (alternatively, can be air, oxygen-enriched). Then this mixture is burned to obtain from the combustion gas 27 having a high temperature and high pressure, designed to drive a turbine. Then drive the gas turbine by using intended for the propulsion gas turbines produced by burning the gas 27. Then produce electricity using a generator 24 for the gas turbine, which is mounted on the shaft of this gas turbine. The exhaust from the gas turbine exhaust gas 28 serves in the boiler 31.

For its part, suitable for boiler fuel 102 received at the plant or installation, served in the boiler 31, in which the fuel 102 is burned by the air supply 35. Thus produce water vapor 32. Then, the resulting water vapor 32 serves the steam turbine 33. Then the generator 34 steam turbine mounted on the shaft of a steam turbine that generates electricity. In the steam turbine 33 includes a capacitor 37. Further, the capacitor 37 condenses the water vapor in the state is negative relative to atmospheric pressure. Further, the capacitor 37 m condensate return to the boiler 31, together with make-up water, as water 38 to power the boiler.

In the above device, the high-temperature exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine, the exhaust from the gas turbine can be fed to the boiler 31 using the device for feeding the exhaust gas. In the exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine remains 10-15 % by volume of oxygen. A method of burning a suitable fuel for boilers 102 (namely, by re-burning exhaust gas) in the boiler 31 using this oxygen can increase thermal efficiency of power generation performed using combined cycle due to the fact that there is no need for a new supply of air 35 (usually with a normal temperature), and because the temperature of exhaust gas is high. In addition, processing by using the exhaust gas can be carried out economically. Therefore, this method is preferred.

Needless to say that the exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine can add air 35 in order to burn suitable for boiler fuel 102.

Further, the heat due to the fact that the first exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine serves other is taut in the boiler. Then suitable for boiler fuel 102 can be processed using the method (namely, the method using the re-combustion of the exhaust gas) combustion of a suitable fuel for boilers 102 in the boiler 31, through the use of residual heat of 10-15 % by volume residual oxygen present in the exhaust gas.

This results in efficient generation of electricity, without the need of introduction of new capacities for partial processing suitable for boiler fuel, through the use of suitable for gas turbine fuel 101 and suitable for boiler fuel 102 received from the plant or installation.

In Fig. 5 shows an example process of using a fuel for gas turbines and boiler fuel, the resulting partial processing suitable for boiler fuel 102 and 1.

As shown in this figure, a suitable fuel for boilers 1, intended to partial processing, is fed into the device 2 for partial processing (in this case, in the gasification furnace with a fluidized bed for coal). Then this furnace is pre-determined amount of air (or oxygen) 17 and water vapor 18. Then osushestvlyaetsya reaction. Thus, from the top of the device 2 for partial gasification carried out by burning, get distillate 3, and the remainder 4 is unloaded from the lower part of this unit.

The distillate 3 is fed to the combustion chamber 23 of the gas turbine as fuel for the gas turbine, and then mixed with the compressed air 25. In the result, this mixture is burned, and the combustion is designed to drive a turbine gas 27 having a high temperature and high pressure. Then drive the gas turbine by using intended for the propulsion gas turbines produced by burning the gas 27. Then produce electricity using a generator 24 for the gas turbine, which is mounted on the shaft of this gas turbine. The exhaust from the gas turbine exhaust gas 28 serves in the boiler 31.

In turn, the rest 4 serves as a boiler fuel, together with suitable for boiler fuel 102, in the boiler 31, in which this residue 4 is burned by the air supply 35. Thus produce water vapor 32. Then, the resulting water vapor 32 serves the steam turbine 33. With this steam generator steam turbine 34, mounted on the shaft pangendered water vapor, in a state of negative relative to atmospheric pressure. Further, the capacitor 37 condenses the exhaust gas steam turbine, separating the condensate from the exhaust gas. Then the condensate return to the boiler 31, together with make-up water, as water 38 to power the boiler.

In the above device, the high-temperature exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine, the exhaust from the gas turbine can be fed into the boiler 31 and disposed for re-combustion with exhaust gas. When you re burning through the exhaust gas thermal efficiency of electricity generation using combined cycle can be increased. In addition, treatment with the help of exhaust gas can be performed economically. Therefore, this method is preferred. Needless to say that the exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine can be added to the air in order to burn suitable for boiler fuel 102 and the remainder is 4.

Further, the heat due to the fact that the first exhaust gas 28 of the gas turbine serves in another boiler, and then produce steam. Alternatively, the exhaust gas boiler serving in the 31, with the help of exhaust gas through the use of residual heat of 10-15 % by volume residual oxygen contained in the exhaust gas.

In Fig. 6 shows an example of a process using suitable for gas turbine fuel, in addition to suitable for boiler fuel, fuel for gas turbines and boiler fuel, which is obtained by partial processing suitable for boiler fuel.

As shown in Fig. 6, suitable for boiler fuel 1, intended to partial processing, is fed into the device 2 for partial processing (in this case, the device for carbonization). Then in this device serves predetermined amount of air (or oxygen) 17 and water vapor 18. Then is a partial gasification by burning, at a given temperature, a given pressure and for a given reaction time. Thus, from the top of the device 2 for partial gasification incineration get distillate 3, and the remainder 4 is unloaded from the lower part of this unit.

The distillate 3 is fed to the combustion chamber 23 of the gas turbine as fuel for gas turbines, together with suitable for the gas research Institute formed designed to move gas turbine gas 27, with the high temperature and high pressure. Then drive the gas turbine by using intended for the propulsion gas turbine obtained by burning gas 27. Then produce electricity using a generator 24 for the gas turbine, which is mounted on the shaft of this gas turbine. The exhaust from the gas turbine exhaust gas 28 serves in the boiler 31.

Using this method to produce fuel for gas turbines and boiler fuel through the implementation of a partial processing of inexpensive fuel, for example coal. Further, residual oil, which urgently needs to be recycled, disposed of as suitable for boiler fuel 102, which is not subjected to partial processing. In contrast, the kerosene, the amount of which in some periods of the year becomes excessive, disposed of as suitable for gas turbine fuel. Thus, it is possible to utilize different fuels, combining them. In addition, the capacity of power generation can be improved by only a small investment compared to the amount that results in an increase in device capabilities for partial processing, and that logicheskie scheme, illustrating the case when the distillate from Fig. 6 is subjected to further separation of the gas component and a liquid component.

As shown in Fig. 7, the distillate 3 is cooled using a heat exchanger 16 so that the distillate 3 is separated into a gaseous component and a liquid component, which are then washed in gazopromyvateli column 5. Thus, the distillate 3 is separated into a gas component 6 and the liquid component 7. In this case, the liquid component 7 is used as a cleaning agent that is used in gazopromyvateli column 5. Cleaning agent serves in the upper part gazopromyvateli column 5, where you can make contact of vapor and liquid. Gas component 6 served with a compressor 26 for the gas component in the combustion chamber 23.

Conversely, the liquid component 7 in gazopromyvateli column 5 can be cooled and then submit in the upper part gazopromyvateli column 5.

Although the liquid component 7 and of itself can be used as fuel for gas turbines, but as fuel for the gas turbine can be used and only the oil component 9, obtained by separation of the liquid component of the aqueous layer 10 by means of passing through time the BA of distillate allocate and remove moisture, so the fuel for the gas turbine will not contain moisture. Due to this, the volume of the combustion chamber of the gas turbine can be reduced. In addition, salts of sodium and potassium salts, and inorganic substances such as vanadium, almost not mixed with fuel for gas turbines. As a result, it is possible to obtain fuel, desirable for use in gas turbines.

As shown in Fig. 8, the oil component 9 can be cleaned with cleaning devices (e.g., by distillation). The oil component 9 is applied to a distillation column 11, in which the oil component 9 is separated into a purified distillate 12 and the remainder of 13. The purified distillate 12 is fed to the combustion chamber 23 as fuel for gas turbines. The remainder of the 13 served in the boiler 31 as fuel for this boiler.

So, cleaning reduces the salt content and the content of vanadium. Thereby completely preventing korrodirovaniju gas turbine, which cause salt and vanadium compounds. As a result, the durability of the gas turbine can be further improved.

Then, the obtained distillate and the residue used for the above-mentioned generation, implemented since PR is Dah received from outside of the fuel and synthetic raw materials. It is part of the basic ideas of the present invention.

As described above, in accordance with the present invention, the use of different fuels is most effective for power generation performed using a combined cycle. Thus, it is preferable that the equipment for electricity generation according to the present invention placed in the vicinity of production facilities (Fig. not shown), which can be obtained suitable for boiler fuel and is suitable for gas turbine fuel, for example, cleaning the face for coal mines, oil or natural gas, the installation or plant for petroleum refining, iron and steel foundry, the fermentation installation space for waste collection and various types of chemical plants or refineries.

EXAMPLES

The following describes the operation of the present invention in the following practical examples, which are merely illustrative and that the present invention is not limited.

First, the following describes examples of the practical application of carbonization.

EXAMPLE A-1

High temperature carbonization of 1000 kg/h below the dried coal about the Tata get coke and distillate.

