Device with optical disc and method of replacement for the optical drive

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the recording and playback devices with optical drive. The inventive optical disk on which data should be written in units of one ECC block is formed of 16 sectors, recorded a mock data for processing time or for the initial time such as the start time of an applied problem, then the layout data is reproduced to determine the sector with the primary defect, the address of a sector, which, as defined, is the primary defect is recorded on the optical disk, and at the time of data recording data recording is effected in units of one ECC block, while is run through the sector with the primary defect. In addition, the optical disk on which data should be written in units of one ECC block, the data is written during the recording data other than the initial time, then the data is reproduced to determine the ECC block having the sector the secondary defect, and the data of the ECC block, which is determined, is the sector with the secondary defect is recorded in the ECC block, which is prepared separately. In addition, on the optical disk, on which zapisi the processing or the initial time, such as the start time of an applied problem, then the layout data is reproduced to determine the sector with the primary defect, the address of a sector, which, as defined, is the primary defect is recorded on the optical disk, the recording data is performed in units of one ECC block, while is run through the sector with a primary defect at the time of data recording, data is recorded during the recording data other than the initial time, the data is reproduced to determine the ECC block having the sector the secondary defect, and the data of the ECC block, which is defined as, is the sector with the secondary defect is recorded in the ECC block, which is prepared separately. 6 C. and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 20 ill.

The invention relates to a recording and reproducing device with an optical disk for recording data on an optical disk and reproducing the data recorded on the optical disk to the recording device by the optical drive used exclusively for recording data on an optical disk reproducing device with an optical disk that is used exclusively for reproducing data recorded on an optical disc, and method of replacement for real> Traditionally implemented device with an optical disk for recording data on an optical disk having recording tracks, or to reproduce data recorded on the optical disk through the use of laser radiation emitted by the semiconductor laser is mounted on the optical head.

In the above-described device with an optical disk, data is recorded on the optical disk in units of one block of code with error correction (ECC) formed by multiple sectors.

In this case, a device with an optical disk, which is determined accurately or not the recorded data in units of one sector for processing time or for the initial time such as the start time of an applied problem, and if the sector defect is detected using the above described method of determining the ECC block including the sector is determined as a defective block and analyzed as unfit block.

Therefore, if you write the successive elementary data groups, such as speech or film image, and if present ECC block, which is unsuitable, is in the process of replacement by shifting to write data to the next ECC block after about the third one ECC block.

Thus, the device with the optical disk has a drawback consisting in the fact that the playback operation is interrupted for a period of time corresponding to one ECC block, which is defective, for example, when reproduced successive elementary data groups, such as speech or film image.

In addition, we propose a method to determine accurately or not the recorded data for each sector for the recording time after the initial time considering the defective sector as a defective sector when the defective sector is detected through the above-described method of determining and recording data when using sector, prepared in another area for a replacement.

In this case, if the data recorded in the sector is another area that is not reproduced simultaneously with the reproduction of one ECC block may not be playing the whole ECC block. i.e., initially, one sector of the ECC block can be reproduced consistently, but in this case, it becomes necessary to reproduce the sector for replacement during playback ECC block and then play sector of the original ECC block. Therefore, SCM disk, capable of recording data in such a way as to be able to play them continuously, when reproduced successive elementary data groups, such as speech or film image, even if the process of replacing the defect is carried out at the processing time or for the initial time such as the start time of an applied problem.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a device with an optical disk capable of continuously reproduce the data, when played back such successive elementary data groups, as in speech or film image, even if the process of replacing the defect is performed at the recording time after the initial time.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a device with an optical disk capable of continuously reproduce the data, when played back such successive elementary data groups, as in speech or film image, even if the process of replacing the defect is carried out at the processing time or for the initial time such as the start time of an applied problem.

In addition, another purpose of this invention is to provide a device with an optical disk capable padale initial time.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention proposes a method of implementing a replacement for an optical disk which has tracks for recording data, arranged in concentric fashion or in a spiral, and which defines a format with many successive sector areas, each of which has a given length of track and includes an address field for recording address data indicating the position on the track and field records for the data recording, and the recording data recording is effected in units of one block area containing a group of a preset number of sector areas among the many sector areas and including the area of data entry, error correction, in which elementary group data error correction that are used to record data recorded in a predetermined number of sector areas, collectively recorded for the group of the preset number of sector areas containing stage sequential write data write and data error correction in multiple successive areas of the block on the optical disk, and run through the area of the sector with defect in units of one sector and recording data recording data and error correction in the next field of the sector is the sector in each of the areas of the block.

Fig. 1 is a block diagram schematically showing the structure of the device with an optical disk for explaining a variant of the implementation of this invention.

Fig. 2 is a top view schematically showing the structure of an optical disk shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a diagram schematically showing the structure of an optical disk shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a diagram for explaining the rotation speed of the optical disk shown in Fig. 1, for each zone and the number of sectors per track.

Fig. 5 and 6 are diagrams each of which shows the structure of the ECC block of the optical disk shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 7 is a diagram showing the structure of each sector of the ECC block of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8 is a view to illustrate data in a specified format in the header portion of the optical disk of Fig. 2.

Fig. 9 is a diagram showing the format of a sector of the ECC block of Fig. 6.

Fig. 10 is a diagram showing an example of an entry in the management of the defect created in the zone of the optical disk of Fig. 2, where wasmore or absence of the optical disk of Fig. 1 and an open or closed state of the cassette.

Fig. 12 is a block diagram to illustrate the initial process of forming the list of defects.

Fig. 13 and 14 are diagrams showing the relation between the numbers of physical sectors and numbers of logical sectors, to illustrate replacement by shifting in units of one sector.

Fig. 15 is a diagram for illustrating the process of replacement by shifting performed in units of one sector, when successive elementary data groups, such as a film image recorded on the set of ECC blocks.

Fig. 16 is a diagram for illustrating the linear replacement process in units of one ECC block.

