The method of regulating drilling conditions affecting operation bura

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to drilling wells and can be used for the regulation of drilling conditions. The method includes the analysis of the compressive strength of rocks geological formations for a period of wells, which is expected to perform drilling using drill. Also conduct a joint analysis of the degree of wear of critical structures borax having the same size and design as the structure of a given drill, at this critical structure drill used for drilling material having approximately the same magnitude of the compressive strength, as analyzed rock, and relevant data drilling for worn-out patterns. According to the results of the analysis is determined for the corresponding measure of the compressive strength of the maximum level of performance above which leads to excessive wear of the drill. In addition, provides for the regulation of drilling conditions, which may include parameters such as the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation, and which is operated with a given drill, with the objective of maintaining the required level of labour productivity less than or equal to predlozky Bur, i.e., the conditions under which you may be provided with the necessary level of labour productivity, provides for optimization of these conditions. The application of the method would eliminate catastrophic failures of the Boers and to ensure consistency between the duration of use of borax and its operating parameters, including the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation. 19 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The present invention relates to a method of regulating and preferably to method optimization of well drilling and, in particular, to a method of controlling the speed of and the load applied to the drill during the drilling process. In the present description, the term "Boer" applies to all standard drills used for drilling, and core drills.

In the past, the regulation of drilling conditions to a greater extent been based on intuition and experience of the operator (or simply carried out randomly) than on scientific conclusions.

To the authors ' knowledge the present invention in the past was done at least a few attempts to summarize the scientific basis for such regulation. So, napri principle in the framework of this method is to maintain empirically constant depth of cut drill (per sales) for the given range of values of the compressive strength of the rock.

In the article "Optimization of load and speed for the Boers rotational type, intended for drilling rocks", authors I. M. Gaulle, and B. woods, published in the journal API Drilling and Production Practice, 1963, pp. 48-73 described method, which is based on the assumption that the conditions for the implementation of any given drilling operation when the load changes Bur its rotational speed will be automatically changed accordingly (and/or Vice versa), the value of a work load on the drill and the speed remained constant throughout the drilling operations. (It should be noted that the authors of the present invention found that, although changing one of these variables will cause the corresponding changes in another variable, the assumption that the value of the works of these two variables remains constant, is wrong. ) Continuing to rely on this assumption, the known method provides for the use of laboratory test results to determine combinations of the mentioned variables, i.e. values of the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation, for which there is a failure drill, and the exception padesky topic, entitled "drilling process Parameters and the use of borax-based sliding bearing", authors, ward and M of Visbek, and presented at the 34th annual conference of mechanical engineers petroleum industry, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1979, offers a more sophisticated variant of the above method of control, however, this improved method are stored as mentioned basic assumption, and the General methodological approach to the problem.

It should be noted that none of the above methods does not provide a proper optimization of the drilling process as a whole.

The invention

The technical result of the present invention is to optimize the drilling process in General, due to the method of regulation of drilling conditions affecting the operation mode specified borax, providing the use of a more universal and valid criterion for at least eliminate catastrophic failures of the Boers and to exclude the situation is unacceptable from the point of view of operation, rapid wear of the Boers, so as to ensure some kind of correspondence between the duration of use of a drill and the other e is mi, used to control the drilling process, are the preferred way, the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation, the above criterion is not focused neither on the first nor on the second, or on both these variables, but only on the indices of borax.

This technical result is achieved by the method of regulating drilling conditions affecting the operation mode specified borax containing the following: analysis of the compressive strength of geological formations in the interval of the well designed for drilling holes,

joint image analysis of the degree of wear of critical structures borax having a size and structure similar to the size and design patterns specified borax, and critical structure previously used for drilling material having approximately the same resistance to compression as the measure of the compressive strength specified in the analysis of the compressive strength of geological formations and corresponding data drilling worn for critical structures borax,

the definition according to the results of the analysis of the degree of wear of critical structures borax and relevant data drilling laproscopically, the exceeding of which results in a very likely way to undesirable wear of the drill, and

regulation of drilling conditions under which operated set the drill to maintain the required level of operating performance that does not exceed the maximum level of performance.

Analyze "critical structure" borax is a structure that in a given design borax will be most likely to wear out more intensively and/or rather will demonstrate refusal, so that this structure can be used as a kind of "limiting factor" in assessing the duration of the period of use borax. For example, in the case of a blade with the Boers polycrystalline diamond inserts cutting edges or polycrystalline diamond inserts usually perform the role of such a "critical structure". At the same time for the Boers on the basis of a roller bit critical structures usually performs bearing or mechanism that provides for sliding movement.

Through the use of performance as the primary criterion, it is possible, in accordance with h the combination of the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation, under which will achieve a given level of performance, and then to use a different criterion for optimization of drilling process in the range of the selected combinations.

The method can be provided by the analysis of the degree of wear of many of these critical structures of a drill and appropriate drill data for the relevant worn critical structures borax, the results of which are forming sequence of the first type of correlated pairs of electrical signals, and two electrical signal in each pair correspond to the wear rate and labor productivity, respectively, for the corresponding one of the critical structures borax, and the marginal level of performance is determined by the electrical signals of the sequence of the first type.

The advantage of conducting analysis at the same time for many critical structures and the formation of such a sequence of correlated pairs of electrical signals, is that this approach allows a much greater degree of probability to determine the maximum level of performance above which leads to the buy allows you to achieve more than simply to exclude catastrophic wear of the drill - it will allow to balance the wear rate (and, consequently, the balance of the duration of use borax) and other operational parameters and factors, like for example the speed of penetration of the drill.

The term "appropriate" as used in the present description in the part of electrical signals or numerical values, would mean "functionally linked", it will be understood that the above functional dependence could, what is, however, not necessary to be implemented in the form of a simple equivalence ratio. The term "corresponding exact image when using it in parts of the electrical signals will indicate that an electrical signal accurately converted to the value of the corresponding parameter. The value of the "intensity of wear of a component of a drill can be determined either in units of length (by measuring the distance from the outer peripheral part to the new part borax) per unit time, or volume units of material (parts borax) also per unit of time.

At least one of the critical structures borax m is AI detail used in a given storm, and subjected to the analysis of the degree of wear in the laboratory.

At least one of the critical structures borax may be present as a brown, having a size and structure similar to the size and design of a given drill, and subject to wear and tear as stated above during operation of the drill used for drilling.

Drilling conditions can be adjusted in the above manner to maintain the required level of labour productivity lower, but to a first approximation, as close as practicable, to the maximum level of performance.

Drilling conditions can include conditions impact on the operation mode specified borax, vibration borax result of the forces transmitted brown to geological formations and changing in magnitude at small intervals of between wells, and exposure conditions are governed by the above manner, taking into account the maximum value of the transmitted forces.

Adjustable stated above conditions can be the rotational speed and the load on the drill.

The method may provide for the formation of th the ski signals in each pair correspond to the magnitude of the rotation speed and the load on the drill, respectively, but the values of rotational speed and load on the drill for each pair theoretically result in the conversion result to the magnitude of the performance corresponding to the ultimate level of performance, and the drill operated at the rotation speed and the load on the drill, the corresponding one of the pairs of electrical signals of the sequence of the second type.

In other words, even under conditions of constant rate of compressive strength of rocks and the invariant conditions of wear of the drill there are many different combinations of values of the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation, which can again theoretically lead to the resulting value of the performance corresponding to the above limiting levels of performance. When this drill is operated mainly in terms of load on it and the speed of rotation corresponding to each one of the electrical signals in the pair of electrical signals related to the second sequence of electrical signals. It should again be recalled that the term "corresponding" means functionally associated, it can be concluded that the drill could be used in terms of quantities naked electric signals, that actually involves putting into consideration the safety factor, which is necessary, in particular, due to the fact that some types vibration of a drill in practice, as a rule, occur under any circumstances.