Used as raw materials coal (after drying)

Moisture content: 2% by weight

Volatile matter: 30% by weight

The associated carbon; 51% by weight

Ash: 17% by weight

Calorific value: 5780 kcal/kg

Coke

Capacity: 550 kg/hour

Volatile matter: 2% by weight

Associated coal: 67% by weight

Ash: 31% by weight

Calorific value: 6300 kcal/kg

Gas component

Performance: 355 Nm3per hour

Calorific value: 5050 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component

Productivity: 57 kg/hour

Calorific value: 9100 kcal/kg

The above distillates (namely, the gas component and the oil component) served in the gas turbine and burn it. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of about 580oC and contains about 14 % by volume of oxygen. The above residue (coke) can be burned by filing in the boiler exhaust gas from the gas turbine. As a result, the efficiency of power generation is increased to 45%.

In contrast, in the case when the steam is produced simply by burning the above-mentioned coal with the help of the boiler and when the electric power is produced by arowoselu 1000 kg/h below the dried coal is carried out at a temperature of about 600oC, using the device shown in Fig. 2. The result is a distillate and coke. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component. Next, allocate the water layer, with the separation tank. So get the gas component and the oil component.

These gas component and the oil component is used as fuel for gas turbines. Cox and isolated from the distillate the water layer is used as boiler fuel.

Used as raw materials coal (after drying)

Moisture content: 4% by weight

Volatile matter: 31% by weight

The associated carbon: 50% by weight

Ash: 15% by weight

Calorific value: 6430 kcal/kg

The char

Performance: 669 kg/hour

Volatile matter: 11% by weight

Associated coal: 65% by weight

Ash: 24% by weight

Calorific value: 6200 kcal/kg

Gas component

Capacity: 180 Nm3per hour

Calorific value: 7100 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component

Capacity: 110 kg/hour

Calorific value: 9100 kcal/kg

The above gas component serves to gas turbine designed yrabacavir electricity. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of about 580oC and contains about 13 % by volume of oxygen. Due to this produce water vapor by feeding the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to the HRSG. After that produce electricity by filing a char in the boiler and through the disposal of spent gas from the recovery boiler. Consequently, thermal efficiency of power generation performed using combined cycle, is 46%.

EXAMPLE A-3

The carbonization of coal described in example a-2, carried out by thermal decomposition at a temperature of about 450oC, using the device shown in Fig. 2. As a result, the distillate and residue. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component. Forth from it secrete the aqueous layer, with the separation tank. So get the gas component and the oil component.

The gas component and the oil component is used as fuel for gas turbines. Balance and separate the aqueous layer is used as boiler fuel. Then these fuels burn with air supply. The sulfur content in the gas component and Naftan by weight. Therefore, even if such fuel used as a fuel for gas turbines, no corrosion of the blades of the turbine.

EXAMPLE A-4

The carbonization of coal described in example a-1, is realized by means of thermal decomposition at a temperature of about 450oC, using the device shown in Fig. 3. As a result, the distillate and residue. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component. Forth from it secrete the aqueous layer using a separating tank. So get the gas component and the oil component. The oil component is separated into a purified distillate and residual pitch by distillation under reduced pressure.

The gas component and the purified distillate is used as fuel for gas turbines. Balance and separate the aqueous layer is used as boiler fuel. Then these fuels burn with air supply. The sulfur content in the gas component and the liquid component is 0.95 weight %. The salt content and the vanadium content is 0.1 parts per million by weight. Therefore, even if such fuel used as a fuel for gas turbines, no corrosion of the blades of this curb Sanogo dried coal is carried out at a temperature of about 500oC, placing the coal in the container, and then heating it from the outside. The result is a distillate and coke.

Used as raw material coal WANBO (after drying)

Moisture content: 3.5% weight

Volatile substance: 33% by weight

The associated carbon; 53,1% by weight

Ash: 10,4% by weight

Gross calorific value: 7100 kcal/kg

(Lower calorific value: 6840 kcal/kg)

The char

Performance: 0,80 kg

Volatile matter: 16% by weight

Associated coal: 66% by weight

Ash: 13% by weight

Gross calorific value: 6825 kcal/kg

The distillate

Performance: 0.20 kg

Gross calorific value: 8200 kcal/kg

The content of each of the following elements Na, K and V does not exceed 0.5 mg/kg, the Ratio between the calorific values of the distillate and the residue was almost 20:80.

Electricity generation using combined cycle can be carried out by feeding the distillate and coke to the gas turbine and the boiler, respectively.

However, in the case when the number of extracted distillate is limited, and when the ratio between the indices of the calorific value of sposobnostey implementation of electricity generation using combined cycle. In this case, the presence of plants for partial processing of such fuel does not give great advantages.

EXAMPLE A-6

As in the case of example A-5, was carried out by carbonization 1000 kg of coal at a temperature of approximately 800oC, placing the coal in the container, and then heating it from the outside. He got the distillate and coke.

Coke

Performance: 0,69 kg

Volatile matter: 2,6% by weight

Associated coal: 77% by weight

Ash: 16% by weight

Calorific value: 6650 kcal/kg

The distillate

Performance: 0.31 kg

Calorific value: 8100 kcal/kg

The ratio between the calorific values of the distillate and the residue was 35: 65. The Na content, the content and the V content in the distillate was 0.5 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg or less, respectively. However, after this distillate was subjected to distillation at atmospheric pressure, the contents of each of the following elements Na, K and V in the distillate does not exceed 0.5 mg/kg

As you can see from this example, it is very easy to obtain a distillate, the calorific value of which is equivalent to the volatile matter of the coal, and which can be used as fuel for gas turb the th cycle.

In this case, in order to increase the amount of distillate, so that the ratio between the calorific values of the distillate and residue exceeded 60:40, it is necessary to apply very strict conditions of processing. In addition, the amount of oxygen contained in the exhaust gas of the gas turbine, when this exceeds the amount needed for re-burning exhaust gas. As a consequence, increased loss of exhaust gas.

EXAMPLE A-7

Low-temperature carbonization 100000 kg/h below the dried coal is carried out at a temperature of about 500oC, using the device shown in Fig. 1. The result is a distillate and coke. The distillate is used as fuel for gas turbines. The char is used as boiler fuel.

Raw coal from Takashima (calculated on dry substance)

Volatile substance: 44% by weight

The associated carbon: 50% by weight

Ash: 6% by weight

Calorific value: 7900 kcal/kg

The char

Performance: 61600 kg/hour

Volatile matter: 1% by weight

Associated coal: 67% by weight

Ash: 31% by weight

Calorific value: 7054 kcal/al/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component

Performance: 19400 kg/hour

Calorific value: 9100 kcal/kg

The above distillate (namely, the gas component and the oil component) and air (1075000 m3/hour) served in the gas turbine and burn it. Then produce 129 MW/h of electricity. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of about 580oC and contains about 13 % by volume of oxygen. The above residue (namely, char) burn by feeding the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to the boiler. Then you can get a 285 MW of electricity using a steam turbine. Total thermal efficiency of power generation is increased to 45%.

In contrast, in the case when the partial processing of coal is not produced, and simply burn coal in the boiler using air (1075000 m3per hour) and thus produce water vapor, and then produce electricity through a steam turbine thermal efficiency of electricity generation is 39%.

In the case of the method and device of the present invention, the entire quantity (namely, 1075000 m3/hour) of air can be submitted in the gas turbine. Alternatively, the number vozdukha sequentially feeding into the boiler.

Secondly, the following describes microwave irradiation coal with the following practical examples.

EXAMPLE-1

Microwave irradiation of 1000 kg/h below the dried coal is carried out at a temperature of about 300oC, using the device shown in Fig. 1 (in this case, the hydrocarbon gas in it is not served). The result is 280 kg/h of distillate and 430 kg/h of coke.

Used as raw material coal

Moisture content: 29% by weight

Volatile matter: 31% by weight

The associated carbon: 35% by weight

Ash: 5% by weight

Calorific value: 4530 kcal/kg

The char

Volatile matter: 11% by weight

Associated coal: 77% by weight

Ash: 11% by weight

Calorific value: 6000 kcal/kg

The distillate

Calorific value: 6960 kcal/kg

The distillate is used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the char, in turn, is used as boiler fuel. Thus, carry out power generation using combined cycle.

EXAMPLE B-2

Microwave irradiation of coal carried out in the same manner as described in example-1, the drop is

The distillate is used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the char is used as boiler fuel. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of about 580oC and contains about 13 % by volume of oxygen. The char is burned by the disposal of this waste gas of the gas turbine. As a result, thermal efficiency of electricity generation using combined cycle reaches 46%.

Thus, compared with the case where the coal is simply burned in a boiler and produce electricity through a steam turbine, thermal efficiency in this example, high.

As in the case of a series of these examples, it is easy to obtain a distillate used as fuel for gas turbines, for best implementation of electricity generation using combined cycle.

Further, in case when the amount subject to extraction of the distillate and the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate to the residue is 10: 90, increasing the efficiency of power generation is low, even if electricity is produced using a combined cycle. In this case, the presence of plants for partial processors such dimensions, to the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate and residue exceeded 60: 40, required very strict conditions of processing. Further, the amount of oxygen contained in exhaust gas of the gas turbine exceeds the amount needed for re-burning exhaust gas. As a consequence, loss of exhaust gas increase.