Fig. 17 is a diagram for illustrating the playback order of the ECC blocks in the linear replacement process in units of one ECC block.

Fig. 18 is a diagram showing the relation between the numbers of physical sectors and numbers of logical sectors in the ECC block for such replacement, when is a linear replacement process in units of one ECC block.

Fig. 19 and 20 are flowcharts for illustrating the percent is written embodiment of this invention with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Fig. 1 depicts a device with an optical disk used as a recording device information. A device with an optical disk used for recording data (information), or playback data due to the direction of the optical disk 1 (DVD-RAM) used as a medium for recording, a convergent light beam.

For example, the disc 1 is a disc rewritable and variable phase, which is constructed by forming a metal coating layer of tellurium or bismuth toroidal form on the surface of the main Board, which is formed of glass or plastic round shape, on which data is recorded and the recorded data is reproduced by using both concentric and spiral grooves and pads and elementary data group addresses are recorded at predetermined intervals when using labels recordings on the master account.

As shown in Fig. 2 and 3, the optical disk 1 has the input area 2, the data area 3 and the output 4.

The input area 2 is the area stamped data 5 generated a lot of tracks, and the area data rewritable 6, formed by many Yes data rewritable 6 formed through the protective zone of the track, zone scan disk, check area management zone identification data disk and zone control replacement 6a used as the replacement.

The data region 3 is formed by a multitude of areas, for example, 24 zone 3a, ..., 3x, which formed lots of tracks arranged in the radial direction.

The output area 4 is an area of data rewritable, which formed lots of tracks, like the zone data rewritable 6, and it can be recorded the same data as the content data zones 6.

As shown in Fig. 3, the optical disk 1 has an area of stamped data 5 and zone data rewritable 6 input area 22, zone 3a, ..., 3x the data area 3 and the data area of the output area 4, sequentially arranged in this order from lying deep inside part, for the above zones use the same synchronization signal, and the rotation speed of the optical disk 1, and the number of sectors of one track are different in the respective zones.

In areas 3a, ..., 3x data region 3, the rotation speed becomes lower and the number of sectors of one track becomes more zone, lying on the Bo is karasti as the speed of rotation and the number of sectors for the above zones 3a, ..., 3x, 4, 5, 6 recorded in table 10a of the memory 10, as shown in Fig. 4.

As shown in Fig. 2 and 3, on the tracks of the zones 3a, ..., 3x data region 3 elementary group data pre-recorded in the unit of data block ECC (code bug fix) (for example, per unit of 38688 bytes), which is treated as the unit record data.

The ECC block is formed of 16 sectors which contain 2-byte data, and, as shown in Fig. 5, each sector ID (identification data) from 1 to 16 sector ID 4-byte (32-bit) configuration used as the address data, is attached to the main data (data sector) along with the code error correction (IED: ID code error detecting) 2-byte configuration in each sector, and recorded transverse ECCs codes (bug fix) 1 longitudinal and 2 ECCs used as codes with error correction for data playback, recorded in ECC blocks. ECCs 1 and 2 are codes for error correction, is attached to the data as a backup words to prevent the situation when the data are not reproducible due to the defect of the optical disk 1.

For replacement use the specified number of ECC blocks among mnotes bytes in 12 rows (172 x 12), cross-ESS 1 10-byte configuration, is attached to each row and longitudinal ECC 2 182-byte configuration the same number is attached to each sector.

When the ECC block is recorded on the optical disk 1, the synchronization codes (2 bytes: 32 bits channel) to achieve synchronization bytes, when the reproduced data are attached to each of the specified amount of data (at given intervals the length of the data, for example, for every 91 bytes: each 1456 bits of the channel) of each sector, as shown in Fig. 6.

As shown in Fig. 7, each sector is formed of 26 blocks of data from block zero to 25-th block, and synchronization code (sync block) attached to each block, formed by a given code (1 byte: 16 bits channel) and the common code (1 byte: 16 bits channel), which is common to each data block.

I.e., as shown in Fig. 7, a zero data block presents SY0, second, tenth and eighteenth blocks presents SY1, fourth, twelfth and twentieth blocks presents SY2, sixth, fourteenth and twenty-second blocks presents SY3, eighth, sixteenth and twenty-fourth blocks presents SY4, the first, third, fifth, seventh and evetnually, twenty-first, twenty-third and twenty-fifth blocks presents SY7.

As shown in Fig. 2, on the tracks of the zones 3a, ..., 3x the data area 3 of the header (address field) 11, ..., in which is recorded the address, and the like, pre-formatted for the relevant sectors.

The header portion 11 is formed during formation of the grooves. As shown in Fig. 8, the header portion 11 is formed of a plurality of grooves 12 and pre-formatted for grooves 13, and the center of the notch 12 lies on the same line as the boundary between the groove 13 and the contact pad 14.

As shown in Fig. 8, the chain grooves ID1 forms part of the header grooves 1, the chain grooves ID2 forms part of header pads 1, the chain grooves ID3 forms part of the header grooves 2, the chain grooves ID4 forms part of header pads 2, the chain grooves ID5 forms part of the header grooves 3, and the chain grooves ID6 forms part of header pads 3.

Thus, part of the header for grooves and part of the title for the contact pads are located opposite with respect to each other (in cascade form).

The format for each sector is 123 bytes (corresponding to the header portion 11), fields with reflection 17 of 2 bytes and record fields 18 of 2567 bytes.

Bits of channels recorded in the above-mentioned sector, are formed in a format that is obtained by encoding 8-bit data 16-bit bits of the channel through the implementation of the 8-16 code modulation.

Header field 11 is an area in which specified data is written during the processing of the optical disk 1. Header field 11 is formed header field 1, field of the header 2, header field 3, field header 4.

Each of the header fields from the fields of the header 1 to header field 4 is formed by 46 bytes or 18 bytes and includes a tunable oscillator (VFO) with part 36-byte or 8-byte synchronization code, the 3-byte address mark (AM), 4-byte position ID (PID) with part of the address, 2-byte code with error correction IED (ID error correction) and a 1-byte final ID RA (IDs).