The method may additionally include determining for the ultimate performance level maximum level speed, the exceeding of which leads obviously to a very unfavorable characteristics offset borax, for example, in the form of strong vibrations in the lateral and axial directions and chaotic movements of the drill, and the use borax mentioned above, when the rotation speed lower limit speed.

Thus, although the use of working speeds, in excess of the aforementioned limit level, and allows you to achieve the specified performance, is preferable to operate the drill at speeds of rotation, this limit does not exceed.

The method can further include determining for the ultimate performance level of the threshold level of load on the drill, the exceeding of which leads the mA intense vibrations of the drill in the direction of the tangent and the so-called "slippage", and operation of the drill above, when the load on the drill, a lower limit level of the load on the drill.

The method may further comprise the following operations:

the definition for the ultimate performance level boundary values of the rotation speed, the largest not exceeding the limit level speed, and exceeding this boundary values of the rotation speed leads a very likely way to undesirable characteristics offset borax,

the definition for the ultimate performance level boundary values of the load on the drill, the largest not exceeding the limit load level on the drill, and the excess of this threshold value for the load on the drill results are very likely to undesirable characteristics offset borax,

and operation of the above image borax at speed, the largest not exceeding the limit value of the rotation speed and the load on the drill, the largest not exceeding a limit value of the load on the drill.

The method further provides for the operation of the above image borax with such speed and load on the drill, which is the value of the relevant CLASS="ptx2">

In the process it is possible to determine the combination of speed and load on the drill, which guarantees maximum depth of cut, and the operation of the drill when the load on the drill, the value is close or equal to the smaller of the two values of load on the drill corresponding to the maximum depth of cut or the boundary value of the load on the drill.

The method may further comprise the following operations:

the definition for the ultimate performance level boundary values of the rotation speed, the largest not exceeding the maximum level of speed, thus exceeding this boundary values of the rotation speed leads very likely the way to the emergence of undesirable characteristics offset borax,

the definition for the ultimate performance level boundary values of the load on the drill, the largest not exceeding the limit load level on the drill, the excess of this threshold value for the load on the drill results are very likely to undesired characteristics offset borax,

the definition for the ultimate performance level the load on the drill, which provides maximal, not exceeding the limit value of the rotation speed, and when the load on the drill according to the value close to or equal to the smaller of the two values of load on the drill corresponding to the boundary value of the load on the drill or the value of the load on the drill, which provides a maximum cutting depth.

The method further provide a definition for the ultimate performance level of the threshold level of load on the drill, the exceeding of which leads obviously to a very unfavorable characteristics offset borax, as well as the operation of the above image borax in terms of load on the drill, the largest not exceeding the limit load level on the drill.

The method further include forming the above image of the set of all sequences of the second type of electrical signals, each of which corresponds to different degrees of wear, and periodic increases in the load on the drill as you wear borax with regard to the appropriate sequence of the second type.

The way you can also change the speed of rotation of the drill when the increase in the above manner, the load on the drill and, in addition, measurement or mode compression provides analysis for multiple layers of geological formations, having different indices of compressive strength, can optionally contain the following:

the formation of the above image corresponding sequences of electrical signals of the first and of the second type for each such measure compressive strength,

the control process of passing through drilling drill through geologic formation

and periodic change of the mode of operation of the drill with the appropriate sequence of electrical signals corresponding to the measure of the strength of the compression layer of the geological formations, which at the moment is passed through drill holes.

The above-mentioned compressive strength can be decomposed as stated above by simulating in real time while drilling the interval of the borehole using a drill.

Other aspects of the present invention and variants of its realization, as well as its various features, properties and advantages, will become more apparent from the following detailed description of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings and the claims.

Fig. 1 depicts a flow diagram illustrating operations processaway computer can be implemented in the present invention.

Fig. 2 graphically depicts the marginal productivity levels.

Fig. 3 graphically depicts the sequence of electrical signals of the second type for the case of relatively soft rocks.

Fig. 4 graphically depicts the sequence of electrical signals of the second type, similar to those shown in Fig. 3, for the case of relatively hard rock.

Fig. 5 schematically depicts a method for simulating wear, which can be used in the present invention.

Fig. 6 graphically depicts the dependence of the estimated amount of work.

Fig. 7 graphically depicts the loss of volume of work due to the abrasive properties of the layers of geological formations.

In Fig. 1 shows a geological formation 10. It is assumed that the specified drill 18 is used for drilling period of 14 wells geological formations 10, generally similar to the gaps 20 and 22 wells that were previously drilled using the Boers 24 and 26, having the same size and design as the drill 18.

Before that time, when the drill 18 is used for buy of the compressive strength of rocks, in which you plan to perform drilling using drill 18. The latter can be a very reliable way carried out using techniques and methods well known in the art, for example, through analysis of drilling data obtained, for example, in the course of the research sections of the wells, analysis of drilling cuttings and analysis of cores, which is schematically illustrated by blocks 28 and 30, to close gaps 20 and 22 wells. For this section of the description, let us assume that, in accordance with the most simple common case in practice, the results of this analysis indicate the constancy of the rate of compressive strength for the entire period of 14 wells.

Further provides for the determination of the threshold level of performance. Please refer to Fig. 2. Conducted within the framework of the present invention studies have shown that increases performance wear rate for any given drill tends to change in accordance with a definite dependence. Curve c1designed in this case to illustrate the nature of this dependence for the case of relatively soft rocks is here wear varies almost linear way with productivity growth up to pL. If subsequent performance increase wear rate begins to increase at a faster rate, in particular, in accordance with an exponential dependence. Such sharp changes of intensity of wear is due to the increased friction, temperature, and increasing the intensity of the vibrations (pulse load). Finally, the wear reaches the end point eLthat corresponds to a catastrophic failure of the drill. Such catastrophic wear could occur if the level of performance corresponding to that endpoint, and other stable conditions, the actual drilling process, but could also occur at a lower level of performance, i.e., when the performance level corresponding to the interval between the points pLand eL, under high shock loads associated with the presence of intense vibrations. Curve c2is similar to curve c1and applies rocks with relatively large strength in compression. And again, as before, the wear rate increases almost in a linear manner with increasing productivity (albeit in a more intensive the sa starts to increase at a faster pace until catastrophic failure, corresponding to the point eH.

To determine the appropriate maximum level of performance provides the analysis for the critical structures of the same type as used in the storm 18. In accordance with a less preferred variant implementation of the present invention such an analysis could, for example, be exposed in laboratory conditions polycrystalline diamond insert mounted on the respective support, a material having approximately the same index of the compressive strength, as defined in the course of the analysis for rocks in the period of 14 wells, and a gradual increase in the labour productivity until the occurrence of failure. However, this failure could be the result of anomalous effects, for example due to certain characteristics of the analyzed similarly concrete cutting edge, and in any case would only allow to determine the value of the performance level for catastrophic failure, for example, a similar level of performance for point eHor eL. In accordance with this the presses work with levels of performance, which cause an exponential increase in the intensity of wear, i.e., corresponding to the intervals of the curves between the points pHand eHand between points pLand eL.

As a result, in accordance with a preferred variant implementation of the present invention, provides for joint image analysis for a variety of critical structures having dimensions and design similar to the size and design patterns borax 18, and used for drilling material having an index of compressive strength, approximately corresponding to the measure of the compressive strength specified in the result stated above analysis, and for the corresponding data of the drilling process. Some of these structures may correspond to individual parts borax or its nodes, especially if the drill 18 presents brown vane-type polycrystalline diamond insert (PDC), where the role of critical structures perform cutting edges that can be analyzed and tested for wear in the laboratory. However, it turns out to be very useful to establish at least some of these pre proanalyst is sushestvennee drilling. For example, for these purposes could be used borax 4 and 26 used in the gaps 20, 22 wells, for which the analysis could be based on the corresponding data drilling 32 and 34. These Boers and their corresponding data drilling can also be used to prepare data required for the implementation of other features of the present invention, as will be shown below.