Thirdly, it describes how water-gas coal gasification, the following practical examples.

EXAMPLE-1

Partial water-gas gasification of 1000 kg/h below the coal is carried out in the gasifier fluidized bed at a temperature of about 830oC and when the weight ratio of water vapor to the coal (steam/carbon), equal to 0.3, using the device shown in Fig. 1. As a result, the distillate and residue.

After dust removal and desulfurization, this distillate is used as fuel for the gas turbine, by maintaining its high temperature and high pressure. The rest is used as boiler fuel.

Used as raw material coal

Moisture content: 29% by weight

Volatile matter: 31% by weight

The associated carbon: 35% by weight
Volatile matter: 3% by weight

Associated coal: 80% by weight

Ash: 17% by weight

Calorific value: 5500 kcal/kg

Distillates: gas component, an oil component and water.

Gas component

Performance: 632 Nm3per hour

Calorific value: 2500 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component

Capacity: 200 kg/h

Calorific value: 6500 kcal/kg

Water

Capacity: 500 kg/hour

The above distillates (namely, the gas component and the oil component) served in the gas turbine and burn it. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of about 580oC and contains about 13 % by volume of oxygen. The above residue is burned by feeding the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to the boiler. As a consequence, the efficiency of power generation is increased to about 45%.

In contrast, in the case where steam is produced simply by burning the above coal using the boiler with the subsequent production of electricity through a steam turbine, the efficiency of power generation is 39%.

EXAMPLE-2

Partial water-gas gasification of the same coal that primaluce distillate and residue. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component, after dust removal and desulfurization. Forth from him the aqueous layer was separated using a separating tank. So get the gas component and the oil component. The content of each of the following components - Na, K and V is 0.5 parts per million or so.

The gas component and the oil component is used as fuel for gas turbines. Balance and separate the aqueous layer is used as boiler fuel.

EXAMPLE C-3

Partial water-gas gasification of coal is performed using the device shown in Fig. 3, as described in example-1. As a result, the distillate and residue. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component, after dust removal and desulfurization. Forth from him the aqueous layer was separated using a separating tank. So get the gas component and the oil component. The oil component is separated into a purified distillate and residual pitch by distillation under reduced pressure.

The gas component and the purified distillate is used as fuel for gas turbines. The remainder allocated to the aqueous layer and the OST is the content of sulfur in the gas component and the liquid component is 0.52% by weight. The content of each of the following components - Na, K and V is 0.1 parts per million by weight. Therefore, even when such fuel used as a fuel for gas turbines, no corrosion of the turbine blades and the like for a long time.

EXAMPLE C-4

Partial water-gas gasification of coal is performed using the device shown in Fig. 3, as described in example-1. As a result, the distillate and residue. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component. Forth from it secrete the aqueous layer, with the separation tank. So get the gas component and the oil component. The oil component is separated into a purified distillate and sucks by distillation under reduced pressure.

The gas component and the purified distillate is used as fuel for gas turbines. The remainder of the allocated water layer and the sediment is used as boiler fuel. Then these fuels burn by air supply. The sulfur content in the gas component and the liquid component is 0.95% by weight. The content of each of the following components - Na, K and V is 0.1 parts per million by weight. Poidomani and the like.

EXAMPLE C-5

The distillate obtained in example C-1, is fed into the gas turbine, and then burn it. The remainder served in the boiler. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of 580oC. Further, the heat of the exhaust gas is disposed of through the waste heat boiler. In the result, thermal efficiency of power generation is increased, as compared with the case where the coal is simply burned in a boiler and produce steam.

EXAMPLE C-6

The distillate obtained in example C-2, served in the gas turbine, and then burn it. The exhaust gas of a gas turbine having a temperature of 580oC and containing 13 % by volume of oxygen, is fed into the boiler. The residue is burned by the utilization of this gas. In the result, thermal efficiency of electricity generation using combined cycle reaches 46%.

As in the case of series a these examples, the C-series of these examples are very easy to obtain a distillate used as fuel for gas turbines, for best implementation of electricity generation using combined cycle.

Further, when the amount subject to extraction of the distillate and the ratio of the calorific values it is and electricity is produced using a combined cycle. In this case, the presence of plants for partial processing of the fuel does not give significant advantages.

In addition, in order to increase the amount of distillate to such sizes that the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate and residue exceeded 60:40, required very strict conditions of processing. Further, the amount of oxygen contained in exhaust gas of the gas turbine exceeds the amount needed for re-burning exhaust gas. As a consequence, loss of exhaust gas increase.

Fourth, it describes how partial gasification incineration, the following practical examples.

EXAMPLE D-1

First 1000 kg/h below coal, 500 kg/HR of high pressure steam and 130 kg/h of oxygen fed into the gasifier with a flowing layer, and after that undertake partial gasification of such coal by burning, at a temperature of about 1100oC and a pressure of 40 ATM, using the device shown in Fig. 1. As a result, the distillate and residue.

Used as raw material coal

Moisture content: 25% by weight

Volatile matter: 30% by weight (calculated on dry substance is esto)

Calorific value: 5780 kcal/kg (calculated on dry substance)

The balance of

Capacity: 400 kg/h

Volatile matter: 1% by weight

Associated coal: 43% by weight

Ash: 56% by weight

Calorific value: 5000 kcal/kg

Distillates, gas component, an oil component and water.

Gas component

Performance: 652 Nm3per hour

Calorific value: 2600 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component

Capacity: 80 kg/hour

Calorific value: 8000 kcal/kg

Water

Capacity: 550 kg/hour

Distillates cleaned from dust, desulfurized, and then used as fuel for gas turbines, in conditions of high temperature and high pressure. The rest is used as boiler fuel. Thus, it is possible to carry out power generation using combined cycle.

EXAMPLE D-2

Partial gasification of coal by burning carried out with the device shown in Fig. 2, as described in example D-1. As a result, the distillate and residue. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component, after dust removal and desulfurization. Next, from the oil component.

The gas component and the oil component is used as fuel for gas turbines. The residue and the distillate water layer is used as boiler fuel.

The resulting distillate is served in the gas turbine, and then burn it. The exhaust gas of a gas turbine is fed into the boiler. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of 580oC and by utilizing the exhaust gas of the gas turbine. In the result, thermal efficiency of electricity generation using combined cycle reaches 46%. Therefore, even if such fuel for gas turbines used in gas turbine, no corrosion of the blades of the gas turbine and the like.

EXAMPLE D-3

Partial gasification of coal by burning carried out with the device shown in Fig. 3, as described in example D-1. As a result, the distillate and residue. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component, after removal of dust and desulfurization. Forth from it secrete the aqueous layer, with the separation tank. So get the gas component and the oil component. The oil component is separated into a purified distillate and residual PV as fuel for gas turbines. The remainder of the allocated water layer and residual tar pitch is used as boiler fuel. Then these fuels burn by air supply. The sulfur content in the gas component and the liquid component is 0.6% by weight. The content of each of the following components - Na, K and V is 0.5 parts per million by weight. Therefore, even when such fuel for gas turbines used in a gas turbine, there is no corrosion of the blades of the gas turbine and the like over a long period of time.

EXAMPLE D-4

Obtained in example D-1 distillate served in the gas turbine, and then burn it. The remainder served in the boiler. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of 580oC. Then produce steam using waste-heat boiler. Thus, produce electricity through a steam turbine.

As in the case of a series of these examples in these examples, the D-series is very easy to get distillate used as fuel for gas turbines, for best implementation of electricity generation using combined cycle.

Further, when the amount subject to extraction of the distillate and the ratio of the display is renergie small, even if electricity is produced using a combined cycle. In this case, the presence of plants for partial processing of the fuel does not give significant advantages.

In addition, in order to increase the amount of distillate to such size that the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate and residue exceeded 60: 40, required very strict conditions of processing. In addition, the amount of oxygen contained in exhaust gas of the gas turbine exceeds the amount needed for re-burning exhaust gas. As a consequence, loss of exhaust gas increase.

Fifthly, describes a method of thermal decomposition of the heavy oil, the following practical examples.

EXAMPLE E-1 (using method visbreaking)

First 1000 kg/h below heavy oil served in the heating furnace during the process of increasing pressure. Then carry out thermal decomposition of the heavy oil at a temperature of 480oC. After this side reaction stopped by adding heater hardening oil. After this heavy oil is fed to the bottom of the distillation column, h is atly residual oil (oil residue) under reduced pressure

Specific density: 1,01 (15/4oC)

Viscosity: 100000 mm2(50oC)

Sulfur content: 3.6 per cent by weight

The balance of

Performance: 665 kg/hour

Specific density: 1,03 (15/4oC)

Viscosity: 45000 mm2(50oC)

Sulfur content: 3,9% by weight

The percentage of materials having a high boiling point ( 350oC): 78.5 per cent by weight

Calorific value: 9000 kcal/kg

Distillates: gas component and the oil component.

Gas component

Capacity: 35 kg/h

Heating capacity: 10400 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component

Performance; 300 kg/hour

Calorific value: 10000 kcal/kg

Distillates served in the gas turbine and burn it. The exhaust gas of a gas turbine having a temperature of about 580oC and containing about 13 % by volume of oxygen, is fed into the boiler. The residue is burned using this gas. Consequently, thermal efficiency of electricity generation using combined cycle reaches 46%.

