Unit

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to power units of thermal power plants (TPP), vehicles and is used for generation of electricity and thermal energy. The unit, including equipment preparation and supply of fuel, air, and water, heating and circulation of water and/or coolant, at least one generator with expansion machine is also provided with at least one set of equipment for thermal separation of the fuel gas and solid fraction containing at least one gas generator in the form of a hollow combustion chamber with a hollow sealed box, which is connected with the gates. The unit is equipped with at least one gas turbine expansion machine, which uses heat of products of combustion after the rotary cylinder of the expansion machine, consisting of a cylindrical body with an eccentric placed in him finned rotor and seals in the form of a cylindrical rotating bodies. The invention improves the efficiency of the unit and useful technical efficiency of fuel use solid fuel and combustible household and industrial waste with simultaneous UV is the train rational use of GTD, including end of their flight resource. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to power units of thermal power plants (TPP), vehicles for production of electricity and thermal energy.

The prototype of the present invention is a unit with the rotary cylinder engines (RAC) under the patent of the Russian Federation for invention N 2143570 from 03.06.1999, Each of these motor unit consists of a cylindrical body, end caps with journal and thrust bearings and seals and eccentric placed in it, finned rotor seals in the form of a cylindrical rotating bodies. A cylindrical housing and a rotor provided with shirts and cooling channels for injection of steam or liquid, continuously cooling the cylindrical seals, the rotor and the housing, which allows to increase the temperature of the continuous combustion in the internal or external combustion chamber and, accordingly, greater use of technical efficiency of fuel for generation of electricity and thermal energy. RAC unit can be fitted with RC the blower and regulator ratio of fuel and air according to the technical solution in accordance with the patent of the Russian Federation for invention N 2143078 from Tory before release to the atmosphere can reduce the toxicity of products of combustion and to increase the efficiency up to 80-83%. This is better than parogazoturbinnogo engines-thermal power plants. According to the book. Alekseev, N. The total heat. - M.: Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1980, S. 436, 511 useful work or energy consumption used for the power plant: steam turbine engine is only 35.5%, for gas turbine engine - 26,2% of boiler unit - unit only 45.6% of (S. 314), diesel internal combustion engines only 43.8% of. The coefficient of performance (COP) modern parogazoturbinnogo engines - thermal power plants is 39.4 - 44% (S. 511). To increase the beneficial use of fuel due to the transfer of heat into the district heating network, the greenhouses, the closest businesses, TPP was built in cities and close suburbs, knowing about the great harm to the health of the population. TPP is a very large air pollutants. They impoverish an atmosphere of oxygen and simultaneously enrich its harmful oxides of nitrogen, carbon, unburned hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, fine dust. Experts have introduced a new measure harmful impact on human life unlived years. Modern thermal power plants are of high intensity and large size of boiler units and vspomogateljno the project and structures massive oversized equipment, such as boilers and water heaters, installation for flue gas cleaning, high chimneys, cooling towers, huge reservoirs for storing and cooling water, large energy-intensive pumping stations, system of suction, pressure and return piping to them and to the district heating network (S. 321, 344). Units, coal, peat, oil shale, have huge warehouses, railway sidings, toplivoprigotovlenie compartment with bulky equipment and different excess pollution. For the manufacture of steam generators and turbines operating at high temperatures and speeds of the rotors require high strength and heat-resistant expensive materials. Each TES is composed of many unique and expensive equipment and is built on an individual project, which significantly increases the cost of electricity and thermal energy.