In any case, on the basis of data obtained in the above way analysis of critical structures, provides for the formation of corresponding electrical signals, which are then jointly processed by the computer 36 to construct a sequence of the first type of correlated pairs of electrical signals.

Before explanation of the methods of forming this sequence of the first type of correlated pairs of electrical signals, it should be noted that for purposes of simplicity and greater clarity in Fig. 1 illustrates only two worn-out drill with the appropriate wells and the data of the drilling process. However, in accordance with a preferred variant implementation of the present invention, the first sequence and the corresponding data of the drilling process. Such data could be obtained for the same geological formation 10 or from other areas with geological formations with the same indicators of the compressive strength of rocks, and/or could be the result of extensive laboratory research.

In the sequence of the first type of correlated pairs of electrical signals two electrical signal of each of such pairs correspond to the wear rate and labor productivity, respectively, for the particular worn-out drill.

In Fig. 2 mathematical, in particular graphical image is illustrated according to these electrical signals. In this case the curve c1consistent with the aforementioned sequence of the first type for the case of rocks with relatively little strength in compression. By processing using the computer 36 series of electrical signals corresponding to the curve c1, it is possible to form, for the case of rocks with these relatively small strength in compression, the electrical signal of the threshold level of performance, the appropriate limit is improving which is very likely rapid wear of the drill.

Further provides for the formation similarly the second sequence of correlated pairs of electrical signals of the first type for the case with relatively large strength in compression, while the graphical interpretation according to corresponding electrical signals given curve c2. And again, as before, the results of the analysis of these electrical signals can be generated electrical signal of the threshold level of performance, which corresponds to the ultimate level of performance for the critical points of pHwhere is terminated linear increase in the wear rate with increase in productivity, and the corresponding dependence becomes exponential in nature.

In accordance with a preferred variant implementation of the present invention for the intermediate indicators of compressive strength of rocks could provide for the formation of additional sequences of the first type, including a correlated pair of electrical signals. On the basis of electrical signals each such sequence could be generated electrical signal limit privatelist the sake of simplicity and greater clarity, not shown in Fig. 2. But if they were shown, it would be easy to determine for them the appropriate point, for example, such points pHand pLand set in accordance with marginal productivity levels, and these points limit performance levels for all curves, being joined together, would form a curve c3that would allow to define the minimum levels of performance for almost any indicators of compressive strength of rocks in a given range. From the following discussion it will become clear that the computer 36 can be prepared in such a way as to ensure the processing of electrical signals such different sequences to form sequences of electrical signals of a different type, the corresponding curve3. Suppose that the curve c1corresponds to the case of minimum rate of compressive strength of rocks for a given range, and the curve c2corresponds to the case of the maximum rate of compressive strength for this specified range, then the values for points plim-minand plim-maxwill correspond to extreme levels of performance corresponding to d is c3could from a theoretical point of view, and analyzed as a function of the metallurgical properties of the cutting edge (or teeth) and the quality of the diamond material Bura, however, these factors in practice have a negligible effect.

In accordance with the basic essential features of the present invention provides for the possibility for regulation of drilling conditions during operation of the drill 18 to maintain the required operating performance at less than or equal to the marginal level of performance for each individual determined by conducting an appropriate analysis of the rate of compressive strength of rocks, which currently is drilling using the drill. It is preferred, if asked, the ultimate level of performance corresponds to the point, like for example the point PLfor which the wear rate is still only starts to increase according to an exponential dependence. However, in accordance with a less preferred variant implementation of the present invention, this limit urolene most soft rock, in accordance with a specified range of strength values, provides for the regulation of drilling conditions with the aim of maintaining the level of performance less than or equal to the value corresponding to the point plim-max. It is preferred if the level of productivity remains lower limit level of performance, allowing the use of a safety factor. However, it appears desirable to the performance level was maintained in the first approximation as close as practicable, to the maximum level of performance. While the concept of "as close as practicable" refers not only to the necessity of taking into account the above-mentioned safety factor, but also on the necessity of taking into account the existing practice restrictions, such as limitations with space for drilling rigs and associated, say, with constraints for the generated torque, flow rate, etc., In this case, the concept of slightly modified due to the use of the phrase "first approximation" because the essence of this sign, in accordance with the preferred options for implementing eastwoodiae maximum values of the parameters may vary, for example, with changes in the value of time or a change of operator, when determining an appropriate safety factor.

Operation of the drill in terms of the corresponding parameter as near as practicable, to the maximum level of performance allows for maximum penetration rate, which is known to be directly proportional to the magnitude of the performance. In the General case turns out to be desirable to ensure that the speed of penetration as much as possible, except in extreme cases, when the intensity of drilling may increase to such an extent that the amount generated during the drilling of the material will increase the effective mass of the drilling fluid to such a level that created them, the pressure may exceed the pressure gradient of hydraulic fracturing in certain geological formations.

Adjustable stated above drilling conditions include conditions that directly affect the operation of the drill, and, in particular, parameters such as the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation. Vibration borax which can be well-known fo the th formation, the results of these efforts can vary over small intervals generated interval of the well, passable or only planned to pass borer. In such situations, it is preferable to provide the ability to regulate affect Bur efforts, the latter taking into account the maximum value of the transmitted efforts arising in the course of such fluctuations and changes, and not in accordance with averages of these transmitted forces.

In accordance with another significant feature within the preferred options for the implementation of the present invention provides for the determination of multiple combinations of values of the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation, each of which leads to the performance level corresponding to the ultimate level of performance. It should also be noted that the present invention provides a method for optimal selection of a particular such combination.

In Fig. 3 shows a curve c4corresponding values, which in turn are responsible pairs of electrical signals in the sequence of the second type generated for the new bit of the specified design is titsa principle, which is explained in more detail below on the basis of the accumulated information on many other Boers, which have the same size and design as the auger 18, and which were previously used for drilling rock with a measure of compressive strength that approximates the rate of compressive strength specified by the respective analysis for rocks on the period of 14 wells. Curve, such as curve similar to the curve c4may be the result of the determination of a graphical relationship between speed of rotation and the magnitude of the load on the drill, present in the framework of the accumulated information, and then determine by extrapolation of the continuous type. From the further statement will become clear, especially for specialists in this field of technology that has the ability to program the computer 36 so that he was performing equivalent operations with correlated pairs of electrical signals corresponding to the values of speed and load on the drill, respectively, from those presented in the framework of the accumulated information, and that this computer even provided prideby also be used to generate corresponding electrical signals, input to a computer 36, which in the future could form the necessary number of additional such pairs of electrical signals corresponding to the dependencies established by the results of the initial input, with the goal of determining the sequence of the second type of correlated pairs of electrical signals of the load on the drill and the electrical signals of the rotation speed. On the basis of this second sequence can be determined by extrapolation of its graphical interpretation in the form of a curve c4that can also be performed using the computer 36.

By identifying the type of correlation between curve c4(and/or the corresponding sequence of electrical signals) and the accumulated information in the process of drilling it is possible to find a point pN-marfor which the value of the rotation speed N corresponds to the specified boundary value, i.e. the value, above which very likely leads to undesired characteristics of the offset drill, in particular, to an inevitable increase in the intensity of the vibration in the lateral and axial directions, which is associated with too high scona speed is even greater, these undesirable characteristics offset borax, in particular vibration in the lateral and axial directions, reaches a maximum, which is manifested, for example, in the chaotic movements of borax; thus, it appears even less desirable to operate the drill in close proximity to or exceeding the level of the rotation speed set point of the pN-lim. The value of the load on the drill for pN-limcorresponds to the minimum value of the load on the drill necessary, from the point of view of adequate damping of such vibrations, and sometimes below will be called a "threshold level" of the load on the drill.

