The reservoir for the liquid, provided with a reinforcing and sealing coating, and method of its manufacture
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a technique or repair of tanks for liquids, in particular tanks water towers. A method of processing a wall of a reservoir for the liquid includes mechanical and/or chemical preparation, coating on the inner surface of the vessel wall primer and multilayer coatings. The multilayer coating is a cured resin, which entered the reinforcing fibers and thickening fiber. The reinforcing fibers have a modulus of elasticity of more than twice the modulus of elasticity thickening fibers. The proposed sealing system design allows us to achieve significant savings and greater security for the employed at the facility personnel. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to a technique or repair of tanks for liquids. It can be applied but not only to them, to the tanks water towers.To ensure the tightness of the tanks for liquids is becoming increasingly common to use special coatings on the inner surface of the vessel wall. Really rarely get rises the other hand, closed up in a concrete reinforcing bars exposed to corrosion and reduction of square cross-section, which leads to the necessity of repairs.As the sealing coating is most often used thin coatings such as paint, acrylic or vinyl or epoxy resin base, and bituminous materials, mortars based on cement and prefabricated sheets or panels of aluminum, asphalt or plastic materials (see, Mathieu and J. Saris Properties and durability of seals water towers, tanks, vats and pools in the Travaux magazine for July - August 1991, pp. 14 - 25). It is also known the use of layered coatings based on resins and fiberglass (so-called technology Mach Perles).To strengthen the construction of reservoirs, particularly during maintenance operations, the necessity of which is caused by the reduction of the useful cross-sectional area of rebar, used different methods, common in civil engineering. Most commonly used reinforcing ring fastening around the tank, either with pre-stress, or without it. Such fastening may be accomplished by using a composite material, for example woven fabrics skymet part of the hydrostatic pressure, transmitted through the vessel wall, thereby helping to withstand this pressure. If this mount was subjected to the preliminary voltage, then this perception of effort caused by the discharge of concrete from compressive stresses.Carried out on existing buildings, the repair usually involves work on giving the tightness and strengthen the structure. Using modern technology it is, as a rule, to perform two separate operations, one of which is inside the tank, and the other, expensive and dangerous, outside of it. Similar considerations are valid in respect to the production of new tanks.The aim of the present invention is to facilitate the execution of these works, and thus increase their profitability.To achieve this goal, a method for processing the vessel wall, whereby the inner surface of the vessel wall causing multi-layer coating, which represents a polymerizable resin, in which a sealed, first, reinforcing fibers that absorb at least part of the hydrostatic efforts provided to skritiy thickness, sufficient to obtain the necessary geostrophically tank, and has a significantly lower modulus of elasticity than that of the reinforcing fibers.Under these conditions, the same coating performs tasks simultaneously sealing and reinforcement design. The sealing wall may wholly or partly to take the pressure caused by the existence of liquid in the tank column. This reduces the load on the wall, and the possible decrease of the mechanical strength of the structure is compensated by the decrease of the efforts to which they are exposed.In such systems are used preferably polymerizable resin, which promotes adhesion of the coating to the vessel wall. Such adhesion allows in case of accidental violation of the integrity of the coating to prevent the formation between the wall and the floor of the liquid film, which may be sufficient for transmission on the wall of hydrostatic pressure. Unlike traditional methods of strengthening a way of sticking coatings according to the invention does not aim at the transmission of forces between the structure and the reinforcing element.In accordance with the preferred embodiment process is ENISA least part thickening fibers, and then applying a second layer comprising the second resin and the reinforcing fibers. The second resin may be selected less soft than the first, so the floor will be easier to adapt to possible movements in the tank, and at the same time will remain high resistance to hydrostatic pressure.It is advisable to use in the composition of the multilayer coating resin polymerized at room temperature, which makes it easier to work with it in real conditions. In this case, the process of applying a multilayer coating or one of its constituent layers may include the following steps:
- applying resin on the inner surface of the vessel wall;
- laying thickening and reinforcing fibers in the form of dry fabrics, which are immersed in a resin;