In recent years, for electricity generation and thermal energy in the form of hot water all the more widespread the units on liquid or gaseous fuels using gas turbine adapted AVI is based aircraft engine AL-31F has created ground-based gas-turbine unit GTU-10-31 with 2-12 power,5 MW and efficiency of 34.6%. OJSC "Aviadvigatel" , Perm, on the basis of engine D-30 has mastered the production of GTP-2.5 power of 2.7 MW with an efficiency of 21.8 percent (according to ISO without taking into account losses at the exit and entrance), fuel consumption is 0.33 kg/kWh. JSC "Samara NTC them. Kuznetsova offers modular power plants based on engines NC-37 NC-37-1 with a capacity of 25 and 30 MW, respectively, and the efficiency of 36.4 and 37.3%. JSC "Motorostroitel" , Perm offers made on the basis of aircraft engine NK-14 OE is observed a number of basic power units GT-TES-20/26, PG ES-25/2,5, GT-district thermoelectric power stations 28/140 with electrical efficiency 32-42%. Adapted aircraft gas turbine engines ST-6, ST-18, ST-30 well-known canadian firm "Pratt & Whitney" are used in industrial and marine vessels for production of electric energy. There are many other similar examples. The General disadvantages of thermal power plants, vehicles using gas turbine engines and stationary gas-turbine and steam-turbine engines are the exclusive use of liquid or gaseous fuel, a small fraction of energy in the form of electrical, which are based on consumption for own needs practically does not exceed 50%. The forced supply of consumers nizkomolekulyarnykh pipelines of large diameters, distribution of calorific points with boilers and pumps, large capital and operating costs, has high intensity, energy intensity, thermal inertia, accompanied by a large heat losses and in practice imposes a number of significant limitations. Only when nearby consumers of hot water or steam is economically feasible to include in the units heat exchangers, boilers, allowing the amount to increase computational efficiency technical fuel energy to 60-75%. With regard to incomplete convergence of the graphs of the production and consumption of electric and especially thermal energy, financial and economic utilization of the fuel energy most used energy converters, including the most common getprotobyname engines-thermal power plants, defined as the ratio of the amount of energy purchased in the form of fuel sold to consumers in any forms (electricity, heat, compressed gases, etc.,), the utilization of the fuel energy for the actual period of time, for example calendar year, in many different TES significantly less than 60%.

Along with PR is th, compactness, simplicity of construction, the possibility of low-cost mass production unit-the prototype can be improved. The main disadvantages of the prototype unit:

- no use of solid fuels and combustible household and industrial waste, which occupy increasing square harmful to the health of people burial grounds around the cities and enterprises;

- it is not possible to use a compact gas turbine engine (GTE) including aviation GTE which has reached the end of their warranty flight resource, paid for itself in aviation, can be sold for repair and adaptation to further use in ground or floating thermal power plants or vehicles at a low residual value.

These drawbacks of the prototype and parogazoturbinnogo of thermal power plants is partially removed in the proposed unit with DC motors.

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the power unit and power consumption or productive use of technical operability of the fuel in the application of solid fuels and combustible household and industrial waste the OS into the atmosphere, and rational use of the CCD, including the end of their flight resource.

This object is achieved by executing:

- power unit, including equipment preparation and supply of fuel and/or hot combustion products, air and water, heating and circulation of water and/or coolant, at least one generator with a rotary cylinder expansion machine, consisting of a cylindrical body with an eccentric placed in him finned rotor and seals in the form of a cylindrical rotation body provided with at least one set of equipment for thermal separation of the fuel gas and solid fraction containing at least one gas generator in the form of a hollow combustion chamber with a hollow sealed corrugated box, which is connected with sluice gates; the above set of equipment can operate in combination with any other unit, that is, to supply combustible gases for any boilers, gas burners. However, this is less efficient than the use of units from the DC expansion machines;

- unit under item 1, provided with at least one gas turbine expansion machine, which from a cylindrical body with an eccentric placed in him finned rotor and seals in the form of a cylindrical rotating bodies.

Schematically shown in Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a serial arrangement of the main types of equipment included in the equipment for preparation and thermal fuel between the gaseous and the solid fraction with the image in the context of certain types of equipment; Fig. 2 is a cross-section along I-I of the device of the gas generator shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of a fragment of the prototype unit under the patent of the Russian Federation for invention N 2143570 from 03.06.1999, with several RC expansion machines, DC blowers, and also included in the composition of the gas turbine expansion machine, which uses heat of products of combustion after the said rotary cylinder (RC) expansion of the machine; Fig. 4 is a longitudinal section of a fragment of the RC expansion machine with jet blower and combustion of fuel in the end cover of Fig. 5 is a transverse section of a fragment of the RC expansion machines with internal combustion of fuel.