Compared with thermal efficiency of electricity generation in the case of obtaining a pair of simply by filing in the boiler, heavy oil and to develop eleki efficiency of energy production.

EXAMPLE E-2 (use of the method of coking fluidized bed)

First 1000 kg/h below the heavy oil fed into the reactor. Then carry out thermal decomposition of this heavy oil at a temperature of 500oC and make the division into distillate and residue. After that, the residue is extracted from the bottom of the reactor and fed to the combustion chamber. Then the chamber is blown into the air and heat up the rest. Part of the coke is removed from the middle part of the combustion chamber. Next, the remaining coke return from the lower part of the combustion chamber in the reactor.

Used as raw material heavy oil:

residual oil (oil residue) under reduced pressure and a temperature of > 566oC

Coke balance Conradson: 26,5% by weight

Specific gravity of 1.05 (15/4oC)

The vanadium content: 890 parts per million by weight

Sulfur content: 3.6 per cent by weight

The balance of

Performance production of coke; 260 kg/h

Sulfur content: 5% by weight

Calorific value: 6000 kcal/kg

Distillates: gas component and the oil component.

The component representing the reactor gas:

Performance; 130 kg/hour

Calorific value is the awn: 540 kg/h

Calorific value: 10000 kcal/kg

All gas component distillates, and part of the oil component is used as fuel for gas turbines. The rest of the oil component and the remainder is used as boiler fuel.

EXAMPLE E-3 (using the method of delayed coking)

First 1000 kg/h below heavy oil served in the lower part of the distillation column. Then heavy oil is separated into distillate and residue (namely, a liquid with a high boiling point). After that, the residue extracted from the lower part of the distillation column is subjected to thermal decomposition at a temperature of 470oC in a heating furnace to such an extent that it was not formed coke. Then the remainder served in the coke drum. After this, the remainder is separated into distillate and residue (namely, coke). The residue is then separated into a gas component and an oil component.

Used as raw material heavy oil:

mineski residual oil (oil residue) under reduced pressure

The residual carbon: 10,9% by weight

Specific gravity: 0,939 (15/4oC)

Sulfur content: 0,16% by weight

The balance of

P is: 6000 kcal/kg

Distillates: gas component and the oil component.

Gas component:

Capacity: 70 kg/h (10 mol % hydrogen, 36 mol % methane, 18 mol% ethane, 18 mol% of ethylene, 21 mol% of propane, 21 mol% of propylene, 15 mol% butane and 15 mol% of butene)

Heating capacity: 10400 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component: (naphtha and light oil)

Performance: 739 kg/hour

Calorific value: 10000 kcal/kg

All gas component distillates, and part of the oil component is used as fuel for gas turbines. The rest of the oil component and the remainder is used as boiler fuel.

EXAMPLE E-4 (using method EURECA)

First 1000 kg/h below heavy oil served in the lower part of the distillation column. Then heavy oil is separated into distillate and residue (namely, a liquid with a high boiling point). After that, the residue extracted from the lower part of the distillation column is subjected to thermal decomposition at a temperature of 400oC in the heater to such an extent that it was not formed coke. Then the residue is fed into the reactor. After thermal decomposition of the residue is carried out it is amemait in the above-mentioned distillation column and separated into distillate and residue. After cooling of the lower part of the reactor extract peck. This pitch is cut into flaky pieces that are used as boiler fuel. The distillate is subjected to further separation of the gas components, water condensate and oil component. Next, the oil component is separated into components representing a light oil and heavy oil. Gas component and a component representing light petroleum, used as fuel for gas turbines, and the component representing heavy oil and tar pitch is used as boiler fuel.

Used as raw material heavy oil: oil residue under reduced pressure and a temperature of 500oC

The residual carbon: 20% by weight

Specific gravity: 1,017 (15/4oC)

The vanadium content: 200 ppm by weight

Sulfur content: 3,9% by weight

The balance of

Productivity output pitch: 290 kg/hour

The vanadium content: 690 parts per million by weight

Sulfur content: 5.7% of weight

Calorific value: 9000 kcal/kg

Distillates: gas component, the condensed water and oil component.

Gas component:

The manufacturers component: component, representing a light oil and a component representing heavy oil)

Performance development of light oil: 220 kg/hour

Its calorific value: 10000 kcal/kg

Performance production heavy oil: 400 kg/h

Its calorific value: 9000 kcal/kg

All gas components and the entire component representing light oil obtained from these distillates are used as fuel for gas turbines. Then through a gas turbine to make electricity. Component representing a heavy oil, and tar pitch residue is used as boiler fuel to generate steam. Next produce electricity using steam turbines.

EXAMPLE F-5

Thermal decomposition of the heavy oil carried out as described in example E-1. As a result, the distillate and residue. After desulfurization of distillate it is cooled and subjected to separation, resulting in a gain of the gas component and the oil component.

The gas component is served in a gas turbine designed for burning gas and oil component serves in a gas turbine designed for shoplive and burn through submission to him of air. The sulfur content in the gas component and the liquid component is 1% by weight. The total content of Na and K is less than 0.5 parts per million by weight. In addition, the content of vanadium is not more than 0.5 parts per million by weight. Therefore, as in the case of a gas turbine for combustion gas, and a gas turbine for burning oil, no corrosion of the turbine blades and the like.

EXAMPLE F-6

Obtained in example E-1 distillate served in the gas turbine, and then burn it. The remainder served in the boiler. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of 580oC. Then produce steam using waste-heat boiler. Thus, produce electricity using steam turbines.

EXAMPLE E-7 (contact coking of bitumen)

First 1000 kg/h of the following raw materials are heated using a coil heater so as to bring raw materials to a liquid state. Then the raw material is fed into the reactor. After this, carry out thermal decomposition of the raw material at a temperature of 480oC and divide it into distillate and residue. After that, the remainder (adhering to the seed coke) is extracted from the bottom of the reactor and fed into the heating chamber. Then this is the camera into the reactor. Next part of the coke is removed from the middle part of the heating chamber.

Used as raw materials bitumen:

bitumen oil sand from the great Canada

Coke residue on Ramsbottom: 11% by weight

Specific gravity: 1,016 (15/4oC)

Viscosity: 11000 mm/s (38oC)

The vanadium content: 140 parts per million by weight

Sulfur content: 4.7% in weight

Balance:

The performance of pitch coke production: 650 kg/h

Sulfur content: 6% by weight

Calorific value: 9000 kcal/kg

Distillates: gas component and the oil component.

The component representing the reactor gas

Capacity: 30 kg/hour

Heating capacity: 10400 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component (light oil and heavy oil)

Capacity: 320 kg/h

Calorific value: 10000 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The distillate is used as fuel for gas turbines. The rest is used as boiler fuel.

EXAMPLE E-8 (processing of residual fuel oil C way visbreaking)

First 1000 kg/h below heavy oil served under a pressure of 20 kg/cm2/G in the heater. Then exercise is to participate by adding to the heater hardening oil. After this heavy oil is fed to the bottom of the distillation column and get at 290oWith the distillate and the residue (namely, a liquid with high viscosity).

Used as raw material heavy oil:

fuel oil C # 2

Ignition temperature: 80oC

Viscosity: 100 mm2(50oC)

The sulfur content of 1.5% by weight

Calorific value: 9400 kcal/kg

The balance of

Capacity: 670 kg/hour

Sulfur content: 2,1% by weight

Calorific value: 9000 kcal/kg

The distillate oil component.

The oil component

Capacity: 330 kg/h

Specific gravity: 0,80 (15/4oC)

Calorific value: 10212 kcal/kg

The distillate is used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the remainder is used as boiler fuel.

EXAMPLE E-9 (processing of residual fuel oil C by thermal decomposition at atmospheric pressure)

First was carried out by heating to 1000 kg/hour following heavy oil at a temperature of about 450oC, placing heavy oil in the container, and then heating it from the outside. Then was carried out by thermal decomposition at atmospheric pressure, during the tour in 206oC.

Used as raw material fuel oil C (IFO-280, production Mitsubishi oil TOoCo., Ltd.)

Ignition temperature: 111oC

Viscosity: 278 mm2(50oC)

Sulfur content: 2,35% by weight

The nitrogen content of: 0.20% of the weight

Carbon residue: 8,88% by weight

The Na content: 12.6 parts per million by weight

Contents: 0.1 part per million by weight

Contents V: 32.6 parts per million by weight

Gross calorific value: 9800 kcal/kg

The balance of

Capacity: 0,55 kg

Sulfur content: 3.1% weight

Nitrogen content: 0,34% by weight

Coke residue: 16% by weight

The content of Na: 23 parts per million by weight

Contents: 0.2 parts per million by weight

Contents V: 59 parts per million by weight

Gross calorific value: 9170 kcal/kg

Distillate oil component.

The oil component

Performance: 0.45 kg

Sulfur content: 1.4% weight

Nitrogen content: 0,01% by weight

Coke residue: 0,07% by weight

The Na content: 0.1 ppm by weight

The content is 0.1 parts per million by weight

Contents V: 0.1 parts per million by weight

Higher theplot the new turbines, and the rest you can use as a boiler fuel. Further, the amount of the oil component and the remainder correspond to the amount of fuel required for electricity generation using combined cycle and using the re-combustion of the exhaust gas.