Each of the header fields 1 and 3 includes a tunable oscillator (VF01) part 36-byte synchronization code, and each of the header fields 2 and 4 includes a tunable oscillator (VF02) part 8-byte synchronization code.

Tunable generators VF01, V is enerator tunable frequency VF01 with part of the code synchronization is formed by recording successive elementary data groups "010..." in bits channels "36" bytes (576 bits in terms of bits channel) (when recording of pictures at set intervals), and generator tunable frequency VF02 with part of the code synchronization is formed by recording successive elementary data groups "010..." bits of channels "8" bytes (128 bits in terms of bits of the channel).

Label address AM is a synchronization code of "3" bytes indicating the position at which the start address of a sector. As a combination of each byte, an address mark AM is a special combination that does not appear in the data portion "0100100000000100".

Part of the address from PDI1 to PDI4 are areas in which sector addresses (containing ID numbers are stored as 4-byte address information. The address of a sector is the number of the physical sector as a physical address indicating a physical position on the track, and, consequently, the number of the physical sector is written to the reference stage, and it is impossible to rewrite the same thing.

The ID number is "1" in case PID1, for example, and is a number that represents the number of steps among the four actions, through which part of the address is rewritten in one part of the header 11.

Code error detecting IED is a code error detection for the sector addresses (containing the ID number) and can be ispolzovali ID RA contains the basic information required for demodulation, and plays a role settings for polarity so that makes part of the header 11 to end up in the interval.

Field with reflection 17 is used to compensate for the offset to the error signal of the tracking control time signal and switching pad/groove, and the like.

Record field 18 is formed by the field of the gap size from 10 to 26 bytes, of the field of protection of 1 in size from 20 to 26 bytes, fields VF03 from 35 bytes field synchronous code playback (PS) of 3 bytes, the data field of 2418 bytes, final record field 3 (TIME) of one byte field protection 2 size from 48 to 55 bytes and field buffer size from 9 to 25 bytes.

Field gap is an area in which nothing is written.

Protection field 1, is an area created to prevent deterioration of the quality of the final recording, inherent in the recording medium with the phase changes that occur over time duplicate entries due to any of this impact relative to the VF0 area 3.

Field VF0 3 is an area for schema synchronization phase synchronization (PLL) and is also used to insert code synchronization sinkhronizatsii (PS) is a synchronization scope for communication with a data field.

The data field is a region formed from the data of the ID code with the error correction IED data ID code with the error detection data ID), a sync code ECC (code error correction), EDC (code error detection), user data, and the like. Data ID includes sectors from ID1 to ID16 4-byte configuration (32-bit channel) of each sector. Code error correction IED data ID is a code bug fix 2-byte configuration (16 bits) for the data ID.

The sector ID (1 to 16) are formed by a one-byte (8 bit) information sector and 3-byte number of a sector (logical sector as a logical address indicating a logical position on the track). The information sector is formed by the one-bit field type format sector, one-bit field method of tracking, one-bit field reflectivity, single-bit backup of the field, case of double-bit field type of the field, one bit field data type and a single-bit field layer number.

The number of the logical sector is different from the physical sector at the expense of the replacement process by shifting, as will be described later.

When the number "1" is written in it shows the tracking grooves. When the number "1" is written in field reflectivity, it shows that the reflectivity greater than 40%. When the field type of the field is written digits "00", they show the data area when the recorded digits "01", they show the input area, when recording the numbers "10", they show the output area, and when written numerals "11", they show a "reserve". When "0" is written to the data type, it shows the write or read-only data, and when you write the digit "1", it indicates the write data rewritable. When "0" is written in field layer number, it shows "layer 0".

Final record field 3 represents the area containing status information necessary for demodulation and indicate the end of the last byte of the preceding data field.

Protection field 2 is the area designed to prevent deterioration of the quality of the final recording, inherent in the recording medium with the phase changes that occur over time duplicate entries due to any of this impact relative to field data.

The buffer is an area created to absorb fluctuations in BP is rasshirenie data field to the next part of the header 11.

The reason field of the gap has a size of from 10 to 26 bytes, is the availability of the operation of an arbitrary shift. The operation of an arbitrary shift is to move the starting position of the data written in such a way as to reduce the deterioration of the recording medium with the phase changes due to repeated write operations. The length of the random shift is selected in accordance with the length of the buffer located in the last part of the data field, and the full length of one sector is 2697 bytes, and is permanent.

In the respective zones 3a, ..., 3x data region 3 is backed sectors and each of them is used as a final reserve, when in the same area is in the process of replacement by shifting (replacement algorithm by shifting) in units of one sector.

As shown in Fig. 10, in the management of replacing 6a zone data rewritable 6 should be written to the primary list of defects (PDL) 15, and a list of secondary defects (SDL) 16.

The primary list of defects (PDL) 15 is a list of non-physical sector (physical address) sectors, which are defined as the s show the sectors, in which replacement (replacement algorithm by shift) due to the shift in units of one sector.

In the primary list of defects 15 are recorded identification data of the primary list of defects, the number of addresses as the number of defects and non physical sector showing defective sectors.

The list of secondary defects (SDL) 16 is a list of ECC blocks (bad blocks), with the sectors that are identified as defective during the recording, other than the above-described initial time, i.e. it is a list of numbers of physical sectors (physical address) of the first or downstream sectors of the ECC blocks (bad blocks), with the sectors that are identified as defective, when data is written to the specified ECC-blocks and non-physical sector (physical address) of the first sector of the ECC blocks (blocks substitution: block reserve) used to replace defective blocks.

In the list of secondary defects are recorded identification data of the list of secondary defects, the number of the data entered as the number of defects, the physical sector number indicating the first sector address of the defective block, and the number of fizicheskogo and address substitution blocks for defective blocks are recorded in one-to-one correspondence.