All machines and devices unit interconnected electric power cables, communications and pipelines, the main of which is shown in Fig. 1, 3. The DC generators and gas turbine expansion machine ASS="ptx2">

Directions, indicated by arrows mean:

A - rotor engines, machines, apparatuses;

B - rotation of the cylindrical seals RC engines, blowers;

In - circulation and flow, including flow, water;

G - motion of the gaseous combustion products;

D - drainage, draining mud, sludge;

And the circulation of water through centrifugal liquid separator;

To the movement of steam condensate;

L movement of compressed air;

M - movement of gaseous fuel, liquid fuel oil or other fuel;

P - movement of water vapor;

PG - motion steam-gas mixture of water vapor and combustion products;

T - motion of fuel, e.g. solid residues, wood, cardboard, plastic packaging, other combustible industrial and household waste;

The movement of sawdust, pre-crushed oil shale, coal, peat;

movement of slag, ash, combustible fuel particles.

Abbreviations in the diagrams correspond to the abbreviations in the description. The number of RC engines, RC engines-steam generators, gas turbine expansion machine, the mixing of the steam generators, separators, collectors, pumps, teleobservation each specific unit.

The unit is a prototype, including equipment preparation and supply of fuel, air and water, a generator with expansion machine, consisting of a cylindrical body with an eccentric placed in him finned rotor and seals in the form of a cylindrical rotating bodies, consists of several series or in series and parallel installed RC engines, RC engines-steam generators, RC expansion of the gas, vapor and steam machines, mixing steam - gravity strainers, heat exchangers for heating of the second and third working fluid, centrifugal steam-separators, and other equipment.

Each RC engine, RC engine, a steam generator connected provatopoulos with gas expansion machine. The cooling jacket of the engine cases, an external combustion chamber, a centrifugal gas separator, RC engines-steam generators, RC expansion machines pipe connected to the heat exchangers of the latter, for example, the third step of heating the second working fluid. The cooling jacket shafts, rotors, end caps RC engines, RC engines-steam generators, RC rozsiritelne with a steam inlet centrifugal steam-separator, and outlet circulating heating circuit. To use the energy of the flow treated in a centrifugal water separator, mixing between the steam generator sludge trap and liquid centrifugal separator installed RC liquid expansion machine. As energy converters, gases, vapors, and gas-vapor mixtures in the unit applied RC engines, RC engines-steam generators and DC expansion machines, each of which comprises a cylindrical housing, end cover with bearings, eccentric accommodated in the housing finned rotor seals in the form of a cylindrical rotating bodies, hollow shaft with a support and, if necessary, supplemented by thrust bearings rotor with a cooling jacket. RC engines, RC engines-steam generators equipped with nozzles for entering chilled and output the compressed heated coolant.

Unit-prototype can run on gas, liquid fuels, and these fuels with only a small admixture of solid fuels, such as coal, shale, peat, sawdust. It is possible to use the hot products of combustion from industrial fired heaters and installations for cooking, SV CLASS="ptx2">

The proposed unit, including equipment preparation and supply of fuel and/or hot combustion products, air and water, heating and circulation of water and/or coolant, at least one generator with a rotary cylinder expansion machine, consisting of a cylindrical body with an eccentric placed in him finned rotor and seals in the form of a cylindrical rotation body provided with at least one set of equipment for thermal separation of the fuel gas and solid fraction containing at least one gas generator in the form of a hollow combustion chamber with a hollow sealed corrugated box, which is connected with sluice gates.