- excerpt resin before polymerization.To increase the thickness of the coating preferably have a relatively cheap fiber, which can have quite a small modulus of elasticity and/or tensile strength, such as glass fiber or polyester fiber.For the reinforcing fibers take the materials with higher tensile strength (cakut carbon fiber.To account for fluctuations in hydrostatic pressure depending on the height of liquid in the tank, it is expedient to provide for the possibility of changing the density of the reinforcing fibers in a multi-layer coating along the walls of the tank with obtaining greater concentration of these fibers at its bottom.In the composition of the multilayer coating may include at least one mixed fabric, including reinforcing and thickening fibers and disposable between this mixed tissue and vessel wall, at least one layer thickening fibers.The other side of the present invention relates to a tank for liquid having a wall, on the inner surface of which is deposited a multilayer coating formed polymerizable resin, in which a sealed, first, reinforcing fibers that absorb at least part of the hydrostatic efforts exerted by the liquid on the tank, without transferring them to the wall, and, secondly, thickening fibers, giving the multi-layer coating thickness sufficient to obtain the necessary geostrophically tank, and has a significantly lower modulus of elasticity than that of the reinforcing fibers.Stalin the Oia, no limiting character, with reference to the attached drawing, which
Fig. 1 is a schematic cross-section of the tank water tower subjected to processing according to the invention;
in Fig. 2 shows a view in section of the water tower, which tank may be subjected to the treatment according to the invention.It is shown in Fig. 1 tank 1 water tower is a wall, made for example of reinforced concrete. On the inner surface of the wall 2 is equipped with a laminated floor 3.Specified multi-layer coating 3 is placed or at the time of manufacture of the tank 1, or in the course of repair works in the following way:
first perform mechanical and/or chemical preparation of the inner surface of the concrete wall 2 (cleaning, sandblasting, degreasing, etc.);
- put on the surface of a thin film resin in a liquid state;
- stack on this resinous film, which is still in the liquid state, the fabric of the dry fibers;
- coat these fabric glue to ensure their penetration into the resin and impregnation;
- carry out the polymerization of the resin.Maimeriblu at room temperature. For these purposes it is possible to apply, for example, two-component epoxy resin of the type mentioned in the application for the European patent 0799951. In the case of storage tank for drinking water 4 resin should have physico-chemical properties, designed for contact with water.In the resin included in the composition of the multilayer coating 3, the clamped fibers of two types.If you want to provide partial or complete appreciation of the efforts exerted liquid column 4, in the composition of the multilayer coating will be included reinforcing fibers with a modulus of elasticity in the range of 200 to 400 GPA and a tensile strength of 1500 MPa. This can be, in particular, carbon fiber with a tensile strength of about 3000 MPa.To account for the gradient of hydrostatic pressure in a fluid is provided that the concentration in the coating 3 of the carbon fibers is higher at the bottom of the tank 1, rather than in its upper part.In a particular construction of the required number of reinforcing fibers will be determined based on a calculation of the mechanical characteristics of structures performed prior to commencement of work. The strength of multilayer coatings gap is usually approximately the one material, the cost would be unacceptably high, given the price of tissues from these materials. To make the coating thickness required from the point of view of ensuring the integrity, provided by the inclusion in the composition of the resin thickening fibers having smaller values of strength and modulus of elasticity, but significantly cheaper. Typically, the modulus of elasticity of the reinforcing fibers can be more than twice the corresponding value for thickening fibers.As thickening can, in particular, to use glass with a modulus of 60 to 80 HPa (fiberglass more than thirty times cheaper than carbon fiber).Fiberglass and carbon fiber can be part of the same mixed fabric, with carbon fiber will be properly oriented in the direction of a commitment to work on stretching, i.e., around the circumference of the tank. To increase the final thickness of the multilayer coating and improve the air-tightness can be laid between the concrete and mixed cloth one or more additional fabrics or mats made of fiberglass.Such fiberglass mats can be laid as the first layer with the use of the Lenna, for example, the presence of cracks. Then stack the second layer of carbon fibers or mixed fabrics using the second resin with a higher modulus of elasticity than the first, which allows to obtain the required strength.The numerical values of parameters of the device according to the invention can be illustrated by the example of the water tower tank capacity 600 m3shown on Fig. 2. This tower height H of about 30 m is equipped with a tank 1 in a generally cylindrical shape with a diameter D equal to about 10 m, in which a Central shaft 5. It is assumed that the reservoir 1 is placed in the upper part of the building is designed to fill the water to a height varying in the range of h18 m to h210 M. in Addition, it is assumed that the concrete, which is made from the vessel wall, characterized by lack of reinforcement of the order of 20%.In this example, the area to be processed surface on the inner side wall of the tank is equal to 441 m2. Initially, the surface is etched and appropriate training, after which it applied a primer for fixing the