Similarly, the ability to define the point pw-marfor which value of the load on the drill w corresponds to the specified boundary value, the excess of which very likely leads to the emergence of other undesirable characteristics offset borax, in particular, to increase the intensity of vibration in the direction of the tangent. Pointw-limthese undesirable movement of the drill will reach a maximum level and you may experience the so-called effects of "slippage" (sharp move instead of a smooth rotation of the drill), and is eUSA pressure on the drill for pw-lim.

In General, although any point on the curve c4and corresponds to the magnitude of the load on the drill and its speed of rotation, corresponding to the ultimate level of performance in terms of a given value of the rate of compressive strength of new and used borax, it is clear that very desirable to operate the drill in conditions corresponding to the range between the points pN-marand pw-mar. As was shown above, a curve C4corresponds accurately to the ultimate level of performance. Therefore, to bring into consideration the above-mentioned safety factor would be preferable to ensure operation even in the more narrow range, resulting from a deviation from pN-maror pw-mar. And even more preferred is the situation where you have the opportunity during the operation to implement the values of parameters corresponding to the point on the curve c4for which value of the load on the drill W is smaller, but at the same time so close, to the extent practicable, to the magnitude of the load on the drill, the corresponding point of pw-mar. The latter is a consequence of traci the drill pipe string (in contrast to the previously mentioned vibration borax).

Taking into account that Fig. 3 corresponds to the case with a relatively soft rock, it is easy to see that the value is as close as practicable to the value for pw-marin this case, will actually be located far enough from the value corresponding to the point pw-mar. The latter is due to the fact that in the case of a sufficiently soft rock drill is to achieve maximum depth of cut when cutting patterns borax will be completely immersed in the rock, when the load on the drill, which corresponds to the point RDCand which is significantly less load on the drill, the corresponding point of pw-mar. For the case of the Boers on the basis of a roller bit and the Boers with polycrystalline diamond inserts (PDC) is unnecessary and useless to attach to a drill additional load, i.e. the load, excessive in relation to that, which provides a full immersion of the cutting teeth of the drill in the rock. For the case of the Boers with a diamond content may be desirable to operate the drill when the load on it, somewhat larger than the value corresponding to the point Riem. As a result, the deterioration of the structure borax occurs simultaneously with increased wear on the diamond, with the diamond as a rule, begin to act from this design (this effect is sometimes called the effect of "sharpening"). Therefore, the optimal value of the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation will correspond to values corresponding to the pointdcor its nearest surroundings.

On the basis of the accumulated additional information regarding the processes of drilling may be formed by another sequence of correlated pairs of electrical signals of the second type for the case almost completely worn drill the specified type, which can be graphically interpreted using the curve c5. It should be noted that, if necessary, could be formed and other intermediate sequence of this second type (these sequences in the sake of simplicity and greater clarity, is not shown as curves in Fig. 3), which would correspond to less wear and tear. In any case, the computer 36 can be prepared for the purposes of processing the electrical signals of these different sequences based on the use of techniques well known in dannoura, the corresponding curves c6c7c8c9and c10. In this case the curve c6corresponds to the values defined by point pN-limand changing with the change of wear and tear. Curve c7corresponds to the values defined by point pN-marand changing with the change of the wear and tear of the drill. Curve c8corresponds to the values defined by point pdcand changing with the change of the wear and tear of the drill. Curve c8corresponds to the values defined by point pw-marand changing with the change of the wear and tear of the drill. Finally, curve c10corresponds to the values defined by point pw-limand changing with the change of the wear and tear of the drill. Thus, in the process of drilling is desirable to measure

and/or to simulate the wear and tear is to drill 18 and periodically increase the load on the drill with a corresponding change in the speed of its rotation, while the preferred way, remaining within the range formed by the curves6and c10and more preferably within the range formed by the curves c7and c9and even more preferably on a curve c8or in its nearest surroundings.

In accordance with another very unusual example of a rock can be so hard, and the possibilities for creating a torque corresponding engine is so limited that the rig will not be able to attach to a drill sufficient load, for example, will not be able even to provide a load value corresponding to the threshold value for pN-lim. This will be impossible even getting into the range between the points pN-limand pw-lim. In this case, the operator would have to operate in conditions as near as practicable, to this range, for example, in terms of the magnitude of the load on the drill smaller than the value for pN-limand suitable is, similar to the one shown for the various curves of Fig. 3 and 4, generally remain quite correct, influencing factors affecting during certain drilling process, can cause undesirable movement of the drill and/or the tubing, and for those values of load on the drill and the speed of its rotation, which from a theoretical point of view this should not happen. Consequently, it is desirable to use means that are known in the art, for registration of such offsets in real time (i.e. during drilling) and upon detection of such shifts take appropriate corrective action, remaining during such correction as close as possible to the optimal values.

Based on the above General concept, below is a detailed description of one example of the method for processing electrical signals to generate the sequence of electrical signals mentioned type, the corresponding curves of Fig. 3 and 4.

For the case of a specific indicator of the compressive strength of rocks provides for the use of accumulated empirical information in regard to Isham processed by the computer 36 to form a sequence of pairs of electrical signals of the first type, the corresponding marginal productivity curve similar to curve c1and c2.

Further, on the basis of the accumulated empirical information, for example, based on the results of the survey sections of the gaps 20 and 22 wells and presents the results of measurements of torque and intensity of the vibrations may be detected value corresponding to the limiting level of torque. Thus, in particular, provides for the determination of the torque value TN-limat which the intensity of the vibrations in the axial and lateral directions reaches a maximum, i.e. the value corresponding to the point pN-limfor the case of the set value of the measure of the strength and the specified conditions of wear, and the torque value Tw-limat which peak vibration in the direction of the tangent (and observed the effects of "slippage"), i.e. the value corresponding to the point pw-limfor the case of the set value of the measure of the strength and the specified conditions of wear. It is also envisaged the preferred way of defining similar values of torque TN-limand Tw-limfor points pN-limand pw-limrespectively for the case to Sadagat large dataset in part torque and intensities of vibration for a given value of the measure of the strength and the specific conditions of wear. These data are usually converted into electrical signals, which in turn is connected to the computer 36. These electrical signals by the joint image processed by the computer 36 to form the electrical signals corresponding to the values of torque TN-mar, TN-lim, Tw-marand Tw-lim.

For at least the case when the value of the resistance is small, i.e. when the rock is soft, and the preferred way for any of the considered cases also provides the definition of the torque value Tdccorresponding to the torque at which the maximum depth of passage per one revolution of the drill (i.e. for the case when the cutting edge of the drill is fully immersed in the rock). From the following discussion it will become clear that this amount of torque and the corresponding electrical signal is also responsible point of the pdc.

Data for calculating values of Tdccan be obtained from the results of laboratory studies. In the alternative case, when the real process of drilling a value of Tdcmay be determined by abusage gradual increase in load and simultaneous control of torque and speed of penetration. It should be noted that the penetration rate will increase with increasing load on the drill up to a certain point, after which it will remain constant or even to show some decline. The torque value for this point and corresponds to the value of Tdc.

For each of the above values of torque has the ability to make the processing of the respective electric signals corresponding to the speed of rotation of the drill and load it accordingly, and thereby to determine the position of the corresponding point on the curve, for example similar to the curves of Fig. 3 and 4.

This may be determined by the value of w, i.e., the magnitude of the load on the drill that corresponds to the specific value of torque T, and the corresponding electrical signals can be generated and entered into the computer 36.

Alternatively, when it is envisaged the formation of a sequence of electrical signals or set of such sequences for the preparation of the full preliminary recommendations for specific borax, can be very useful to determine based on the analysis of exploitatio
= (T - T0)/(w - w0), (1)

where T0- torque for a threshold level of load on the drill;

w0- the threshold level of load on the drill.

Further, the computer 36 processes the electrical signals corresponding to the values T, T0and w0to generate an electronic model that allows you to solve an equation of the form

w = (T-T0)/ + w0(2)

with the aim of forming an electrical signal corresponding to the load on the drill, the Respondent, in turn, a specific torque.