Mentioned set (Fig. 1, 2) consists of a gas generator 1, the conveyor of solid fuels 2, heater solid fuels 3, shredder solid fuels 4, the inspection conveyor solid fuels 5, tubular heat exchangers 6.1 and 6.2, RC steam expansion machine 7 with generator 7.1, fuel systems 9 and 10. These fuel systems are designed to supply fuel to the auxiliary gas generator 1 and to ensure RC expansion machine 11, compounds the action consists of a hollow vertical insulated camera 1.1 for thermal separation of the fuel gas and solid fractions, the upper sluice gates 1.2 and 1.3, the lower rotary valve 1.4, insulated tubular heat exchanger 1.5, blower 1.6 first stage, for example RC, conveyor slag 1.7, the blower of the second step 1.8, for example RC, burners 1.9 and 1.10, safety valves 1.11. The floodgates 1.2 and 1.4 hermetic, rotary shutter 1.3 leaking and can be equipped with knives for cutting separate oversized pieces of fuel. Inside Luggage 1.1 fitted with a sealed vertical corrugated box 1.13 with conical bottom at the bottom and restrictive Board at the top. Inside the chamber 1.1 and paste 1.13 placed electrodes 1.12 for periodic electric spark discharge. The lower part of the gas generator 1 is equipped with a combustion chamber inside of the pipe is 1.17, which is tightly connected with a corrugated box 1.13. Mentioned pipe 1.17 provided with outer ribs 1.19 and end-to-end rods 1.18. In the empty channels between the ribs of the corrugated insert 1.13 posted by teploelektronagrevatel elements (PETN) 1.21. The said top Board is sealed tube 1.14, which flange connection is hermetically coupled to gateway shutter 1.2. Pipe 1.14 equipped with nozzles 1.15 and 1.16 for release goricia mentioned conveyor 2 is connected to the heater 3 solid fuels. Referred to the heater 3 is equipped with a perforated flat transport heat resistant tape, for example of perforated metal plates. The frame of the conveyor 3 is closed by an insulated bottom and lid with pipe 3.1 and 3.2 for input and output of gaseous coolant. The top cover is placed crimped heat-resistant filter septum 3.3. The 3.2 pipe is connected with the centrifugal heat and mass transfer apparatus of 3.4, which is fed into the cold water. The apparatus simultaneously 3.4 samples heat and particles from combustion products and guides under the pressure of the cooled and purified products of combustion and contact heat and mass transfer apparatus of 3.5 fine cleaning with several layers of fine gravel or Raschig rings. Hopper heater 3 is connected to the chopper solid fuels 4, in which the top under the influence of gravity fall inspected solid fuels with the inspection conveyor 5. Above mentioned conveyor 5 posted by sensors 5.1 install visual x-ray control 5.2, magnetoelasticity 5.3, razravnivalis flow 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6. On the sides of the conveyor 5 is equipped with jobs 5.7 for workers, visually inspecting solid widen. The heat exchanger 6.2 can be used as a steam generator or superheater. The gas generator 1 can be provided with a fuel system 9 to run on liquid fuel comprising fuel tanks 9.1, pump 9.2 and corresponding control valves or fuel system 10 for burning gaseous fuel. Fuel system 10 through the pressure reducing valve 10.1 can be supplied with gas when starting from a network of pipeline 10.2 or tanks with compressed gas 10.3. After its launch in permanent operation, the fuel system 10 is supplied with gas from the gas generator 1 through the pipe 1.15. This hot gas in a tubular heat exchanger-steam superheater 6.2 gives off its heat to a couple of, a few cool, then is compressed by the supercharger 10.4, such as RC, and is fed into the burner 1.10 gas generator 1 under pressure. The lower part of the pipe 1.17 equipped with a nozzle 1.20 for compressed air in its Central part at the start of the gas generator 1. For preparation and use of a fine-grained solid fuels, such as sawdust, oil shale, peat, coal, may be used in known equipment, such as saws, crushers, ball mills, toplivoprigotovlenie aeknym gateway shutter 1.3 and sealed gateway shutter 1.2 joins the hopper 28 for shredded fuel dispenser 29.