sealing element stiffness. The first four meter allows vertical surface 1252. The rest of the surface is covered with a cloth containing 350 g/m2carbon fibers (6 m vertically in the upper part of the vessel wall, i.e., 188 m2; the bottom, i.e. 77 m2the trunk, i.e. 51 m2). In each of the fabrics of carbon fibers arranged in the direction of the weft and woven using fiberglass basis (density 150 g/m2). To fabric added fiberglass Mat, having a density of 450 g/m2while the adhesion of the entire structure is provided with a special binder powder density of 40 g/m2. Thus, the total mass of fabric used is equal to 456 kg of the Total weight of the resins may be 803 kg, including 150 kg on the locking primer, 250 kg of resin, designed for fabric with the content of carbon fibers 500 g/m2and 553 kg of resin, designed for fabric with the content of carbon fibers 350 g/m2.Compared with the traditional technology of repair, when used, on the one hand, internal multi-layer coating based on epoxy glass and, on the other hand, the outer ring harness cylindrical tank, the proposed sealing system design allows to achieve being the Alov, used inside the tank are a few more, and accordingly increases the cost, but this disadvantage is more than covered the considerable saving in labor and higher security for the employed at the facility personnel.In addition, when using this technology manages to leave without changing the external appearance of the building in case of repair. 1. A method of processing a wall of a reservoir for liquid, including mechanical and/or chemical preparation, coating on the inner surface of the vessel wall primer and multilayer coatings, which represents a polymerizable resin, which entered the reinforcing fibers and thickening fibers, characterized in that as the polymerizable resin is used for the first resin and the second resin, and the coating process includes the steps of applying the first layer of the first resin and at least part of the thickening of the fibers, and then applying a second layer comprising the second resin and the reinforcing fibers and reinforcing fibers have a modulus of elasticity, more than twice the modulus of elasticity thickening fibers.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as utonshaetsya fiber, having a modulus of elasticity in the range of 200 to 400 GPA and tensile strength of more than 1500 MPa, and thickening and/or reinforcing fiber is made in the form of dry tissue in which carbon fibers are oriented in the direction of the action force on the tension.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the second resin is less soft than the first.4. The reservoir for the liquid, mainly of concrete, the internal wall of which is coated with a primer and a multilayer coating formed polimerizuet resin, which entered the reinforcing fibers and thickening fibers, wherein the polymerizable resin comprises the first resin and the second resin, and a multilayer coating has at least two layers, and the first coating layer contains a first resin and at least part of the thickening fibers in the mixed fabric and the second layer is made of a second resin and reinforcing fibers and reinforcing fibers have a modulus of elasticity, more than twice the modulus of elasticity thickening fibers.5. A reservoir for fluid under item 4, characterized in that the multilayer coating concentration of the carbon fibers is higher at the bottom than at the top of his hour
FIELD: vehicles, particularly vehicle reservoirs.
SUBSTANCE: reservoir comprises laminated shell. One layer of the shell, for instance inner one, has reduced thickness. Another layer of the shell, for instance outer one, has increased thickness. Space defined by inner and outer layers is filled with pasty medium.
EFFECT: extended reservoir capabilities.
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: title polyamides possess also a good elongation capacity and a high thermo-mechanical strength. Object of invention is to obtain polyamides, which would be characterized by resistance to ageing under high working temperature conditions with their flexibility preserved. Disclosed composition contains (i) 60 to 99.5% (preferably 70-93%) of at least one copolyamide depicted by formula X/Y,Ar, wherein Y represents aliphatic diamine groups containing 8 to 20 carbon atoms; Ar represents groups of aromatic dicarboxylic acid; X either represents groups of aminoundecanoic acid H2N-(CH2)10-COOH, lactam-12 or corresponding acid or X represents unit Y.x, which is group resulting from condensation of diamine with aliphatic dicarboxylic acid (x) containing 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or X represents unit Y,I, which is group resulting from condensation of diamine with isophthalic acid; and (ii) 0.5 to 40% (preferably 7-30%) of at least one product selected from plasticizers, nano-fillers, polyolefins, cross-linked polyolefins, and additives. Preferably, X/Y,Ar represents: (1) 11/10,T resulting from condensation of aminoundecanoic acid, 1,10-decanediamine, and terephthalic acid, (2) 12/12,T resulting from condensation of lactam-12, 1,10-decanediamine, and terephthalic acid, (3) 10,10/10,T resulting from condensation of sebacic acid, 1,10-decanediamine, and terephthalic acid, or (4) 10,I/10,T resulting from condensation of isophthalic acid, 1,10-decanediamine, and terephthalic acid. Invention also provides apparatus, materials, and structures involving proposed composition.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of material.