Next, the computer 36 generates an electronic model for solving equations of the form:

N = Plim/(2 + dc) w60 (3)

or

N= Plim/(2 +dc/ ) T60, (3a)

where N is the rotation speed;

Plimthe ultimate level of performance previously defined in accordance with the above-described approach;

dcthe penetration depth of borax per one turn or so-called "depth of cut",

which is preferable to use both, axial and torque components (lateral component is negligibly small in magnitude). Alternatively, if it is desirable ispolzovat)

or

N = Plim/(120 T) (4a)

The computer provides a solution to these equations by joint processing of electrical signals corresponding to the variables and constants within the equations (3), (), (4) or (4a).

In the result it is possible to determine the electrical signals corresponding to the magnitude of the load on the drill w and the speed N corresponding to the specific torque, i.e., to define the first pair of electrical signals for the sequence of the second type, graphically interpretiruyutsya curves c4c5c11and c12. For example, if the value of the used torque corresponds to TN-limyou can easily find the corresponding point of PN-lim.

Through a similar process additional electrical signals torque for the same conditions of wear of a drill and the same values of strength, you can generate the entire sequence of the second type of pairs of electrical signals, graphically interpreted curve, such as curve similar to the curve c4and considering all control points of pN-limpN-marpdcpw-marand pw-lim.

In far the to maintain the conditions of wear, in rocks that have a specific measure of the strength of compression , you can use a combination of values of the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation, a corresponding pair of electrical signals from among the sequence of the second type, the range between the points pN-limand pw-limunless, of course, the value of w for pdcthe value of w for pw-lim: if you violate this condition, you should select a combination of values from the range between the points pN-limand pdc.

You can also preferable to select a combination of values from the range between the points pN-marand pw-maror in the range between points pN-marand pdci.e. to use the smaller size ranges. Even more preferred is to set the mode of operation of the drill in the immediate vicinity, and as close as practicable, to the point of pdcor point of pw-marlast, depending on which of them is characterized by a lower value of the load on the drill. If for a point pdcthe magnitude of the load on the drill is smaller, and as borax used a drill with a polycrystalline diamond insert (PDC) or Bur on the basis of shares is dc, the latter depending on the nature of the safety factor. However, if the drill is used with a diamond Bur content, ought to give preference to the mode of operation with a value equal to or slightly larger values for pdc.

Through similar processing the electrical signals for the same values of the measure of the strength of rocks , but for other conditions of wear, you can generate a set of sequences of pairs of electrical signals of the second type, which can be represented graphically in the form of a family of curves or region, for example, similar to the area between the curves c11and c12.

After that there is the possibility for the formation sequence of the third type, corresponding, for example, the curve c8and c13. Further, by controlling or modeling wear of a drill you can optimize the operation of the drill by increasing borax applied to the load w, as its wear, and proper correction of the rotational speed of the drill n

In accordance with a less preferred variant implementation of the present invention, it is possible to choose velikin Tw-marlast, depending on which of these values will be smaller, and then to perform processing in accordance with the above approach to determine the appropriate values of w and N. Repeating this procedure for different conditions of wear, it is quite easy to form a sequence of the third type, corresponding, for example, curve c13.

It should be noted, however, that in practice it is preferable to set the ranges, as shown in Fig. 3 and 4, to prepare recommendations regarding the modification of a hypothetical optimal operating conditions. For example, if you are using a value corresponding to the point Poptin terms of application specific column of pipes and implementing specific geometry of the hole for the tubing observed resonance phenomena, the operator can move to the other set of operating conditions, corresponding to the range between the points pN-marand pw-mar.

For specialists in this field of technology is not difficult to understand that in practice you can use many different techniques for generating and processing data for subsequent formation of such consequences is cher.

As mentioned above, before moving on to this section of the description, it was assumed that the magnitude of the measure of the strength remains constant for the entire patent brown period of 14 wells. However, in an actual drilling process value may change during the whole period of wells formed using a drill. As a result, regardless of the method used for purposes of creating a sequence of electrical signals of the second and third type for a given measure of the strength of rocks is desirable to repeat the above procedure for the other indicators of the strength of the rock through which the planned passage through the drill concrete drill. For example, for the case of a particular drill you could generate a single sequence of electrical signals corresponding to curves similar to the curves in Fig. 3, for the case of the soft rocks, with which the drill encountered in the drilling process. Another sequence of electrical signals corresponding to curves similar to the curves in Fig. 4, for the case of the solid rock, which borax faced during the drilling process, and also also the DOP is pokazateli strength of rock. The latter allows to provide to the operator in the operation of a greater amount of information for optimal use of a particular drill.

Thus, if, for example, the analysis of the planned drilling of the interval of the well determines the presence of layers of sediments with different indicators of the strength of rocks, during operation of the drill during the drilling of each of these layers can be optimized. Thus, in accordance with another example implementation, if the analysis is based on data from nearby wells, and current results of measurement while drilling (MWD) indicate changes in the strength parameters for the rock against strength, which for whatever reason were set in accordance with a specific well conditions can be changed as appropriate.

In accordance with the more preferred variants of implementation of the present invention has the ability to simulate the value in real time, i.e., to account for changes of this magnitude in each of relatively small length of the interval period of the well, as is explained in more detail in the materials is of the analysis of the compressive strength of rocks", filed concurrently with this patent application and referred to in this description for reference purposes.

As mentioned above, to make the best use of all the advantages of the present invention is very convenient to simulate the wear of the drill as the drill interval of the well or with the use of appropriate technology to monitor real-time performance wear borax or certain parameters indicating the amount of wear, so that there is a possibility of a periodic correction of the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation to optimize its mode of operation based on current indicators of wear of the drill.

In some previous U.S. patents, such as patents N 3058532, N 2560328, N 2580860, N 4785895, N 4655300, N 3853184, N 3363702 and N 2925251, describes the various technologies designed for direct control in real-time indicators of wear of the drill.

In addition, the materials of the prior U.S. patent N 5305836, issued in the name of Holbroke, describes a method for modeling wear borax in real time.

Another way of modelling the wear of the drill is as follows.

naznacheniya for drilling wells and having the same size and design, as the drill 18. As follows from Fig. 1, a borehole or a period of 20 wells formed by drilling at least partially using the drill 24. Thus, in particular, Bur 24 will be used for drilling period of 20 wells between the initial point I and the end point T. In this illustrative example, the initial point I corresponds to the point for which the Bur 24 was first used for the purpose of drilling in the span of 20 wells, and the end point T corresponds to the point at which the drill 24 has been withdrawn from the well. However, for the purposes of analysis, the point I and T can be defined as any two points that can be unambiguously identified, the gap between which is for the purpose of the drilling was used to drill 24 and the gap between them can be defined with the necessary data, which will be described in more detail below.

In practice it is preferable to use in the analysis of the scope of work of well-known relation of the form:

b- FbD (5)

whereb- the volume of work performed borer;

Fb- the total of the forces acting on the drill;

D is the distance at which you were drilling.

Length panago of the parameters of the aggregate data for wells, which can be determined during the drilling period of 20 wells, as schematically shown by line 50. To convert this parameter to an acceptable mind to enter into the computer 36 and subsequent processing mentioned length, i.e. the distance between points I and T is the preferred way is divided into a large number of small, measuring about half a foot of each interval. For each size interval provides for the formation of the corresponding electrical signal interval period, which is input to a computer 36, as shown by line 52 in Fig. 1.

To determine the scope of work also provides for the formation of many electrical signals real effort interval, each of which corresponds to the actual force generated holes at specific intervals during the period of the well between points 1 and So However, due to the difficulties associated with the direct determination of the full magnitude of the force generated borer, also provides input to a computer 36, as shown by the line 52, the electrical signals corresponding to other parameters from among the data for the wells 50. This approach theoretically allows obradovo torsional force and presented in one form or another of the applied lateral force. It should be noted, however, that if only the lateral force is not applied to the target image (in this case its value is known), i.e., if only in the lower part of the well design is not provided using a drill stabilizers, the amount of lateral force is negligible and it further can be neglected.