EXAMPLE E-10 (thermal decomposition of residual fuel oil C at atmospheric pressure)

As in the case of example E-9, was carried out by thermal decomposition of 1000 kg heavy oil described in example 9, at a temperature of about 450oC, at atmospheric pressure, in periodic mode. He got the distillate and the residue (namely, the dried substance) at a temperature of 218oC. Even if this residue was subjected to further heating, the amount of distillate significantly decreased.

The balance of

Performance: 0.35 kg

Sulfur content: 0.7% by weight

Nitrogen content: 0,36% by weight

Coke residue: 1% by weight

The content of Na: 36 parts per million by weight

Contents: 0.3 parts per million by weight

Contents V: 93 parts per million by weight

Gross calorific value: 9130 kcal/kg

Distillate oil component

The oil component is>Coke residue: 0,07% by weight

The content of Na: 0.5 parts per million or less by weight

Contents: 0.5 parts per million or less by weight

Contents V: 0.5 parts per million or less by weight

Gross calorific value: 10160 kcal/kg

The oil component suitable for use as fuel for gas turbines, and the remainder consists of the dried substance. Further, in order to get more distillate requires very stringent conditions for the processing. In this case, the cost required for this equipment becomes excessively high. Thus, the actual amount of distillate is limited, namely, the weight fraction of the distillate is limited to 60% or so (namely, to such an extent that the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate and the residue was 60% : 40%). Thus, the balance can be transported to the boiler, while the remainder is still in the liquid state. The oil component and the balance, the ratio of the calorific values are adjusted to a desired value suitable for electricity generation using combined cycle and re-burning otrabotav and in the case of example E-9, was carried out by thermal decomposition below 1000 kg dried Orimulsion at a temperature of 450oC, at atmospheric pressure, in periodic mode. He got the distillate and the residue (namely, the dried substance) at a temperature of 282oC.

Raw material: Orimulsion (calculated on dry substance)

Sulfur content: 3,51% by weight

Nitrogen content: 0,89% by weight

Carbon: 84,9% by weight

The content of Na: 104 parts per million by weight

Contents: 4 parts per million by weight

Contents V: 444 parts per million by weight

Gross calorific value: 9820 kcal/kg

The balance of

Performance: 0.35 kg

Sulfur content: 4.9% of weight

Nitrogen content: 1.9% weight

Carbon: 86% by weight

The content of sodium: 440 parts per million by weight

Contents: 6 parts per million by weight

Contents V: 1590 parts per million by weight

Gross calorific value: 8850 kcal/kg

Distillate oil component

The oil component

Performance: 0, 65 kg/hour

Sulfur content: 2,8% by weight

Nitrogen content: 0,23% by weight

Carbon: 84% by weight

The Na content: 0.1 ppm by weight

The content is 0.1 parts of: 10340 kcal/kg

The oil component suitable for use as fuel for gas turbines, and the balance has properties that make it suitable for use as boiler fuel. This example shows that there is a limit (for example, 70% or so) values of interval ratios of calorific values, which can be easily obtained oil suitable for use in gas turbines. In addition, in this case, from the viewpoint of the extraction residue and the effectiveness of re-burning exhaust gas, distillate can be extracted with further lowering of the ratio of calorific values.

EXAMPLE E-12 (thermal decomposition of residual fuel oil C at atmospheric pressure)

First was carried out by thermal decomposition of 100000 kg/h below the heavy oil at a temperature of about 450oC, at atmospheric pressure, using the device shown in Fig. 1, and received the distillate and the residue (namely, a liquid with high viscosity) at a temperature in 206oC.

Raw materials: fuel oil C (ISO 280, production Mitsubishi oil TOoCo., Ltd.)

Ignition temperature: 111oC

Viscosity: 278 mm2/s

Sadie Na: 12.6 parts per million by weight

The content is 0.1 parts per million by weight

Contents V: 32.6 parts per million by weight

Gross calorific value: 9800 kcal/kg

The balance of

Performance: 58480 kg

Sulfur content: 3.1% weight

Nitrogen content: 0,34% by weight

Coke residue: 16% by weight

The content of Na: 23 parts per million by weight

Contents: 0.2 parts per million by weight

Contents V: 59 parts per million by weight

Gross calorific value: 9170 kcal/kg

Distillate oil component

The oil component

Performance: 41520 kg/hour

Sulfur content: 1.4% weight

Nitrogen content: 0,01% by weight

Coke residue: 0,07% by weight

The content of Na: 0.5 parts per million or less by weight

Contents: 0.5 parts per million or less by weight

Contents V: 0.5 parts per million or less by weight

Gross calorific value: 10570 kcal/kg

Next, produce 169 MW/h of electricity by feeding to the gas turbine 41520 kg/h oil component and 1190000 m3/h of air, obtained as described above. The exhaust gas of a gas turbine having a temperature of about 580oC and containing about 13% vol. oxygen, is fed into the boiler, e, this, thermal efficiency of electricity generation when using heavy oil in accordance with the present invention is 47%.

In turn, when heavy fuel is burnt simply by using a boiler to produce 455,3 MW/h of electricity, by submitting 1190000 m3/h of air and 100,000 kg/h heavy oil. Thermal efficiency of power generation in this case is 40%.

In the case of this example, in accordance with the present invention, the power generation can be performed by feeding the entire amount (1190000 m3/hour) of air in the gas turbine, or, alternatively, by dividing this amount of air needed for combustion in the boiler, on smaller portions of air and sequentially feeding these smaller portions of air in the boiler.

As you can see from these examples, it is easy to obtain a distillate that can be used as fuel for gas turbines, for best implementation of electricity generation using combined cycle.

Further, when the volume of the distillate is limited, and the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate to the residue is 10: 90, UNAM combined cycle. In this case, the presence of plants for partial processing of the fuel does not provide significant benefits.

In this case, the amount of distillate can be increased as long as the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate and residue reaches 70:30. However, extraction of the residue becomes more difficult when the ratio exceeds 60:40. In addition, the amount of oxygen contained in exhaust gas of the gas turbine exceeds the amount needed for re-burning exhaust gas. As a consequence, loss of exhaust gas increase.

Sixth, describes how partial gasification of the mixture of coal and heavy oil by combustion, the following practical examples.

EXAMPLE F-1

First 1000 kg/h below the mixture of coal and heavy oil, 800 kg/h of water vapor having a temperature of 260oC and 735 Nm3per hour of oxygen fed into the gasifier, and then perform a partial gasification by burning, at a temperature of about 1400oC and a pressure of 40 ATM, using the device shown in Fig. 1. As a result, the distillate and residue.

Coal

Moisture content: 25% of the account on the dry matter)

Ash: 17% by weight (calculated on dry substance)

Calorific value: 5780 kcal/kg (calculated on dry substance)

The feed rate of coal: 500 kg/hour

Heavy oil: fuel oil C #2

Ignition temperature: 80oC

Viscosity: 100 mm2(50oC)

The sulfur content of 1.5% by weight

Calorific value: 9400 kcal/kg

The feed rate of heavy oil: 500 kg/hour

The balance of

Capacity: 600 kg/h

Volatile matter: 1% by weight

Associated coal: 67% by weight

Ash: 32% by weight

Calorific value: 4000 kcal/kg

Distillates: gas component, an oil component and water.

Gas component

Capacity: 1600 Nm3per hour

Calorific value: 2500 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component

Very little

Capacity: 20 kg/hour

Calorific value: 9800 kcal/kg

Water

Capacity: 300 kg/h

The resulting distillate is served in the gas turbine and burn it. The exhaust gas of a gas turbine having a temperature of about 580oC and containing about 13% vol. oxygen, is fed into the boiler. The residue is burned using this gas. As a result, thermal KP is the number suitable for boiler fuel is subjected to gasification, and then produce electricity using gas turbines. Next, generate steam by utilizing the exhaust gas of the gas turbine, using the recovery boiler. Further, if power generation is performed with the use of combined cycle, thermal efficiency is about 46%. However, in the case of conventional devices, with which the entire quantity of fuel is subjected to gasification, the necessary special gas turbine and boiler system, as a result, the cost of construction of such a conventional device is high. In contrast, the cost of construction of the device of the present invention is low. In case of modifications of existing installations, you can use a regular pot. In addition, the gasification of the full amount of fuel and the processing or handling of ash can be difficult. Gas cleaning must be performed at a low temperature. This destroys the large heat loss.

EXAMPLE F-2

Partial gasification by burning a mixture of coal and heavy oil is performed with the use of the device shown in Fig. 2, as in the case of example F-1. As a result, the distillate and residue. After removal of the distillate is Loy, with the separation tank. So get the gas component and the oil component.

The gas component and the oil component are served in the gas turbine as fuel. Balance and separate the aqueous layer was fed into the boiler. Thus, it is possible to produce energy with the combined cycle.