27 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: personal use articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cooking. Set of containers is designed for steamed cooking food in a microwave oven and contains the water tank, food container with lots of holes in its bottom, which includes inner and outer parts of wall, as well as material shielding from microwave radiation enclosed between the inner and outer parts of the walls. Also, the device contains a cover containing the inner and outer parts, as well as material shielding from microwave radiation enclosed between the inner and outer parts of the walls of the cover. At that the food container is made to be mounted or dismounted inside the water tank. When the set is assembled, the cooking food is shielded from direct exposure of microwave energy.
EFFECT: invention allows to increase efficiency of cooking.
SUBSTANCE: invention aims to create the housing for the external pressure of composite materials, which can be used as a self-contained construction as well as a separate module of deep-submerge vehicles and structures possessing positive buoyancy. The housing consists of the cylindrical section and frontal covers, primary structure and combination of groups of spiraling and circular layers, discrete stiffeners of various structure made of unidirectional high-modulus strings, tied with the polymeric binding, with flanges at the vents resting on the external surface of the primary structure. The strength enhancement and stability is achieved under the influence of high external hydraulic pressure up to 100 MPa.
EFFECT: enhancement of strength and stability of composite materials.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed container comprises inner and outer layers in direct contact with composition and ambient medium, respectively, gas barrier central layer and two intermediate adhesive layers arranged between aforesaid inner and outer polymer layers. Said inner and outer layers include mix of polymers and, at least, one branched polyolefin.
EFFECT: production of multilayer plastic polymer containers for pharmaceutical compositions.
20 cl, 14 tbl, 8 dwg, 10 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flexible packages, particularly, to flexible laminate tubes with sealed overlapped edges. Said tube comprises laminate and sealing tape. Laminate has at least two layers, i.e. inner and outer layers. Outer and inner layers are open and sealed. Laminate are folded so that two lengthwise opposite edges are overlapped to make a hollow structural element. Sealing tape comprises at least first and second layers. First layer seals the laminate inner layer while second layer seals laminate outer layer. Sealing tape is fitted between two lengthwise opposite overlapping laminate edges so that first layer faces said inner layer while second layer faces to seal two opposite lengthwise edges to form tube structural element.
EFFECT: hard and reliable flexible tubes from various laminates.
24 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to make medical containers, such as bags for infusions and solution media. The plastic film made by co-extrusion has three layers: a first layer consisting of a polyamide, a second layer containing as the main component a copolymer of an α-olefin and an anhydride monomer of an unsaturated carboxylic or dicarboxylic acid, and a sealing layer having two layers, wherein the external layer contains high-density polyethylene and the internal layer contains a mixture of high-density polyethylene and low-density polyethylene.
EFFECT: invention improves quality properties of the film, speeds up production of bags without damaging the surface of the film and prevents foreign matter from falling into the boundary surface during lamination.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: packaging industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the packaging of food products and relates to a packaging material with an integrated pressure relief valve. It comprises one-sided pressure relief valve comprising a first inner film provided with at least one through inlet opening, and a second outer film covering the said at least one inlet opening and connected to the first inner film, forming a channel part between the inner and the outer film. The channel part communicates with the environment surrounding the package through at least one outlet opening hole located separately from at least one inlet opening. The pressure relief valve additionally comprises the liquid provided in the channel part and the solid separation means provided in the channel part adjacent to the said at least one inlet opening. The outer film is a soft film having flexibility or elasticity such that in the tensile test the force less than 5 N is required to stretch by 5% of the sample with the width of 15 mm.
EFFECT: invention provides creation of the packaging material comprising an integrated one-sided pressure relief valve with low pressure of opening.
24 cl, 10 dwg