The gas generator 2 periodic operation for thermal separation of oversized and heavy-grind cake of solid fuels gaseous and solid fraction consists of a horizontal or inclined located insulated chamber with bathroomremodeling end caps and teploelektronagrevatel elements (PETN) 2.1 inside. It is supplied by a burner 2.2 and trolleys on rails 2.3 to accommodate difficult comminuted solid fuels, such as rubber tires. Pipe 2.4 gas generator 2 is connected to the pipeline through a valve to the inlet side 3.1 heater 3 solid fuels and suction inlet of the compressor 10, for example an RC. When you run the generator 2 for fast output at a constant thermal regime can warm up from the gas burner 2.2 with the tap of products of combustion in the inlet pipe 3.1 heater 3. After displaying it at a given thermal regime burner 2.2 is disabled, and instead include PETN 2.1 and combustible gas from thermal separation is directed into the inlet RC supercharger 10.4. The gas generator 2 can be performed with a sealed internal chamber, a constant heat from a gas burner 2.2 and a separate output of the combustion products and fuel the economic separation of solid fuels to gaseous and solid fractions can be placed directly on the TPP with existing and planned units. In this embodiment, is not lost heat of the hot combustible gases emerging from the gas generator, and achieved the highest efficiency of conversion of fuel energy into electrical and thermal energy. The above kit can be placed separately, for example in enterprises with a significant amount of combustible waste in the production, extraction and enrichment, storage of oil shale, coal, peat, sawdust. In this embodiment, the above-mentioned kit, it is advisable to complement RC supercharger 10.5 gas, RC gas turbine 12 or 13 of the expansion machine with generator, heat exchanger for cooling hot gas after the gas generator low-boiling coolant, such as freon, ammonia, alcohol, condenser, centrifugal teplomassoobmena apparatus, pumps from the hardware of the prototype unit under the patent of the Russian Federation for invention N 2143570 from 03.06.1999, and equipment for the production of liquefied natural gas and production of electrical and thermal energy for local consumption. Cooled or liquefied gas in the latter case can be directed to any TPP and other consumers through pipelines or in condensed form in known containers. This will prevent loss of what rgiya.

The power unit (Fig. 3) may consist of one or more RC expansion machines and complete sets of equipment for thermal separation of solid fuels to gaseous and solid fractions. While in the above-mentioned set instead of the RC 7 expansion machine and DC blowers 1.6, 1.8, 8, 10.4, 10.5, 39 can be applied to other less efficient types of serially produced equipment of the same purpose. In RC the expansion machine 11 for cooling the housing 40, the rotor 42 and cylindrical seals 43 (Fig. 3, 5) water can be used, for example, heated in the heat exchanger 6.1 the products of combustion after the gas generator 1, or steam, for example, from a steam generator 6.2, or exhaust steam after RC expansion machine 7. In each project, the best option is determined and substantiated by appropriate calculations. The power unit may, if necessary, be increased by installing additional mentioned sets of equipment, expansion machines, including RC and/or gas turbine and auxiliary equipment. In particular, the unit is a prototype can be expanded (Fig. 3) fan, gas RC 10.5 coming out of the socket 1.16 gas generator 1, the receiver 1 is sourvinou expansion machine 13 with the electric 13.1. When choosing the type expansion machine, it is necessary to consider that the turbine expansion machine without any additional equipment for forced cooling of turbine blades allow the use of gases with a temperature of no more than 700-800 degrees Celsius, they are more simply constructed and cheaper. Gas turbine expansion machine with additional equipment for cooling hollow turbine blades of steam or compressed perekladennyam air permit to use gases with temperatures up to 1300-1500 degrees Celsius. They arranged harder, require additional accessories and so much more. Gas turbine expansion machine with the blades of the new expensive monocrystalline materials and alloys with additional equipment for cooling hollow thin-walled turbine blades compressed perekladennyam air permit to use gases with temperatures up to 1700-1900 degrees Celsius. They even arranged harder, require more accessories and still too expensive. Their use is limited and it is advisable in certain types of equipment, in particular in aircraft special purpose. The increase in the gas temperature before the model is lamastu problems can significantly improve the heat resistance of materials to the working bodies of the turbines the best gas turbine expansion machine is getting close to its theoretical upper limit of the use of technical operability of the fuel and accordingly the efficiency of the units using them.

Rotary-cylinder expansion machines have more than a simple cooling of the rotor housing, a cylindrical sealing elements, the burning of the fuel with water or steam and allows to increase the temperature of the gases to 2000-2200 degrees Celsius when using traditional materials and types of gaseous or liquid fuel and air as oxidant. In the case of special materials high-temperature resistant, highly concentrated fuel and oxygen as oxidant RC expansion machine can reach the temperature of the burning and expanding gases to 3000-3500 degrees Celsius.