In accordance with one example implementation of the present invention the parameters of the number of data for wells used to generate electrical signals of the real efforts of the interval represented by the following parameters:

the load on the drill (w), expressed, for example, in pounds,

hydraulic impact force created by the mud (Fjand expressed, for example, in pounds,

rotation speed (N), which is expressed, for example, the number of revolutions in 1 minute,

torque (T), as expressed, for example, in feet per pound

the speed of penetration of the drill (R), expressed, for example, ft/h, and

the lateral force at the latest (Fi), as expressed, for example, in pounds.

In the conditions of transformation of the mentioned parameters from among the data well for each interval matched with the change or be configured to process these electrical signals for generating electric signals real effort interval based on the use of electronic models, allows you to solve an equation that resembles the following:

b= [(W + Fi)+120NT/R + F1]D, (6)

where the magnitude of the lateral force F1adopted negligible, which allows to exclude from consideration a corresponding electrical signal.

Unexpectedly it was found that the torque component of the effort is prevalent and, essentially the most important, however, in accordance with a less preferred variant implementation of the present invention the analysis of the scope of work can be carried out using only components of this effort, and the corresponding equation (6) in this case takes the following form:

b= [120 NT/R] D(7)

In accordance with an alternative use of the present invention when forming the electrical signals real effort interval, the computer 36 may use the e-model equation of the form:

b= 2 DT/dc, (8)

where d is the depth of the passing per one revolution of the drill and, in turn, is determined by the relation of the form:

dc= R/60 N (9)

Further, the computer 36 may be programmed or configured to process the electrical signals real effort interval asignal, the corresponding total volume of work performed borer 24 during drilling between points I and T, as illustrated by block 54. This electrical signal is known to transform into a human-readable numeric value that is displayed well known manner, the computer 36, as shown by line 56.

Joint processing of the electrical signals of the real efforts of the interval and the electrical signals of the interval period to determine the full volume of the 54 works may be carried out using several different approaches.

In accordance with one of these approaches share a PC processes the electrical signals of the real efforts of the interval and the electrical signals of the interval period for forming an electrical signal weighted average of the effort corresponding to the average weighted force generated holes when drilling between the initial and end points of the interval of the well. The term "weighted average" in this case means that each value of the effort corresponding to one or more electrical signals real effort interval, converted through the e this computer just creates an electronic model, allows you to multiply the value of the average weighted efforts on the full value of the distance between points I and T, with the aim of forming an electrical signal corresponding to the total amount of work.

In accordance with another approach, the electrical signal real effort interval and an electrical signal interval period for each interval joint image are processed to generate an appropriate electrical signal to scope of work interval, after which such electrical signals scope of work interval are integrated for forming an electrical signal full scope of work, corresponding to the total volume of work performed borer.

In accordance with another similar approach, the computer may determine based on the joint processing of the electrical signals of the real efforts of the interval and the electrical signals of the interval period of the functional dependence of efforts from distance and in the future to create a digital model allows integrating in respect of this functional dependency.

These three above-described approach has allowed is for work and are not only equivalent, but are essentially illustrative, showing the various treatment options that will rely equivalent when considering other approaches, which represent various components of the present invention and described in more detail below.

It should be noted that currently, the technology exists that allows you to record vibration borax increased intensity in the drilling process. If the inspections found that these vibrations take place for at least part of the gap well between points I and T, it may be preferable to appropriately programmed computer 36 and to enter into appropriate electrical signals so that it is formed for the above-mentioned intervals corresponding electrical signals real effort interval, each of which would correspond to the average force produced brown at the appropriate interval. The latter can be done by using the average or median value for each variable that is used in the formation of an electrical signal real effort interval.

Sleduet the resulting scope of work. Therefore, in addition to the definition of the scope of work performed borer 24 while passing through drilling between points I and T, establishes the nature of the wear of the drill 24 resulting from the passage of the duration of the well. It also envisages the formation of the corresponding electrical signal and input it into the computer 36 as parameters 58, 52 of the accumulated information. (Point 1 in this case should correspond to the point where the drill 24 is first started to be used for drilling period of 20 wells, and the point T should correspond to the point at which the drill 24 is withdrawn from the well). The same actions can be performed for periods of 22, 60 wells and in relation to their respective augers 26 and 62.

Fig. 6 is a graphic interpretation of those operations that can be performed electronically, the computer 36 with respect to the electrical signals corresponding to the aforementioned data. In Fig. 6 shows a graphical dependence of the wear of the drill from the amount of completed work. Based on the above data, the computer 36 can process the appropriate electrical signals to determine the form of the AMI wear, and to create an electronic model that allows to determine this graphic dependencies point for each of the gaps 20, 22 and 60 wells (and to the corresponding borax). For example, the point 24' can be used to interpret the correlated values of the volume and rate of wear of the drill 24, point 26' can be used to interpret the correlated values of the volume and rate of wear for the case of borax 26, and the point 62' can be used to interpret the correlated values of the volume and rate of wear for the case of borax 62. Other points of p1p2and p3correspond to the values of the volume and rate of wear for other Boers, having the same size and design and are not shown in Fig. 5.

By processing the electrical signals corresponding to these points, the computer 36 may determine a functional relationship formed by certain electric signals, these functional dependence, as interpreted in graphical form, takes the form of a smooth curve, in General such curve c20; as will become more clear from the following discussion, if you wish to get resultyou particular point, specific empirical data. Such a continuous curve or the so-called "dependence of the calculated volume of work may itself play the role of the output 64, but can also be used for modeling wear of the drill.

If this turns out to be very useful also to set the endpoint pmaxthe corresponding maximum degree of wear of the drill that corresponds to this state, when the drill is almost can no longer be effectively used for the purpose of drilling, and then, using the dependence of the estimated amount of work to determine a corresponding point of the scope of work. As a result, the point pmaxin fact corresponds to the point of maximum wear/the maximum amount of work that sometimes below will be called "the estimated amount of work" in relation to a particular type of drill. May also be useful to determine the type of dependency, which is a mirror image of the curve C20for example, in the form of a curve c22, which is characterized in accordance with the views of the above-mentioned electrical signals functional relationship between the remaining lifetime of a drill and volume of the work done by it.

Elev> when the output from the computer in the form of output data 64 is converted last preferred way to ensure the registration of a visual image of the mind, such as the curves shown in Fig. 6.

As mentioned above in another context, vibration borax can lead to significant changes created borer efforts at the individual intervals of the interval of the well. Therefore, when determining the dependence of the calculated volume of work in such situations is preferable to generate the appropriate electrical signals maximum effort interval corresponding to the maximum magnitude of the force generated brown on each such interval. At the same time may be determined, as will be explained in more detail below, and the limit level corresponding to the maximum force required to pass the rocks, characterized by a definite indication of the compressive strength at the specified interval. For any of the Boers, which will be used to determine the kind of curve with1you should compare the electrical signal maximum efforts referred to the utmost level, and if this PPI Burov, used for the purpose of generating electric signals according to the estimated amount of work. This comparison, of course, may be made electronically by the computer 36 through the use of an electrical signal limit level corresponding to the above-mentioned extreme level.

Very useful for determining the above-mentioned limit, use the maximum level of performance, mentioned above in connection with the explanation of Fig. 2. After determining the above-described manner, the threshold level of performance for a given measure of the strength of rocks corresponding to the maximum level of effort can be determined through the operation of extrapolating the result of doing a simple division of this extreme level of performance on the speed of penetration of the drill.

In an alternative embodiment, the magnitude of the actual performance of the drill could be compared directly with the said marginal level of performance.

In any of the cases examined, the processing can be carried out electronically by compito can also be accounted for in accordance with a preferred variant implementation of the present invention. Such other factors include the geometry and stiffness of the pipe string, the geometry of the wells, and the mass of the lower part of the wellbore located below the neutral point of the drill pipe string.