EXAMPLE F-3

Partial gasification by burning a mixture of coal and heavy oil is performed with the use of the device shown in Fig. 3, as in the case of example F-1. As a result, the distillate and residue. After removal of the distillate dust and desulfurization, the distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component. Forth from it secrete the aqueous layer, with the separation tank. So get the gas component and the oil component. The oil component is separated into a purified distillate and residual peck through the pickup under reduced pressure.

The gas component and the purified distillate is used as fuel for gas turbines. The remainder of the allocated water layer and residual tar pitch is used as boiler fuel. Then these fuels burn by air supply. The sulfur content in the gas component and V is not more than 0.5 parts per million by weight. Therefore, corrosion of the turbine blades is not happening.

EXAMPLE F-4

Partial gasification by burning a mixture of coal and heavy oil is performed with the use of the device shown in Fig. 3, as in the case of example F-1. As a result, the distillate and residue. After removal of the distillate dust and desulfurization distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component. Forth from it secrete the aqueous layer, with the separation tank. So get the gas component and the oil component. The oil component is separated into a purified distillate and residue by evaporating device under reduced pressure.

The gas component and the purified distillate is used as fuel for gas turbines. The remainder of the allocated water layer and residual tar pitch is used as boiler fuel. Then these fuels burn through air supply. The sulfur content in the gas component and the liquid component is 1% by weight, in each. The content of each of the following components - Na, K and V is not more than 0.1 parts per million by weight. Therefore, corrosion of the turbine blades is not happening.

EXAMPLE F-5

The distillate obtained in example F-1, serves the Chille gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of 580oC. Next, perform the waste heat recovery using the recovery boiler.

EXAMPLE F-6

First 1000 kg/h of a mixture of coal of example F-1 and following of heavy oil, 500 kg/h of steam (or water vapor) with high pressure, and 130 Nm3per hour of oxygen fed into the gasifier with a flowing layer, and then perform a partial gasification of such coal by burning, at a temperature of about 1100oC and a pressure of 30 ATM, using the device shown in Fig. 1. As a result, the distillate and residue.

Coal

Moisture content: 25% by weight

Volatile matter: 30% by weight (calculated on dry substance)

The associated carbon; 51% by weight (calculated on dry substance)

Ash: 17% by weight (calculated on dry substance)

Calorific value: 5780 kcal/kg (calculated on dry substance)

The feed rate of coal: 400 kg/h

Heavy oil: Iranian light residual oil (oil residue) under reduced pressure

Specific density: 1,01 (15/4oC)

Viscosity: 100000 mm2(50oC)

Sulfur content: 3.6 per cent by weight

The feed rate of heavy oil: 600 kg/h

The balance of

Capacity: 300 kg/h

Volatile matter: 3% on utility: gas component, the oil component and water.

Gas component

Capacity: 1500 Nm3per hour

Calorific value: 2600 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
The oil component

Capacity: 80 kg/hour

Calorific value: 8000 kcal/kg

Water

Capacity: 250 kg/h

The distillate free from dust, desulfurized and used as fuel for the gas turbine, while maintaining their high temperature and pressure. The rest is used as boiler fuel. Thus conduct electricity generation using combined cycle.

As you can see from this example, it is very easy to obtain a distillate that can be used as fuel for gas turbines, for best implementation of electricity generation using combined cycle.

Further, when the volume of the distillate is limited, and the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate to the residue is 10:90, the increase in the efficiency of power generation is low, even if electricity is produced using a combined cycle. In this case, the presence of plants for partial processing and heavy oil, but the quantity of distillate can be increased as long as the ratio of the calorific values of the distillate and residue reaches 70: 30 or so. However, extraction of the residue becomes more difficult when this ratio exceeds 60:40. In addition, the amount of oxygen contained in exhaust gas of the gas turbine exceeds the amount needed for re-combustion of the exhaust gas. As a consequence, loss of exhaust gas increase.

Seventh, the following describes examples of the use of various types suitable for boiler fuel.

EXAMPLE G-1

In the apparatus shown in Fig. 4, 56000 kg/h of kerosene, the amount of which in the summer season is redundant, used as suitable for gas turbine fuel. Next, use 92800 kg/h below heavy oil, which cannot be used as suitable for boiler fuel.

The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of 580oC and contains about 13. % oxygen. Suitable for boiler fuel can be burned by using only this spent gas. As a result, thermal efficiency of electricity generation dostigashti: 270oC or below

Calorific value: 10500 kcal/kg (calculated on the PTS)

Heavy oil: Iranian light residual oil (oil residue) under reduced pressure

Specific density: 1,01 (15/4oC)

Viscosity: 100000 mm2(50oC)

Sulfur content: 3.6 per cent by weight

EXAMPLE G-2

9605 kg/h of kerosene used in example G-1, used as fuel for gas turbines in the apparatus shown in Fig. 8 (in this case, suitable for boiler fuel, indicated by the number 102 is not used). Next, carry out low-temperature carbonization 220400 kg/h below the dried coal at a temperature of about 600oC. the result distillate and coke. The distillate is cooled and washed with a liquid component. Forth from it secrete the aqueous layer using a separating tank. So get the gas component and the oil component.

The oil component is separated into a purified distillate and residual peck through the pickup under reduced pressure.

The gas component and the purified distillate used as suitable for gas turbine fuel with kerosene. The remainder of the allocated water layer and stop the air supply. The sulfur content in the gas component and the liquid component is 0.52% by weight, in each. The content of each of the salt and the vanadium content is 0.5 parts per million by weight. It is therefore suitable for gas turbine fuel you can use for a long period, for example, over 8000 hours. In addition, there is no corrosion of the turbine blades and the like.

Used as raw materials coal (after drying)

Moisture content: 4% by weight

Volatile matter: 31% by weight

Associated coal: 50% by weight

Ash: 15% by weight

Calorific value: 6430 kcal/kg

The char

Performance: 193100 kg/hour

Volatile matter: 11% by weight

Associated coal: 65% by weight

Ash: 24% by weight

Calorific value: 6700 kcal/kg

Gas component

Capacity: 18000 Nm3per hour

Heating capacity: 7,100 kcal/kg

The oil component

Capacity: 11000 kg/hour

Calorific value: 9110 kcal/kg

EXAMPLE G-3

Use the device shown in Fig. 5. Next, 36050 kg/h of coal used in example G-2, used as a suitable fuel for boilers. In addition, one.

Heavy oil is fed in the heating furnace during the pressure increase. Then carry out thermal decomposition of this heavy oil at a temperature of 500oC. thereupon cease adverse reaction by filing a hardening oil in the heating furnace. After this heavy oil is fed to the bottom of the distillation column and get the distillate and residue.

This distillate is subjected to desulfurization and used as suitable for gas turbine fuel, while maintaining its high temperature and pressure. The remaining component can be used as boiler fuel, together with coal.

Used as raw material heavy oil: Iranian light residual oil under reduced pressure

Specific density: 1,01 (15/4oC)

Viscosity: 100000 mm2(50oC)

Sulfur content: 3.6 per cent by weight

The balance of

Performance: 75369 kg/hour

Specific density: 1,03 (15/4oC)

Viscosity: 45000 mm/s (50oC)

Sulfur content: 3,9% by weight

The percentage of materials having a high boiling point ( 350oC): 78.5 per cent by weight

Calorific value: 9000 kcal/kg

Distillates: gas>/BR>Calorific value: 10125 kcal/kg

The oil component

Performance: 54320 kg/hour

Calorific value: 10000 kcal/kg

EXAMPLE G-4 (coal, thermal decomposition of heavy oil and kerosene)

Use the device shown in Fig. 6. Next, 15500 kg/h of kerosene used in example G-1, used as suitable for gas turbine fuel, and 100000 kg/h of coal used in example G-2, used as a suitable fuel for boilers. In addition, 99520 kg/h heavy oil used as a suitable fuel for boilers for thermal decomposition.

The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of 580oC and contains about 13% vol. the oxygen. The residue and is suitable for boiler fuel can be burned by using only this spent gas. As a result, thermal efficiency of electricity generation is 46%.

EXAMPLE H-1 (electricity generation using combined cycle, using a device to generate electricity, placed in the vicinity of the plant or installation for petroleum refining)

A device to generate electricity, as shown in Fig. 4, is placed near the oil>Crude oil is processed. The following products are obtained from plant (installation) for petroleum refining.

Gas: 250000 Nm3/day

LPG (liquid petroleum gas): 450 t/day

Petrochemical naphtha: 680 tons/day

Gasoline: 2750 t/day.

Fuel for jet engines; 700 t/day

Kerosene: 1350 tons/day

Diesel light oil: 2300 tons/day

The amount of residual fuel oil A, B and C: 3000 t/day

Residual oil under reduced pressure: 1500 tons/day

Asphalt: 300 tons/day

Petroleum coke and pitch: 400 t/day

Of these products, 41,9 t/h diesel light oil served in a gas turbine as suitable for gas turbine fuel. Further, 86 t/h residual oil low pressure is fed into the boiler as suitable for boiler fuel.

The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of 580oC and contains about 13. % oxygen. Suitable for boiler fuel can be burned by using only this spent gas. As a result, thermal efficiency of electricity generation is 46% (thermal efficiency).

Thus, the diesel light oil and residual oil is th for partial processing of oil and without oil transportation company electricity generation.