Each of RC expansion machine 7, 11, 11.1, 12 of the power unit (Fig. 1, 3, 4, 5) made in the form of a cylindrical body 40, end caps 41 with sealing and bearings of the shaft, an eccentric placed in said housing on the shaft 42.2 finned rotor 42 with the sealing elements 43 in the form of a cylindrical rotating bodies. The hollow shaft of the rotor RC machine augmented thrust bearings, each of which is mounted between the outer side end cover 41 and a nut with a nut (not shown conventionally). Housing, end cover and rotor RC cars have cooling jacket is rbine 13. However, their application, from the point of view of unification of the equipment, less preferably, and in some cases because of the high temperature is unacceptable. If necessary, the RC of the expansion machine can be made multi-stage, that is, to have a common shaft several unified rotors and housings. Combustion chamber fuel RC expansion machines can be made flat (Fig. 3, 5), adjacent to the cylindrical body 40, or cylindrical, or conical (Fig. 4) adjacent to the end caps on one or both sides. They can be fitted shirts cooling. Flat wall of the combustion chamber may have a jumper strength 40.4 or hollow studs 40.6, which circulates the coolant. The gaseous or liquid fuel under pressure in the combustion chamber may be produced by a cylindrical finned heat exchange tubes 45.2 either on a flat heat-exchange tubes 40.3. Fuel can be used built in the housing tube 40 40.5 calibrated slit (Fig. 5). Air or other oxidant under pressure is supplied through the flat tubes 40.2 or cylinder 45. For igniting an air-fuel mixture can be applied is down can work with the ignition of the mixture. Cylindrical pipes 45.2 and flat 40.3 may have narrowing or tips of the spray nozzles to ensure proper mixing of the components and the homogeneity of the composition prior to combustion.

The unit of thermal power plants, vehicles, including equipment preparation and supply of fuel and/or hot combustion products, air and water, heating and circulation of water and/or coolant, at least one generator with a rotary cylinder expansion machine, consisting of a cylindrical body with an eccentric placed in him finned rotor and seals in the form of a cylindrical rotation body provided with at least one set of equipment for thermal separation of the fuel gas and solid fractions, runs and operates as described for the prototype unit under the patent of the Russian Federation for invention N 2143570 from 03.06.1999), with the addition operations of starting and using the above kit. Start up and operation of the equipment for thermal separation of solid fuels manufactured as follows.