While the principle of forming an electrical signal maximum effort may remain the same as in the above case, associated with the formation of the electrical signals real effort interval for intervals that have no issues with vibrations, i.e., based on the use of electronic models for the relations (5), (6) or (7) + (8), except that for each of the variables, for example, for the variable w is used, the maximum or peak value of this variable at a specific interval (except for the variable R, which should be the minimum value).

The dependence of the calculated volume 66 may be used to determine data relating to indicators abrasion, as shown by line 68. Indicators abrasion, in turn, can be used to improve models of wear and/or for the correction of the threshold level of performance. Thus, in particular, if objatsa with plot interval of the well, which was passed brown.

With regards the procedures for determining the performance of abrasion, it is necessary to place additional accumulated information and more specifically data 70 indicators abrasion obtained for part of the period of additional wells or bore 72, which was passed by drilling in the reservoir sediments with a noticeable indicators abrasion, for example, in the so-called "layer 74 hard rock", as well as data regarding borax 76 used for the passage of the period, including a layer of solid rock 74.

It should be noted that in accordance with the used in this description and terminology the statement that part of the geological formations presents rock with abrasive properties, means that a particular rock is characterized by a marked performance abrasion, as, for example, in the case of quartz or Sandstone in comparison with shale rock.

Indicators abrasion rocks usually functional way connected with the configuration of the surface rocks and its strength. When this factor configuration does not necessarily determined SS="ptx2">

As shown in Fig. 5, the data 70 indicators abrasion include data 78 to the bore 72 of the same type as the data 50, i.e., the same data for wells that are required to define the scope of work, and the results of monitoring indicators 80 wear for borax 76. In addition, data indicators abrasion include data 82 volume abrasive rocks 74 drilled in the use of borax 78. This volume can be determined in a known manner by analyzing sections of the bore 72, as in the General case illustrated by block 84.

As for the other essential features of the present invention, provides for the conversion of such data into corresponding electric signals and input the latest in computer 36, as shown by line 86. The computer 36 provides digitization indicators abrasion by processing electrical signals to generate an electronic model, which can solve the equation as follows:

=(rated-b)/Vabr, (10)

where is the measure of abrasion;

b- the actual amount of work performed borer (corresponding to a particular metric wear for borax 56);

rated- the estimated amount of work (dla.

For example, suppose that the drill has completed the scope of work in 1000 ton/miles and was withdrawn from service when the wear indicator 50% after Vybory 200 ft3abrasive rock. Suppose also that a previously defined on the basis of the accumulated information, the dependence of the estimated amount of work for this particular drill points to the fact that the rate of wear would have to meet only 40% when the volume of work in 1000 ton/miles and 50% in the volume of work 1200 ton/miles, as it also follows from Fig. 7. In other words, an additional 10% abrasive wear correspond to additional work in 200 ton/miles. At this rate of attrition is defined as the reduction of the period of use of borax: 200 ton/miles per 200 ft3drilled abrasive rocks or 1 (t/m/ft3). This value is represented in the same units that were used for laboratory research indicators abrasion. Amount (in percentage terms) abrasive rocks can be determined based on test results sections of the wells, which allow you to set the percentage of the different lithological structures in the rock. The final volume of drill cuttings entry rate (volume) of the content of the abrasive component.

Alternatively lithological data can be determined by the results of the survey sections of the bore 72, the latter through the implementation of methods of measurements during the drilling process, as illustrated by block 84.

The dependence of the calculated volume 66 works and, if necessary, the indicators 68 abrasion can be further used for the purposes of mathematical modeling of wear to the drill 18 in the drilling process them period of 14 wells. In accordance with a variant implementation, illustrated in Fig. 5, the period of 14 wells formed by drilling holes 18, extends from the earth's surface through the layer of solids 74 and extends below this layer of solids 74.

Using known methods of measurement while drilling and other well-known technology can be defined for the current data type data 50 for a period of 14 wells, as shown by line 68. Because these data are current in nature, in the future they will be called "data in real time". These data in real time is converted into corresponding electrical signals, typed into the computer 36, as shown by line 90. Based on computer can generate electrical signals real effort interval and the corresponding electrical signals of the interval period for each interval, patent brown 18. Moreover, the computer may joint to process the electrical signals of the real efforts of the interval and the electrical signals of the interval period for the drill 18 to form a corresponding electrical signal to scope of work interval for each interval covered holes 18, and the periodic operation of integration for these electrical signals scope of work interval. The latter, in turn, allows you to generate an electrical signal the actual volume of work that corresponds to the amount of work that was performed at the moment brown 68. Then, using electric signals corresponding dependence of the calculated volume 66 works, the computer may convert the electrical signal of the current scope of work in the electrical signal current wear, indicating the deterioration index used borax, i.e., borax 18.

Such basic steps should be performed even if there was absolute confidence that the auger 68 is not actually passes the layer of solids 54 or other abrasive layers of rock. When an electrical signal current wear reaches the por is to maintain the scope of work for a specific drill with specified size and design, provides the preferred way conclusion borax 68 of the operation.

Because the hole 70 is located in the immediate vicinity of the wells 52 and, therefore, it is logical to assume that the drill 68 currently takes place in the process of drilling a layer of solids 54, provided for processing an electrical signal abrasion generated by the block 48, with the purpose of correcting the electrical signal current wear generated by the block 74, as it was explained in detail in the cited above example, associated with the accounting of abrasion.

And again, as before, can be a very useful exercise for used drill 18 control over the appearance of excessive vibration. When registering such excessive vibration should be formed, as mentioned above, the corresponding electrical signal maximum effort for each interval, which have such excessive vibration. And again, as before, it is necessary to define the minimum level corresponding to the maximum force required to pass the rocks with a certain measure of strength, on each interval, and the first such electrical signal maximum effort with a corresponding electrical signal to a maximum level in order to conduct an analysis of the likely wear and tear, exceeding the largest value corresponding to the electrical signal current wear. According to the results of such comparisons may be taken appropriate measures to remedy the situation. So, for example, may be a reduced level of labour productivity, i.e. the load on the drill and/or speed of rotation.

In any case, an electrical signal 92 current wear 92 is shown the preferred manner in convenient visual registration form, as shown by position 94.

The above example illustrates a method of simulating wear in real time. It should be remembered that the model to predict the wear could be used at the preliminary stage, the latter based on the use of similar methodology for the electronic processing of the electrical signals, but in terms of the assumption that the lithological structure, which will be drilled using the drill 18 is identical lithological structure, which was drilled using a drill 76. In the future, the aforementioned correction values of the load on the drill and its speed of rotation, designed to take into account the degree of wear of the drill, could actualname variants of implementation of the present invention provides the creation of a model prior forecasting, however, at the same time provides and implementation of the simulation of wear in real time in order to ensure that changes and/or corrections to the preliminary model prediction, and an appropriate correction values for the load on the drill and the speed of its rotation.

For specialists in the art it is obvious that in the described implementation examples of the present invention can be made of numerous changes and modifications. In this regard, it should be considered that the scope of the present invention is limited only following his claims.

1. The method of regulating drilling conditions affecting the operation mode specified borax containing the following: analysis of the compressive strength of geological formations in the interval of the well designed for drilling holes, conducting, collaborative way, analysis of the degree of wear of critical structures borax having a size and structure similar to the size and design patterns specified borax, and critical structure previously used for drilling material having approximately the same index of compressive strength, Thu is rmacie, and relevant data drilling worn for critical structures borax, determining the results of the analysis of the degree of wear of critical structures of a drill and appropriate drill data can be worn for critical structures borax appropriate measure of the compressive strength of a maximum level of performance above which leads, quite likely, to undesirable wear of the drill, and regulation of drilling conditions under which operated the specified drill, to maintain the required level of operating performance that does not exceed the maximum level of performance.