In the device with the optical disk of Fig. 1, the optical disc rotates at a different rotational speeds in the respective areas, for example, in relation to the motor 23. The motor 23 is controlled by the control circuit of the motor 24.

Recording data on the optical disk 1 or reproduction of data recorded on the optical disk 1 by using the optical head 25. The optical head 25 is fixed on the control coil 27, which constitutes the movable part of the linear motor 26, and the control coil 27 is connected with the control circuit of the linear motor 28.

The speed detector 29 is connected with the control circuit of the linear motor 28, and the speed signal of the optical head 25 is transmitted to the control circuit of the linear motor 28.

A permanent magnet (not shown) is located on the fixed part of the linear motor 26, and when the control coil 27 is excited by the control circuit of the linear motor 28, the optical head 25 moves in the radial direction of the optical disk 1.

The lens 30 is used in the optical head 25 through the use of wire or flat spring (not pocapaglia coil 31 and to move in the tracking direction (in the direction perpendicular to the optical axis of the lens) by using the control coil 32.

Semiconductor laser 39 is controlled by the control circuit laser 33 for generating laser radiation. The control circuit of the laser 33 adjusts the power of the laser radiation from the semiconductor laser 39 in accordance with the control flow from the reference photodiode PD of the semiconductor laser 39.

The control circuit of the laser 33 operates in synchronism with the write clock from the PLL circuit (not shown). The PLL circuit divides the frequency of the main clock generator (not shown) for generating clock entries.

The laser radiation generated by the semiconductor laser 39, controlled by the control circuit laser 33, falls on the optical disk through the collimator lens 40, paludismo 41 and the lens 30, and reflected from the optical disk 1, the radiation is directed to the photodetector 44 through the lens 30, paludismo 41, a condenser lens 42 and the cylindrical lens 43.

The photodetector 44 is formed by four photodetector elements 44a, 44b, 44c, 44d.

The output signal of the element photodetector 44a of the photodetector 44 is transmitted to one input of the adder 46a via the amplifier 45a, the output is enta photodetector 44c is transmitted to another input of the adder 46a via the amplifier 45c, the output signal of the element photodetector 44d is transmitted to another input of the adder 46b via the amplifier 45d.

In addition, the output element of the photodetector 44a of the photodetector 44 is transmitted to one input of the adder 46c through the amplifier 45a, the output element of the photodetector 44b is transmitted to one input of the adder 46d through the amplifier 45b, the output element of the photodetector 44c is transmitted to another input of the adder 46d through the amplifier 45c, the output element of the photodetector 44d is transmitted to another input of the adder 46c through the amplifier 45d.

The output signal of the adder 46a is transmitted to the inverting input of differential amplifier OR, and the output signal of the adder 46b is transmitted to the non-inverting input of differential amplifier OR. Therefore, the differential amplifier OR transmits a signal (signal focusing errors) related to the focus point, the control circuit 47 focus, in accordance with the difference of the output signals of the adders 46a and 46b. The output signal of the control circuit 47 focus is transferred to the coil control focus 31, and it is controlled so that the laser radiation has always been accurately focused on the optical disk 1.

The output signal d is transmitted to the non-inverting input of the differential amplifier OP1. Therefore, the differential amplifier OP1 transmits the error signal of the tracking control circuit trekking 48 in accordance with the difference between the output signals of the adders 46c and 46d. The control circuit trekking 48 generates a control signal tracking in accordance with the error signal of the tracking that is transmitted from the differential amplifier OP1.

The output control signal tracking from the control circuit trekking 48 is transmitted to the control coil 32 to control the lens in the tracking direction. In addition, the error signal of the tracking used in the control circuit trekking 48 is transmitted to the control circuit of the linear motor 28.

Full sum signal of output signals of the photodetector elements from 44a to 44d of the photodetector 44, obtained after operations tracking and focusing, i.e., the signal obtained by summing up the output signals of the adders 46c and 46d in the adder 46e, reflects the change in reflectivity notch (recorded data), is formed on the track. The signal is transmitted to the scheme playback data 38 and the recorded data are reproduced in the scheme of playback data 38.

Data reproduced the firm attached the code with the error correction ECC and subsequent output to the control circuit of the optical disk 56, used as an external device through the interface circuit 55.

In addition, while the movement of the lens 30 is controlled through the control circuit trekking 48, the control circuit of the linear motor 28 operates the linear motor 26 or the optical head 25 so as to set the lens 30 in the Central or closer to the position in the optical head 25.

At the previous stage of the control circuit of the laser 33 provides a scheme for the creation of data 34. Roadmap data 34 includes a scheme for creating a data block ECC 34a to convert the data format of the ECC block, which is used as a data record, as shown in Fig. 5, and transmitted from the scheme error correction 52 in the data record format of the ECC block having the synchronization codes of the ECC block to be attached thereto, as shown in Fig. 6, and modulation scheme 34b to modulate data record schema create a data block ECC 34a in accordance with the system of recoding codes 8-16.

The roadmap data 34 data records having the error correction code attached to them with schema error correction 52 and mock data for validation errors read from the memory 10. The correction pattern is the device through the interface circuit 55 and the bus 49.

Scheme error correction 52 generates data format of the ECC block, as shown in Fig. 5, by the addition of codes with error correction (ESS, ASS) for the transverse and longitudinal directions of the elementary groups of data records that are set in units of one sector of 2 Kbytes and is included in the 32-KB data records transmitted from the control device of an optical disk 56 and accession IDs sector (non-logical address) to the appropriate basic groups of data records.

In addition, in the device with an optical disk is provided to analog (D/A) Converter 51, used to transmit information between the Central processing unit (CPU) 50 for controlling the entire part of the device with an optical drive and control circuit 47 focus, the control circuit 48 and tracking control circuit of the linear motor 28.