Light the burner 1.9 or 1.10, include ten 1.21 and begin to heat the gas generator 1 to the temperature of the m of heat and mass transfer apparatus 3.4 sucked through the tubes of the heat exchanger 6.1, perforated tape and corrugated filter wall 3.3 heater 3 solid fuels. The heat from the combustion products of the first select and the heat exchanger 6.1 water supply (arrow b) to heat and transmit it to the district heating circuit and the heat exchanger 6.2, which can be used for heating water or as steam generator to produce steam (arrow P), directed to the centre of the expansion machine 7 with generator 7.1. The steam in the heat exchanger 6.2 are due to additional heating of hot water (arrow) coming from the heat exchanger 6.1, hot gases (arrow M), sucked RC supercharger 10.4 burner for 1.10. In the contact heat and mass transfer apparatus of 3.5 serves water (arrow), which is slowly trickling down to the ring process, is heated and is collected in the bottom collection. The heated heat and mass transfer in a centrifugal apparatus 3.4 water unites with hot water after contact of the device is 3.5 and is given in the heating circuit to consumers (arrow). Moistened with water fine particles of combustion products in a centrifugal apparatus 3.4 in the form of a wet sludge removed from the apparatus. The mixture of water vapor and neskondensirovannyh gases from the combustion products (arrow GHG) emissions, achieved into the atmosphere. Simultaneously with the start of heating of the gas generator 1 solid fuels (arrow T), such as industrial and domestic wastes from a warehouse or vehicle, serves on the conveyor belt 5, where razravnivalis 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 radial fingers tossing and level stream. Operators 5.7 visually inspect the contents of the thread and manually remove oversized, wet and others unfit for crushing and burning items and dangerous goods. Magnets 5.3 removed from the stream of items containing namagnichivaemost part. On the x-ray screen 5.2 operator controls the presence of potentially dangerous items. When detecting such he shall take appropriate measures. Inspected items under the force of gravity is directed in the chopper 4, where pulverized, for example, 10-30 pieces see the Shredded items are served (arrow T) on perforated tape heater 3 where it is heated, partially dries, take on some of the fine particles from the products of combustion, and go into the bunker leaking floodgates 1.3 with knives. The capacity of the buckets floodgates 1.3 less similar to the sealed gate 1.2. During simultaneous operation of both valves is before the solid fuels under the action of gravity (arrow T) fall inside the preheated sealed corrugated insert 1.13, where as dropping down under the action of gravity to heat up and decompose into gaseous and solid fractions. Because of the lack of oxygen inside the sealed insert 1.13 oxidizes (burns) a small portion of the fuel. During the heating of the gas generator 1 may supply a small amount of air (arrow L) through pipe 1.20 for burning a first portion of fuel. Inside a hot tight insert 1.13 of the gas generator solid fuel is converted into multi-component fuel gas containing a small amount of water vapor and combustion products. The electrodes 1.12 periodically serves high voltage, which happen spark discharges, implosions and pulse pressure increase, which shakes up settling on the outside of the insert 1.13 soot. This is supported in the relatively clean the outer surface of the heat transfer insert 1.13. As you lower down and fuel between the faction of the pieces of solid fuel are reduced in size and converted into slag, ash. Completed the process of separating the fuel in the most heated part of the insertion tube of 1.17 with outer edges 1.19 and end-to-end rods 1.18, heating and agitating the Central part of the column top is esteem gravity poured into the tubes of the heat exchanger 1.5, through the annulus which supercharger 1.6 under pressure pumps air (arrow L) to burners 1.9, 1.10, 2.2, and the second supercharger stage 1.8. The slag temperature of 150 to 250 degrees Celsius of heat exchanger 1.5 poured onto the conveyor 1.7 and is sent (arrow W) to the place of storage. The main part of the combustible gases (arrow M) of pipe 1.16 sucked RC supercharger 10.5 in receiver 10.6 and through pressure reducing valve 10.1 is served directly in the centre of the expansion machine 11 (Fig. 3) unit. Fuel under pressure is supplied by heat exchange pipe in the outer or inner combustion chamber RC expansion machine, for example 11, where homogeneous mixing of the components of the combustible gases and the compressed hot air and combustion of mixture from the filament candle 45.3. Thus the fuel-air mixture expands and causes the rotation of the rotor 42.3 and connected therewith generator 11.2. The cooling body 40, the rotor 42 and the cylindrical sealing elements 43 can be made with water, including hot after 6.1 heat exchanger or steam after the heat exchanger 6.2 or exhaust steam after RC expansion machine 7, or after the steam turbine 7, or steam, polea RC expansion machine 11, connected with the remnants of the combustion products in the form of a mixture (arrow GHG) emissions not only cools the body 40, the rotor 42 and sealing elements 43, but at the same time is compressed, heated and under pressure is directed to the centre of the expansion machine 11.1 connected to the generator 11.3. RC expansion machine 11 can operate with full or partial expansion of the combustion products. In the latter case, the products of combustion after the machine 11 may be sent to EC expansion machine 12 or the gas turbine 13, which can only operate at lower temperatures of the combustion products expansion. Exhaust gases and vapour-gas mixture after the RC or steam turbine expansion machine 11.1, RC expansion machine 12 or the gas turbine 13 can be directed into the mixing steam generator-perforated 14, or in other boilers heat recovery. Saturated steam after centrifugal gas-vapor separator 16 without intermediate condensation RC supercharger 39 may be directed to the superheater, for example 6.2, and further expansion in RC car or steam turbine 7 with generator 7.1.

When using other types of solid fuel, such as coal, oil shale, t is 29 guide (arrow) in a sealed rotary shutter 1.2 and forth inside a sealed insert 1.13. The process of thermal decomposition of the fuel is similar. The optimal process parameters, sizes of the pieces, the ratio of the fractions of the fuel particles of different sizes determined empirically. The kit allows the simultaneous processing of two types of solid fuels. In the processing of these fuels, the products of combustion after passing through the heat exchanger 6.1 can be sent bypassing the heater 3 directly heat and mass transfer in a centrifugal apparatus 3.4.