EXAMPLE H-2 (electricity generation using combined cycle, using a device to generate electricity, placed near the steel plant)

A device to generate electricity, as shown in Fig. 4, is placed near the steel plant.

This steel plant is located coke oven Coppers. With this furnace bituminous coal is subjected to the full decomposition, you get a coke and coke oven gas.

The feed rate of coal: 200 t/h

Performance production coke: 146 t/h

The amount of by-product coke oven gas: 6200 Nm2per hour

The composition of coke oven gas: 56% hydrogen, 27% vol. methane, 7% vol. of carbon monoxide, 3% vol. hydrocarbon or other non-combustible gaseous components.

The calorific value of coke oven gas: 4450 kcal/Nm3< / BR>
Iron or steel is produced by feeding the above-mentioned coke in a blast furnace.

In the blast furnace produces the following blast furnace gas, which can be fed to the gas turbine.

The composition of blast furnace gas: 3% hydrogen, 24% vol. the carbon monoxide and other kinds of non-flammable gaseous components.

The full amount of coke oven gas fed to the gas turbine as suitable for gas turbine fuel. In addition, to 85.2 tons/hour of coal dust generated in the process of making coke, and if necessary, together with coal for production of coal, is fed into the boiler as suitable for boiler fuel.

The exhaust gas of the gas turbine has a temperature of about 580oC and contains about 13% vol. the oxygen. Suitable for boiler fuel can be burned by using only this spent gas. As a result, thermal efficiency of electricity generation reaches 45% (thermal efficiency).

Thus, it is possible to efficiently produce electricity through the use of coke oven gas and coal dust, without installing new capacity for partial processing of fuel.

EXAMPLE H-3 (electricity generation using combined cycle, using a device to generate electricity, placed near a chemical plant)

A device to generate electricity, as shown in Fig. 4, is placed near a chemical plant, which includes installation for naphtha-cracking, the installation for the production of polymers of General purpose and who are full naphtha-cracking of this naphtha.

The speed of processing naphtha: 1000000 ton/year

Performance production of ethylene: 350000 tons/year

Performance production of propylene: 170000 tons/year

Productivity output benzene: 56000 tons/year

Productivity output exhaust gases

Productivity output per methane: 87000 t/year

The calorific value for methane: 13300 kcal/kg

Productivity output of residual fuel oil and tar: 39500 t/year

The calorific value of residual fuel oil and tar: 10500 kcal/kg

The performance of excavation is not subject to recycling of polymers: 55000 tons/year

The calorific value is not subject to recycling of polymers: 9300 t/a

Productivity output chemical Delavigne products: 21000 tons/year

The calorific value of the chemical Delavigne products: 4800 kcal/kg

Recently, waste gases from plants for the naphtha-cracking, Delavigne substances that originate from plants for naphtha-cracking and plants for the production of various polymers that are not subject to recycling polymers, such as atactic polymers, molten polymers produced during the change marks, and nest is s the efficiency of power generation is 39% (thermal efficiency).

Next is generation of electricity using waste gases, which were hitherto used as fuel gas in the boiler, and is now used as suitable for turbine fuel, and use recyclable polymers and chemical delevigne substances as suitable for boiler fuel. In addition, the exhaust gas from the gas turbine is fed into the boiler and burn it suitable for boiler fuel. As a result, thermal efficiency of electricity generation is 46% (thermal efficiency).

Therefore, the electric power can be efficiently obtained at a chemical plant, without installing new capacity for partial processing of the fuel, by feeding the exhaust gas, the exhaust from the unit for naphtha-cracking, gas turbine, and feed into the boiler delevigne chemicals coming from the installation to the naphtha-cracking and with different installations for the production of polymers. Then, if necessary, the resulting electricity can be sold electricity companies.

1. The way of generating electricity, according to which the share by partial processing fuel for boilers n is n, obtained from the distillate, or a mixture of the fuel and fuel suitable for gas turbines, used as boiler fuel or residue, or a mixture of this residue and at least one fuel selected from the group suitable for boiler fuel, or other type suitable for boiler fuel; drive the gas turbine through the combustion of fuels for gas turbines in gas turbine and drives a steam turbine with the help of steam by burning in a boiler fuel for boilers, which burn the gas component from a gas turbine designed for burning gas, as the oil component or the purified distillate is burned with a gas turbine designed for burning oil.

2. The way of generating electricity under item 1, in which boiler fuel (To) re-burn by feeding into the boiler exhaust gas from the gas turbine.

3. The way of generating electricity under item 1, in which the water vapor to generate electricity is produced by feeding the exhaust gas from the gas turbine in a heat recovery boiler and in which the boiler fuel (To) re-burn by filing in the boiler exhaust gas emerging processing is a processing by partial separation, includes at least one operation selected from the group consisting of distillation light ends, flushing (washing), acceleration, extraction and decantation.

5. The method of power generation according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, in which partial processing is a processing by the partial decomposition, which includes at least one operation selected from the group consisting of thermal decomposition, carbonization, water-gas gasification, gasification using the combustion gas, hydrogenation and microwave irradiation.

6. The method of power generation according to any one of p. 4 or 5, in which the partial processing is carried out at a temperature in the range of 250 to 500C.

7. The method of power generation according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 6, in which the ratio between the calorific values of the distillate (D) and the remainder (About) is 20-60% - 80-40%.

8. The method of power generation according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 7, in which the distillate (D) allocate at least a gas component (V) and the oil component (H) and in which the gas component (V), the oil component (H) or as a gas component (V) and the oil component (H) used as the UNT (N) is separated into a purified distillate (C) and VAT residue (O') by the pickup oil component (H), moreover, the purified distillate (C) use as fuel for the gas turbine (G), and VAT residue (O') is used in the boiler.

10. The method of power generation according to any one of p. 8 or 9, in which a fuel for gas turbines (A) contains sodium, potassium and vanadium, and the total weight fraction of sodium and potassium is not more than 0.5 ppm, and the weight percentage of vanadium is not more than 0.5 parts per million.

11. The device for producing electricity, comprising a device for partial processing intended for the separation suitable for boiler fuel (T) in the distillate (D) and the remainder (About), by performing partial processing suitable for boiler fuel (T); the gas turbine, which drives a through combustion of fuels for gas turbines (A), which is either only fuel for gas turbines (G), obtained from the distillate (D), or a mixture of these fuels for gas turbines (G) and is suitable for gas turbine fuel (G'); electricity generator for a gas turbine, which generates electricity by driving a gas turbine; a boiler to generate steam by burning fuel boiler (K), that is, is selected from the group consisting of a suitable fuel for boilers (T), and other species suitable for boiler fuel (T'); steam turbine that is driven with the help of steam leaving the boiler; an electric power generator for the steam turbine, which generates electricity by driving a steam turbine, which is suitable for boiler fuel (T or T') is a fuel selected from the group consisting of coal, low-grade coal with a content of volatile substances is not less than 20% by weight, coke, coke, fuel oil, residual oil, tar, bitumen, petroleum coke, carbon black, bituminous sand, sand oil obtained from bituminous sand, oil shale, shale oil obtained from oil shale, orinocco tar, Orimulsion, which is an aqueous suspension orinocco tar, asphalt, asphalt emulsion (namely, emulsified asphalt), pleasurei mixture (UMC), a mixture of coal with water (UVS), metrolpolis pulp, pulp, obtained from natural materials such as wood, grass, solid fats and vegetable oil or filter pressly sediment, plastic waste, combustible waste and mixtures of these materials is about to feed the exhaust gas, designed to supply the exhaust gas emerging from the gas turbine to the boiler.

13. The device for producing electricity by p. 12, which includes a recovery boiler, which receives the exhaust gas discharged from the gas turbine, whereby to produce steam used to generate electricity; a device for supplying exhaust gas, intended to supply the exhaust gas leaving the boiler in the boiler.

14. The way of generating electricity, comprising the following steps: placing the first and second devices to generate electricity in the vicinity of production facilities, of which are suitable for gas turbine fuel and is suitable for boiler fuel; supply suitable for gas turbine fuel to the gas turbine in the first device to generate electricity and then burning them suitable for gas turbine fuel; electricity production by the propulsion gas turbines in the first device to generate electricity by harnessing the resulting combustion gas for driving the turbine, obtained by combustion of prigodin the Ki energy and burning in him that is suitable for boiler fuel with the exhaust gas, emerging from the gas turbine; generating electricity by driving a steam turbine in the second device to generate electricity, which is driven by using water vapor, obtained by burning a suitable fuel for boilers.

15. The way of generating electricity on p. 14 production facilities represent at least one plant or plant selected from the group consisting of a plant or installation for cleaning oil, steel plant or chemical plant.