The control circuit of the motor 24, the control circuit of the linear motor 28, the control circuit laser 33, scheme playback data 38, the control circuit 47 focus, the control circuit 48 and tracking scheme error correction 53 are controlled through the CPU 50 via the bus 49, and the CPU 50 will the 10 is used for storing control programs and data. The memory 10 includes a table 10a in which is recorded the elementary data group speed as the speed of rotation for zones 3a, ..., 3x, and the number of sectors for each track, and table 10b, in which the recorded list of primary defects (PDL) 15, and a list of secondary defects (SDL) 16, read from the management replacement 6a of the optical disk 1.

As shown in Fig. 1 and 11, the detector 21 to detect the presence or absence of the cassette 20 that receives the optical disk 1, and the detector 22 to detect the presence or absence of the through-hole 20a of the cassette 20 are located below the optical disk 1. Each of the detectors 21, 22 are designed, for example, by using the switch.

The cassette 20 is formed so as to receive the optical disk 1, and when the cassette 20 is open at least once (if the optical disk 1 is removed), the cassette is formed a through hole 20a. The detection signals from the detectors 21, 22 are transmitted to the CPU 50 via the bus 49.

The CPU 50 determines whether there is or not the cartridge 20 in accordance with the detection signal from the detector 21. In addition, if it is determined that the cartridge 20 is present, the CPU 50 determines the open or N. the list of primary defects, forming process for processing time or the starting time, such as the start time of an applied problem, is explained with reference to the block diagram of Fig. 12.

Assuming now that the optical disk 1 during run application tasks loaded into the device with the optical disk, the CPU 50 determines the replacement process by shifting to mock data read from the memory 10 and controls a write operation for each sector of the data area 3 of the optical disk 1 through the use of mock data (ST1).

Therefore, while the optical disk 1 is driven at the rotation speed that is different for each zone of the data area 3, the control circuit of the laser 33 is controlled by a signal obtained by modulation of the layout data and the output signal from the circuit data generation 34, for controlling a semiconductor laser 39 so that the laser light corresponding to the modulated signal mock data, fell on the optical disk 1. As a result, data corresponding to the modulated signal layout data recorded in the data field of each sector of the data area 3 of the optical disk 1.

After that, when controls the read layout data for each sector (ST2).

Therefore, while the optical disk 1 is driven at the rotation speed that is different for each zone of the data area 3, the reflected laser radiation based on the radiation of the laser for reproduction from the semiconductor laser 39 is directed to the photodetector 44 so that the number of the physical sector is written in the header portion 11 of each sector can be played with schema playback data 38, and the data recorded in the data field of the sector, it was possible to demodulate and reproduce.

Based on the above-described playback, the CPU 50 determines that the data is recorded accurately in the case when the number of the physical sector of the header portion 11 of each sector can be accurately reproduced, or when the recorded data model are compared with the reproduced data, and determined that the number of errors in the sector does not exceed the first preset value, and then the CPU 50 determines the origin of the primary defect (primary defect) due to the fact that data is recorded accurately, and determines the defect as the purpose of the replacement process by shifting, in the case when the number of the physical sector in the header portion 11 may not be in the Naya value is determined so that the number of rows containing, for example, four or more bytes of the error in one sector having the configuration of 182 bytes in 13 rows, is set to 5 or more.

As a result of the above determination, if the CPU 50 determines the defect as the purpose of the replacement process by shift, the Central processor determines the sector as defective, and saves the number of the physical sector as a defective sector in the memory 10 (ST4).

Further, when the verification process of all sectors in the data area 3 ends (ST5), the CPU 50 controls the write operation for the management of replacement 6a of the optical disk 1 according to with whom you are dealing, and which represent the primary list of defects containing information identifying the primary list of defects and the number of rooms the physical sector to be attached to the non-physical sector of the defective sectors stored in the memory 10 (ST6).

Therefore, while the optical disk is driven at the rotation speed corresponding to the data area 6, a control circuit for controlling the laser 33 is carried out using a signal obtained by modulating data transmitted as a list of the s laser radiation, the corresponding modulated data signal, a primary list of defects, got on the optical disk 1. As a result, the data we are dealing with, the corresponding modulated data signal, represent the primary list of defects and recorded in the management area replacement 6a of the data area 3 of the optical disk 1.

It then explains the process of replacement by shifting (replacement algorithm by shifting), carried out in units of one sector on the basis of the primary list of defects with reference to Fig. 13, 14, 15.

I.e., when data is written in units of one ECC block on the optical disk 1, is in the process of replacement by shifting in units of one sector at the expense of shift or run through the defective sector based on the primary list of defects.

For example, assuming now that the data of one ECC block is recorded using 16 sectors for which non physical sector vary from the physical sector number (m-1) to the physical sector number (m+14) of the optical disk 1, the data of one ECC block is recorded through the use of 16 sectors for which non physical sector vary from the physical sector number (m-1) to fizicheskoj described above sectors is written to the primary list of defects.

In this case, if the (m-1) joins as the number of the logical sector number of a physical sector (m-1), as shown in Fig. 13 and 14, the number of the logical sector m is written to the physical sector number (m+1), the number of the logical sector (m+1) is written to the physical sector number (m+2), the number of the logical sector (m+2) is written to the physical sector number (m+3), the number of the logical sector (m+3) is written to the physical sector number (m+4), the number of the logical sector (m+4) is written to the physical sector number (m+5), the number of the logical sector (m+5) is written to the physical sector number (m+6), the number of the logical sector (m+6) is written to the physical sector number (m+7), the number of the logical sector (m+7) is written to the physical sector number (m+8), the number of the logical sector (m+8) is written to the physical sector number (m+9), the number of the logical sector (m+9) is written to the physical sector number (m+10), the number of the logical sector (m+10) is written to the physical sector number (m+11), the number of the logical sector (m+11) is written to the physical sector number (m+12), the number of the logical sector (m+12) is written to the physical sector number (m+13), the number of the logical sector (m+13) zapisy sector (m+15).