For processing heavy-grind cake of solid fuels, such as tire rubber, last upload in whole or in large pieces in the truck 2.3 periodically the current generator 2, cover end cover includes a burner 2.2 and heater, warm up the apparatus. The combustion products (arrow G) is first sent to the heater 3. Upon reaching a predetermined temperature, for example 700 to 800 degrees Celsius, the burner 2.2 off. The decomposition of the fuel continues through the electric heater. Flammable gases (arrow M) sucked RC supercharger 10.4. After the process is complete, open the end cover, truck with residues removed, and instead load filled with new portions of fuel.

Premodelsites machines to 2200 degrees Celsius and above allows you to increase thermal and overall efficiency units when converting fuel energy into electricity and heat and bring it in the run up to 85-90% with a simultaneous increase in the share of energy converted to electric, up to 60-70%;

- when converting fuel energy into electrical and thermal energy with a preliminary separation of the gaseous and solid fractions, there is no need to first inflate the burning fuel in furnaces units flow of air or oxidant, and then go capture solid dust particles. This allows to significantly improve the environmental condition around the units and communities, near which they are located;

the separation process of energy conversion allows you to organize representatvie the production of clean fuel gas from coal, oil shale, peat in places of their production without transportation of huge quantities of fuel by rail. Transportation of gas through pipelines is much cheaper;

industrial processing of combustible industrial and household waste with the use of the above set of equipment for thermal decomposition of gaseous and solid fractions allows to decrease the area of unsanitary landfills for disposal, reducing transportation and other related expenses at their disposal, more rational in the developed gas turbine engines (GTE), including aviation GTE, which has reached the end of their warranty flight resource, paid for itself in aviation, can be sold for repair and adaptation to further use in ground or floating thermal power plants or vehicles at a low residual value;

- the proposed unit group unified RC engines, engines-steam generators, expansion machines, steam separators, mixing steam generators can operate on gaseous, liquid fuels, and these fuels with the addition of solid fuels, such as coal, peat, sawdust. It is possible to use the hot products of combustion from industrial fired heaters and installations for cooking, welding, melting, drying, heating, baking, heating, recycling of industrial and domestic waste burning.

1. The unit, including equipment preparation and supply of fuel, air, and water, heating and circulation of water and/or coolant, at least one generator with expansion machine, wherein the provided at least one set of equipment for thermal separation of the fuel gas and solid fractions containing the thieves.

2. The power unit p. 1, characterized in that provided at least one gas turbine expansion machine, which uses heat of products of combustion after the expansion machine, made of a rotary cylinder and consisting of a cylindrical body with an eccentric placed in him finned rotor and seals in the form of a cylindrical rotating bodies.

 

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Furnace // 2166150
The invention relates to the arrangement of the combustion of solid fuels, including low-grade, can be used in furnaces and boiler furnaces and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the furnace

The invention relates to a power system, and more particularly to combustion devices (furnaces), in which the combustion of solid fossil fuel with the release of chemically bound energy

The invention relates to a power system low power and can be used both in industrial and domestic heating installations, for example in waste heat boilers, solid fuel, particularly wood waste, and more specifically on sawdust humidity

The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used to improve the combustion of any type of solid fuel

The invention relates to power engineering, transport engineering, engine

The invention relates to a power system

The invention relates to energy, transport, mechanical engineering and can be used as a transport and stationary internal combustion engines

Combi boiler // 2115000

The invention relates to the field of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy using a working fluid, in particular, with the purpose of generating electricity, but is not limited to this application

The invention relates to a power system and can be used in combined cycle plants (CCGT) with discharge gases of the gas turbine (GT) in the boiler is intended primarily for combined heat and electric energy

The invention relates to a device driven by the energy of the jet of the working environment, namely the steam turbine devices

Steam turbine // 2173391
The invention relates to a steam turbine plant with a steam turbine, a turbine rotor which is mounted in end supports
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