Priority points:

26.12.1996 - PP.1 - 3, 8 - 10, 11 - 13 according to JP 8/357129;

23.05.1997 - p. 4 according to JP 9/150202;

26.12.1996 - carbonization in paragraph 5 according to JP 8/357129;

14.02.1997 - process water-gas gasification in paragraph 5 according to JP 9/47264;

14.02.1997 - gasification process using the combustion gas according to JP 9/47265;

19.02.1997 process of microwave irradiation according to JP 9/50976;

26.02.1997 - the process of thermal decomposition according to JP 9/58375;

23.05.1997 - hydrogenation process according to JP 9/150202;

09.09.1997 - p. 6 according to JP 9/260910;

26.02.1997 - p. 7 according to JP 9/58375;

09.09.1997 - p. 14 and 15 according to JP 9/260910.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to a technology of power generation in chemically regenerative cycle using turbines running on gas

The invention relates to a method of energy production that combines the so-called turbine cycle with humidified air (NAT) scheme with partial oxidation

The invention relates to the field of combined production of mechanical and electrical energy using fuel cells

The invention relates to energy, mainly for electricity production

Gas turbine engine // 2280182

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber with igniter, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided with cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer installed with possibility of supply of direct current to its electrodes, free passing of electrolyte (water solution of electrolyte) through electrolyzer and products of water decomposition formed under action of direct current passing through electrolyte. Electrolyzer is installed before compressor in sealed part of housing. Pumping device and nozzle serve to deliver and atomize water solution of electrolyte in electrolyzer. Nozzle is furnished with cavitator made in form of local contraction of channel.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, adverse effect on environment.

3 cl, 2 dwg

Gas-turbine engine // 2280183

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided into cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer with supply of direct current to guide and working blades of compressor. Pumping device and nozzle with cavitator of fuel preparation and delivery system are made to feed and atomize water solution of electrolyte in electrolyzer. Compressor is made for building vacuum in seal part of housing and decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen under action of direct current passing through electrolyte.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, no adverse effect on environment.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Gas-turbine engine // 2280184

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided with cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer consisting of electrodes to which direct current is supplied and installed before compressor in sealed part of housing and of electrodes formed by delivery of direct current to guide and working blades of compressor. Pumping device of fuel preparation and delivery system provides delivery and atomizing of electrolyte (water solution of electrolyte) through nozzle furnished with cavitator, in electrolyzer where electrolysis of water takes place under action of direct current passing through electrolyte. Compressor is made for building vacuum in sealed part of housing and compression and delivery of gas mixture into combustion chamber.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, no adverse effect on environment.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes, fuel.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drying of solid fuel, its pyrolysis in reactor in fluidizated layer with solid coolant with preparation of steam-gas mixture and coal char, their discharge from reactor and separation. Steam-gas mixture is cleaned, and part of it is burned in combustion chamber of gas turbine with generation of electric energy and utilization of exhaust gases. Coal char is separated into coal char separator into two flows by fractions. Coarse fraction is sent to activator for production of activated coal, and the fine one - into gas generator for preparation of generator gas, which is then cleaned and conditioned together with remaining part of cleaned steam-gas mixture to prepare synthesis-gas, which is supplied to reactor for synthesis of liquid carbohydrates. Solid coolant is heated in technological furnace by its partial combustion with production of smoke gases and returned to pyrolysis reactor. At that prepared activated coal is directed as sorption material for purification of steam-gas mixture and generator gas, and spent activated coal is returned back to gasification stage.

EFFECT: maximum possible amount of high-quality liquid fuels of wide purpose with simultaneous efficient power generation by application of gas tube installation.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power engineering. Steam gas plant with coal pyrolysis includes steam turbine unit, gas turbine unit, waste-heat boiler of gas turbine unit. Steam turbine unit includes steam boiler operating on solid fuel, steam turbine, regenerative air heater and condensate pump. Gas turbine unit includes combustion gaseous fuel chamber, compressor and gas turbine using heated compressed air as working medium. At that, steam gas plant includes a group of independent operating pyrolysers, pyrolysis gas coolers, separator and fine filter. Pyrolysers are installed above burner tier of steam boiler and equipped with pulverised coal and air supply branch pipes. Each pyrolyser is connected by means of coal char supply channel at least to one boiler burner and pyrolysis gas cooler, one of the outlets of which is connected to separator. Coolers and separator is connected via resin and liquid hydrocarbon outlet pipeline to the boiler burners. Separator is connected via pyrolysis gas supercharger by means of supply channel of that gas to fine filter, one of the outlets of which is connected through booster compressor to combustion gaseous fuel chamber, and its other outlet - to the boiler burners through char coal supply channel. Outlets of coolers are connected to regenerative air heaters.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing economy, operating reliability, ecological properties of steam gas plant.

4 cl, 2 dwg

Gas generator // 2406840

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: gas generator consists of inlet and outlet valves with rods located in its combustion chamber, of communicating with chamber cylinder with spring-loaded stepped slide valve positioned between two arresters of its run and of mechanisms of delay. A channel of fuel discharge with an on-off valve installed in it is connected to a fuel supply main. The mechanisms of delay correspond to spring elements arranged on rods of the inlet and outlet valves and resting on the case of the chamber; the spring elements change character of power to a reverse one in the process of deformation. A fuel tank with a filter, and a fuel pump with an electric engine are mounted on the gas generator. The fuel system is equipped with a conic nozzle and controlled system of air ejector.

EFFECT: usage of generator as independent unit.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: electro-station of combined cycle with inter-cyclic gasification consists of: gasificator (2) with solid fuel, air compressor (12), combustion chamber (11) for combustion of gas fuel from gasificator in mixture with compressed air from compressor, gas turbine (13), booster (21), circuit of gasified agent (A), bypass (D) of gasified agent, and multi-purpose valve (23). Bypass (D) adjoins an inlet branch of combustion chamber (11). Circuit (A) of gasified agent supply diverges from booster (21) rising pressure of gasified agent supplied to gasificator (2). Bypass (D) of gasified agent has valve (23) of control of withdrawn pressure. Value of flow or pressure of gasified agent supplied into gasificator (2) via circuit (A) of supply of gasifier agent can be controlled depending on degree of valve (23) opening. Valve (23) is located on bypass (D) of gasifier agent. There is eliminated necessity in installation of control accessories in circuit (A) of gasifier agent supply.

EFFECT: avoiding drops of pressure in circuit of gasifier agent supply, which allows essential reduction of pressure at output of booster.

18 cl, 29 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: low pressure oxidiser is compressed with multi-stage compressor, and then it is supplied to high pressure combustion chamber to which some part of fuel and heated high pressure oxidiser flow is supplied as well. Combustion products are supplied from combustion chamber to gas turbine, and then to fuel element for electrochemical oxidation of the other fuel part. At least some part of low pressure oxidiser is supplied to fuel element input and the flow leaving the fuel element is burnt in low pressure combustion chamber. Low pressure oxidiser supplied to fuel element input is taken from lower stages of compressor.

EFFECT: reducing fuel flow, improving operating reliability of fuel element and decreasing the losses due to insufficient expansion of combustion products in the turbine.

9 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: combined-cycle gas-plant includes a boiler with fluidised bed under pressure, with a furnace containing a fluidised bed and a cyclone, installed inside the body, gas turbine unit, a steam turbine with a regenerative equipment tract, heat exchangers for cooling of the gases leaving the gas turbine and ash, leaving out boiler, gas treatment unit, the vortex chamber with a device for removing the slag in the liquid state, gas cooler. In parallel with the boiler on the air supply, coal and sorbent the device comprises a gasifier with fluidised bed. A stream of fuel gas leaving the gasifier is divided into two substreams. One substream of the fuel gas is fed for combustion into the vortex chamber. The combustion products of the vortex chamber are cooled in a slag trap beam and a gas cooler, and are cleaned in a ceramic filter and fed into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. The second substream of combustible gas passes successively cooler gas sulfur cleaner installation, ceramic filter and then enters the combustion chamber of a gas turbine. In the combustion chamber the mixture of combustion products and combustible gas subflow takes place, as well as raising of the temperature of gases produced by burning fuel gas before the gases enter the gas turbine.

EFFECT: safe operation of the installation owing to the use of combustible gas produced in its own cycle, increase of efficiency factor at the cost of raising the temperature of the gases in front of the gas turbine.

1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: combined power system comprises a gas-turbine engine, a power generator mechanically joined by a shaft with the engine and a source of cold air connected in a gas-dynamic manner with the inlet to the engine. The system additionally comprises a device to prepare and to supply gaseous hydrogen into the engine, which includes a reservoir of liquid hydrogen, a pump of liquid hydrogen supply with a drive, suction and discharge pipelines with stop valves, a heater, an accumulator-gasifier of liquid hydrogen, and also an exhaust header comprising a gas duct with a stop valve, double-fuel burners in an engine combustion chamber, an outlet stop valve and a pressure reducer. The pump at the inlet via a suction pipeline with a stop valve is connected to a liquid hydrogen reservoir, and at the outlet - via a discharge pipeline with a stop valve to the inlet of the accumulator-gasifier. The accumulator-gasifier outlet via an outlet stop valve and a pressure reducer is connected with double-fuel burners of the combustion chamber. The gas duct is connected in a gas-dynamic manner by its inlet to the engine outlet, and by its outlet - via a stop valve - to atmosphere. The heater is arranged in the form of a closed cavity. The liquid hydrogen accumulator-gasifier is arranged in the form of a reservoir and is placed in the heater's cavity.

EFFECT: stable production of power of guaranteed level in a wide temperature range of atmospheric air with lower emission of hazardous admixtures with an exhaust gas.

18 cl, 6 dwg

Up!