Therefore, as shown in Fig. 15, if the replacement process by shifting in units of one sector is carried out in one block of n ECC blocks (n-1), n (n+1), (n+2), ..., which are recorded successive elementary data groups, such as the film image, the write operation only for the defective sector, is contained in the ECC block n, is interrupted, and the relationship between the physical sector and the ECC-block (logical sector), in which recorded data is shifted by one sector.

As a result, if successive elementary data groups, such as the film image and speech, recorded in the above-mentioned ECC block, an interrupt occurs playback due to the presence of the defective sector, but as the period interrupt playback for one sector is short, will not be rendered a significant impact on the reproducible film image and speech.

It is clear that the period of interruption is relatively short in comparison with the case where the write operation is interrupted for a period of one ECC block, if the replacement process by shifting in units of one ECC block is performed, as in the known level of technology. Thus, consecutive elementary group one sector is based on the primary list of defects, physical sectors for each ECC block are distributed, and for each ECC block is determined by the ratio of the physical sectors in relation to the logical sectors and it is stored in the memory 10, when the optical disk 1 is placed in the device with the optical disk, and the primary list of defects that are read from the management area, replacing 6a of the optical disk 1 is recorded in table 10b memory 10.

Then the linear replacement process (linear replacement algorithm) in units of one ECC block is explained with reference to Fig. 16, 17 and 18.

For example, assume now that the successive elementary data groups, such as a film image or speech that is recorded in ECC blocks that are consecutive on the optical disk 1, or in the ECC block (n-1), the ECC block (n), the ECC block (n+1), the ECC block (n+2), ..., as shown in Fig. 16.

If it is determined that secondary defects appear in one of the sectors of the ECC block (n) for the actual time of recording data, the ECC block (n) containing the secondary defective sector is replaced by ECC-block replacement (1) by a linear process

replacement in units of one block, and then it records the data. At the same time, data showing that Lin the recorded data set the ECC block (n-1) plays first, then played ECC block (1) to replace, as reproduced ECC block (n+1), and the ECC block (n+2) is reproduced, as shown in Fig. 17.

In this case, unlike the conventional case, there is no need to perform the replacement process in units of one sector, i.e., there is no need to refer to the ECC block for replacement during playback of one ECC block, then go back to the original ECC block and continue the playback operation for the original ECC block, and, thus, can be achieved, the playback speed that is sufficiently high so as not to exert any harmful effects.

When is the replacement process in units of one ECC block and the logical sector numbers from m to (m+15) and non physical sector from m to (m+15) sectors in the ECC block (n) containing the secondary defective sector, obtained before the linear replacement process, as shown in Fig. 18, the number of logical sectors from m to (m+15) are connected to the non-physical sector from y to (y+15) sectors in the location of the ECC block (1) after the end of the linear replacement process.

In other words, the number of the logical sector C recording is performed without reference to the address data (the number of the physical sector), stored in the host header field 11.

Then, the process performed when data is written to the specified ECC block, is explained with reference to the flowchart shown in Fig. 19 and 20.

For example, assume now that the record data and specification data records in the specified ECC block in the data area 3 of the optical disk 1 is transmitted from the control device of an optical disk device and optical disk through the interface circuit 55. Then the specification of the write data in the specified ECC block is transmitted to the Central processor 50, and the data recording unit sector obtained by attaching the code with the error correction to the above-described data recording with schema error correction 52, is transmitted to the data generation scheme 34 (ST10).

During the loading of the optical disk 1, the CPU 50 reads the list of primary defects and a list of secondary defects recorded in the management area, replacing 6a of the optical disk 1, and writes them in table 10b memory 10 and determines and records the number of physical sectors (for defective primary sector shift is already implemented) relevant sectors for the ECC block based on the list of primary defects (ST11).

Also contains the recorded ECC block (ST12).

In this state, when the number of the physical sector of the first sector of the ECC block obtained by reproduction of the header 11, the data generation scheme 34 converts the data format of the ECC block (the first one sector), which is used as a data record in the data format of the ECC block write, joined by synchronization codes for ECC-block, exposing them to the same code modulation 8-16 and then outputs the resulting data to the control circuit of the laser 33. Semiconductor laser 39 is controlled by the control circuit of the laser 33 for directing laser radiation corresponding to the modulated data signal format of the ECC block on the optical disk 1. As a result, the data is written in the first sector of the specified ECC block of the data area 3 of the optical disk 1 (ST13).

After this, the data units of the sector is recorded in the same way as described above (ST13), every time you hear the number of the physical sector corresponding to the number of the physical sector specified by the CPU 50.

At the same time the data is written on the basis of non-physical sector sectors in the ECC block based on the primary list of defects recorded in the memory 10. I.e. the data is written in Bremer.

When writing data in the specified ECC block is finished, the CPU 50 determines the presence or absence (loaded state or not) of the cartridge 20 in accordance with the detection signal from the detector 21 (ST14), and, if determined by the presence of the cassette 20, the CPU 50 determines whether the cartridge 20 is open at least once or not in accordance with the detection signal from the detector 22 (ST15).

On the basis of the above determination, if it is determined loading of the cassette 20, which had not been opened even once, the CPU determines that there is no need to validate data entry and ends the recording process data (ST16).

If the loading is not defined at the stage ST14 or if loading the cassette 20 is defined and determined that the cartridge 20 has been opened at least once, the CPU 50 controls the data read for each sector of the ECC block (ST17).

As a result, the reflected radiation on the basis of laser radiation for playback from a semiconductor laser 39 is directed to the photodetector 44, and the playback data 38 reproduces the physical sector number recorded in parts of the header 11 vannie in the fields of data relevant sectors (ST18).

Based on the above play a Central processor determines that the data is recorded accurately in the case when the number of the physical sector of the header portion 11 of each sector can be accurately reproduced, or when the recorded data of each sector is compared with the reproduced data of each sector, and it is determined that the number of errors in the sector does not exceed a specified value, and the CPU also determines the presence of secondary defect due to the fact that data is not recorded accurately, and defines them as objective linear replacement process in the case when the number of the physical sector in the header portion 11 cannot be accurately reproduced, or the number of errors in the sector exceeds the preset value (ST19).

To determine the status of errors in the sector use one of the following four conditions.

The first condition is that the number of the physical sector in the header portion 11 cannot be accurately reproduced.

The second condition is that the number of errors in at least one sector exceeds the first preset value.

The third condition: the number of errors in at least one sector does not exceed the first preset value, but greater than W The fourth condition: the number of errors in at least one sector does not exceed the first preset value, but exceeds the second preset value and the number of errors in the sectors of the whole ECC block exceeds a fourth predetermined value.

The reason the third and fourth conditions are set as the goal of the linear replacement process, is that the data can be adjusted as a whole ECC block, even when there is a large number of errors and if they occur only in the sector of the ECC block. ECC block has 208 series as a whole, and can be adjusted data, comprising five or more errors, up to 16 range. Under this condition, determined by the above-mentioned specified value.

That is, the first set value is determined so that the number of rows containing, for example, four or more bytes of the error in one sector having the configuration of 182 bytes in 13 rows, is set equal to five or more.

The second set value is determined so that the number of rows containing four or more bytes error is set equal to three or more.

The third set value is determined so that the number of rows containing four or more bytes error, is set to ten or more.

The fourth set value ustanavlivat the process of replacement, and ECC-block, defined as the goal, is treated as a defective block, and is described above, a linear replacement process to write data unit of the ECC block to be recorded in the defective block in the ECC block replacement (ST20), and if the goal of the linear replacement process is not defined, the process of data recording ends.

If the above linear replacement process is performed, the Central processing unit 50 corrects and stores the number of the physical sector address of the defective block) of the first sector of the defective block and the number of the physical sector address of the replacement unit) of the first sector of the ECC block replacement on the list of secondary defects of the memory 10, and ends the recording process for the data (ST21).

In addition, when the optical disk 1 where the linear replacement process, is taken out of the device with an optical disk or when the list of secondary defects recorded in table 10b, is adjusted, the Central processing unit 50 corrects and stores the content of the entry in the list of secondary defects in the memory 10 in the control area replacement 6a of the optical disk 1.

As described above, in the optical disk on which data is recorded in units of ECC block is formed of 16 sectors of the tasks, the layout data is reproduced to determine the sector with the primary defect, the address of a sector with the primary defect is recorded on the optical disk, and the data units of ECC block is recorded during recording of data, while is driving through the sector with the primary defect.

As a result, if successive elementary data groups, such as a film image or speech, recorded in the above-described ECC block, the playback data is temporarily interrupted due to the presence of the defective sector, but as time interrupt playback for one sector is short, it will not affect the film image or speech that is played.

It is clear that the above-described interruption time is relatively short compared with the time of interruption of the recording of one ECC block in the implementation of the replacement process by shifting in units of one ECC block, as in the known level of technology. Thus, successive elementary data groups can be recorded almost without interruption.

In addition, on an optical disc where data is recorded in units of one ECC block, the data is written during a data recording atlor with secondary defect and the data in the ECC block, which is determined, is the sector with the secondary defect is recorded in the ECC block, which is prepared separately.

Thus, even when the process of replacing the defect is performed at the recording time after the initial time, decrease the playback speed can be suppressed.

I.e., unlike the conventional case, there is no need to perform the replacement process in units of one sector, i.e., there is no need to refer to the ECC block for replacement during playback of one ECC block, then go back to the original ECC block and continue the playback operation for the original ECC block, and, thus, can be achieved, the playback speed that is sufficiently high so as not to exert any harmful influence.

1. The method of replacement for an optical disk which has tracks for recording data, located concentrically or spirally, and which defines a format with many successive sector areas, each of which has a given length of track and includes an address field for recording address data indicating the position on the track and field records for the data is whether the data header of each sector of the region to be accurately reproduced, determine the number of errors in each of the rows of the ECC block and define exceeds or not the number of rows of the ECC block in which the number of errors exceeds the second preset value, the first specified value, define the sector as defective based on the above definitions, and if at least one sector is determined as defective, perform the replacement process by shifting by running it through the defective sector and the data written to the next sector area.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the ECC block is formed of 16 sectors, each sector is formed of 12 rows, each row contains 172 bytes, with each row of attached cross-ECC, containing 10 bytes, and each sector is attached to the longitudinal ECC, containing 182 bytes.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, wherein the optical disk further comprises a zone control replacement, and the fact that in the area of operation replacement of write data address sectoral areas identified as defective, and the replacement process by shifting is carried out in terms of the sectoral areas, the data whose address is recorded in the management area replacement.

4. The way the replacement for the optical is determined by the format with many successive sector areas, each of which has a given length of track and includes an address field for recording address data indicating the position on the track, field recording for recording data and a management area of the substitution, namely, that create ECC block, write the address of the defective sector areas in the management area replacement, write the ECC block in the record fields of the sector areas on the basis of the address data recorded in the management area, replacement, determine the defective sector region and if at least one sector is determined as defective, the process of replacement by shifting by running it through the defective sector and the data written to the next sector area.

5. The method according to p. 4, wherein the ECC block is formed of 16 sectors, each sector is formed of 12 rows, each row contains 172 bytes, with each row of attached cross-ECC, containing 10 bytes, and each sector is attached to the longitudinal ECC, containing 182 bytes.

6. The method of replacement for an optical disk which has tracks for recording data, arranged concentrically or in a spiral, and in which opreanu tracks and includes the address field for recording address data, indicates the position on the track and field records for the data, namely that create ECC block recorded ECC block in field recording of sector areas, determine whether the header data of each sector of the region to be accurately reproduced, determine the number of errors in each of the rows of the ECC block and define exceeds or not the number of rows of the ECC block in which the number of errors exceeds the second preset value, the first specified value, determine the number of errors in each of the rows of the ECC block, and determine exceeds or not the number of rows of the ECC block in which the number of errors exceeds a third preset value, the fourth preset value; based on the definitions, can header data of each sector of the region to be accurately reproduced and exceeds or not the number of rows of the ECC block in which the number of errors exceeds the second preset value, the first specified value, define the sector as defective and if at least one sector is determined as defective, perform the replacement process by shifting by running it through the defective sector and the data written to the next sector area; based on the definitions, can the data in the title is that the number of errors exceeds a third preset value, the fourth preset value, define the sector as defective and if at least one sector is determined as defective, perform

the linear replacement process by writing the corresponding ECC block replacement.

7. The method according to p. 6, wherein the ECC block is formed of 16 sectors, each sector is formed of 12 rows, each row contains 172 bytes, with each row of attached cross-ECC, containing 10 bytes, and each sector is attached to the longitudinal ECC, containing 182 bytes.

8. The method according to p. 6 or 7, characterized in that the optical disk further comprises a zone control replacement, and the fact that in the area of operation replacement of write data address sectoral areas identified as defective, the replacement process by shifting and linear replacement process is carried out in terms of the sectoral areas of the address data recorded in the management area of the substitution, and record information that indicates that was a linear replacement process in the area of management replacement.

9. The method of replacement for an optical disk which has tracks for recording data, arranged concentrically or in a spiral, and in which Phi is defined and includes the address field for recording address data, indicates the position on the track, field recording for recording data and a management area of the substitution, namely, that create ECC block, write the address of the defective sector areas in the management area replacement, write the ECC block in the record fields of the sector areas on the basis of the address data recorded in the management area, replacement, determine the defective sector region and if at least one sector is determined as defective, perform the replacement process by shifting by running it through the defective sector and the data written to the next sector in the region, on the basis of the address data, recorded in the management area, replacement, determine the defective sector region and if at least one sector is defined as defective perform linear replacement process by writing the corresponding ECC block replacement.

10. The method according to p. 9, wherein the ECC block is formed of 16 sectors, each sector is formed of 12 rows, each row contains 172 bytes, with each row of attached cross-ECC, containing 10 bytes, and each sector is attached to the longitudinal ECC, containing 182 bytes.

11. Device with optical disc, the content is ing, can the header data of each sector of the region to be accurately reproduced, means for determining the number of errors in each of the rows of the ECC block and determination, exceeds or not the number of rows of the ECC block in which the number of errors exceeds the second preset value, the first specified value, the means for determining the sector as defective on the basis of the above definitions made with the possibility if at least one sector is defined as the defective implementation of the replacement process by shifting by running it through the defective sector and the data written to the next sector area.

12. The device with the optical drive that contains the tool for generating ECC block, the writer of the ECC block in a field recording of sector areas, the means of determining whether the header data of each sector of the region to be accurately reproduced, means for determining the number of errors in each of the rows of the ECC block and determination, exceeds or not the number of rows of the ECC block in which the number of errors exceeds the second preset value, the first specified value, the means for determining the number of errors in each of the rows of the ECC block and determination, exceeds or not kolichestvo, the means for determining the sector as defective based on the definitions, can header data of each sector of the region to be accurately reproduced and exceeds or not the number of rows of the ECC block in which the number of errors exceeds the second preset value, the first specified value and made with the possibility if at least one sector is identified as defective, the process of replacement by shifting by running it through the defective sector and the data written to the next sector area, and means for determining the sector as defective based on the definitions, can the header data of each sector of the region to be accurately reproduced and exceeds or not the number of rows of the ECC block in which the number of errors exceeds a third preset value, the fourth preset value, and has a capability if at least one sector is identified as defective, the implementation of the linear replacement process by writing the corresponding ECC block in the replacement unit.

 

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The invention relates to the field of processing, storage and transmission of digital data with the possibility of detecting and correcting errors

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The invention relates to information technology, namely the means of reproduction of information, mainly from optical media

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FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in position, following noted data area of user. Said free area is distributed in backward order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used from last elements of said free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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FIELD: data carriers.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency of copy-protection measures.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in location, following said user data area. Said free data area is distributed in reverse order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used starting from last elements of noted free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: data carrier has data area. The latter has multiple zones, in which code blocks with error corrections are formed and sectors remaining as a result of sliding replacement at the end of zone, number of which is less than necessary for forming of one code block with error corrections. Said sectors are not used for recording one code block with error corrections and are skipped, and said code block with error corrections is formed at the beginning of next zone after skipping sectors of zone noted above. Carrier has additional free space, necessary for skipping sectors remaining at the end of zone during sliding replacement process.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: method includes following stages: forming of a group of multiple zones on disk, while a group includes data area of user, including code block with correction of mistakes, distribution of primary, free space for the group. Additional free space is distributed with possible exclusion of discontinuousness of code block with correction of mistakes contained in user data area, at the limit between zones and distribution of it at two zones. Such distribution may be realized by skipping sectors at the end of zone, of their number is less than needed for forming code block with correction of mistakes with correction of primary position of code block with correction of mistakes at limit between zones.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: primary reserved area, marked out during initialization, is present on data carrier. Also present is auxiliary reserved area, marked after initialization and/or expanded reserved area. Additional reserved area is marked in directly, starting from back portion of data zone.

EFFECT: excluded double replacements and marking of normal blocks as defect ones.

2 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: disk has recording area, where data are recorded in at least one physical cluster, defect area, in which defect, preventing recording and/or reproduction of data, is present in recording area, and recording end area, in which information, pointing to end of recording, is recorded prior to defect area. After defect area a link is set.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency.

4 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: technology for recording information onto data carrier, having shape of disc, like those of optical or magnetic disc.

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EFFECT: decreased number of leaps of recording head during recording, higher efficiency of disc capacity use.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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EFFECT: improved stability of recording; improved stability in data recording.

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FIELD: information storage; storage disk with temporary informational area of fault control.

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EFFECT: effective usage of fault control area which has a limited capacity.

77 cl, 14 dwg

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