2. The method according to p. 1, which provides for analysis of the degree of wear of many of these critical structures of a drill and appropriate drill data for the relevant worn critical structures borax, the results of which are forming sequence of the first type of correlated pairs of electrical signals, and two electrical signal in each pair correspond to the wear rate and labor productivity, respectively, for the corresponding one of the critical structures borax, and the marginal level of performance OO least one of the critical structures borax presents a single part borax with size and design, the same size and design details, used in a given storm, and subjected to the analysis of the degree of wear in the laboratory.

4. The method according to p. 2, in which at least one of the critical structures borax wide brown having a size and structure similar to the size and design of a given drill, and subject to wear and tear as stated above during operation of the drill used for drilling.

5. The method according to p. 2, where drilling conditions are governed by the above manner to maintain the required level of operating performance for less, but, in the first approximation, as close as practicable, to the maximum level of performance.

6. The method according to p. 2, in which drilling conditions include conditions impact on the operation mode specified borax, vibration borax result of the forces transmitted brown to geological formations and changing in magnitude at small intervals of between wells, and exposure conditions are governed by the above manner, taking into account the maximum values of re is I the rotation speed and the load on the drill.

8. The method according to p. 7, additionally providing for the formation sequence of the second type of correlated pairs of electrical signals, and the corresponding electrical signals in each pair correspond to the magnitude of the rotation speed and the load on the drill, respectively, and the values of rotational speed and load on the drill for each pair theoretically result in the conversion, to the magnitude of the performance corresponding to the ultimate level of performance, and the drill operated at the rotation speed and the load on the drill, the corresponding one of the pairs of electrical signals of the sequence of the second type.

9. The method according to p. 8, further providing for the definition of the threshold level of performance limit speed, the exceeding of which leads, quite likely, very unfavorable characteristics offset borax and operation Bura above, when the rotation speed lower limit speed.

10. The method according to p. 9, further providing for the definition of the threshold level of performance of the threshold level of load on the drill, exceeding the operation of the drill above, when the load on the drill, a lower limit level of the load on the drill.

11. The method according to p. 10, further containing the following: the definition for the ultimate performance level boundary values of the rotation speed, the largest not exceeding the limit level speed, and exceeding this boundary values of the rotation speed leads, very likely, to undesirable characteristics offset Bura, the definition for the ultimate performance level boundary values of the load on the drill, the largest not exceeding the limit load level on the drill, and the excess of this threshold value for the load on the drill results, very likely, to undesirable characteristics offset borax, and operation as stated above drill with speed, largest not exceeding the limit value of the rotation speed and the load on the drill, the largest not exceeding a limit value of the load on the drill.

12. The method according to p. 11, additionally providing for the operation of the above image borax with such speed and load on the auger, which in size corresponds, in the first approximation, as close as it is suitable is the combination of speed and load on the drill, in which the maximum depth of cut, and the operation of the drill when the load on the drill, the value is close or equal to the smaller of the two values of load on the drill corresponding to the maximum depth of cut or the boundary value of the load on the drill.

14. The method according to p. 10, further containing the following: the definition for the ultimate performance level boundary values of the rotation speed, the largest not exceeding the maximum level of speed, thus exceeding this boundary values of the rotation speed leads, very likely, to the emergence of undesirable characteristics offset Bura, the definition for the ultimate performance level boundary values of the load on the drill, the largest not exceeding the limit load level on the drill, the excess of this threshold value for the load on the drill results, very likely, to the emergence of undesirable characteristics offset borax, the definition for the ultimate performance level the load on the drill, which provides a maximum cutting depth of the drill, and the operation of the above image borax at speed, largest, not privyshayuschih load values Bur, the corresponding boundary value of the load on the drill or the value of the load on the drill, which provides a maximum cutting depth.

15. The method according to p. 8, further providing for the definition of the threshold level of performance of the threshold level of load on the drill, the exceeding of which leads, quite likely, very unfavorable characteristics offset borax, as well as the operation of the above image borax in terms of load on the drill, the largest not exceeding the limit load level on the drill.

16. The method according to p. 8, additionally providing for the formation of the above image of the set of all sequences of the second type of electrical signals, each of which corresponds to different degrees of wear, and periodic increases in the load on the drill as you wear borax with regard to the appropriate sequence of the second type.

17. The method according to p. 16, further providing for changing the speed of rotation of the drill when the increase in the above manner, the load on the drill.

18. The method according to p. 17, further providing for measurement or simulation of wear borax in real time.

19. FPIC layers of geological formations, having different strength in compression, the method further comprises the following operations: forming the above image corresponding sequences of electrical signals of the first and of the second type for each such measure compressive strength, control of the process of passing through drilling drill through the geologic formation, and the periodic change of the mode of operation of the drill with the appropriate sequence of electrical signals corresponding to the measure of the strength of the compression layer of the geological formations, which at the moment is passed through drill holes.

20. The method according to p. 1, in which the above-mentioned compressive strength is analyzed as stated above by simulating in real time while drilling the interval of the borehole using a drill.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the field of drilling oil and gas wells and allows monitoring of the drilling process using performance analysis borax specified size and design

The invention relates to a feed control machine for drilling rocks

The invention relates to a feed control machine for drilling rocks

Drilling rig // 2170324
The invention relates to the field of drilling, namely, devices for regulating the axial load on the drilling tool during the drilling process

Downhole tool // 2153057
The invention relates to the field of drilling and represents the downhole tool to an axial load to the elongated body located in the trunk of a borehole formed in a subterranean formation comprises at least one set with the possibility of rotation of the body with many cushions, is able to move radially to the wall of the barrel bore hole when the selected contact force between the roller and the wall of the barrel bore hole

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The invention relates to the production of oil and gas, and is intended for drilling directional wells where drilling is performed using downhole motors: turbodrills or screw

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: system includes mathematical model of drilling process in form of combined influence of conditions at pit-face and of drilling column operation. Model of drilling process is constantly renewed by results of well measurements performed during drilling operation. On basis of renewed drilling process model a set of optimal drilling parameters is determined and sent to system for controlling surface equipment. Also, system allows surface equipment control system to automatically adjust current control sets for surface equipment on basis of renewed optimal drilling parameters. Different control scenarios are generated and executed for transferring data to surface equipment control system on basis of current drilling mode.

EFFECT: optimized operation.

2 cl, 7 dwg

Drilling plant // 2250342

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has base moving carriage with frame, driving actuators, volumetric hydraulic drive with pumps and driving engines for actuators of left and right boards and stopping brakes with mechanism for controlling these, and also of, mounted on frame of moving carriage via manipulator, feeder frame with rotation gears and traction of drilling base along well axis with hydraulic engines of drives of these mechanisms, while hydraulic rotation engines of drilling base and its feeding gear during drilling are connected to pumps of right and left board instead of actuator drives hydraulic engines, via two-positional holders, which are controlled together with stopping brakes. If brakes are made with braking hydraulic cylinders and control holder for these, two-positional holders are made with hydraulic control, and inputs into chambers for control thereof are connected by mains to input into braking cylinders of stopping brakes. To combine possibilities of drilling vertical and/or horizontal well suspension gear is made in form of four-assembly device, on joints, with hydraulic cylinder for slanting feeder frame, which device is supported by means of transverse beam. To provide for possible drilling at corners of rectangular pit, feeder frame is fixed in intermediate guide of support gear with possible longitudinal displacement, and transverse beam of suspension gear is made symmetrical relatively to longitudinal symmetry plane of carriage.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: well drilling equipment, particularly for laying pipelines and for trenchless engineering system forming.

SUBSTANCE: system includes several hydraulic monitors, planetary reducers of rotator and control unit. Each hydraulic monitor is provided with fixed sliding unit located between hydraulic monitor and planetary reducer of drivers providing rotary and reciprocating movement and made as three flanges. The main flange is secured to planetary reducer, upper and lower ones are connected one to another and installed on hydraulic monitor body. Joint between the flanges is provided with sealing member. The main flange has parallel levers on which hydraulic cylinders connected with pressure-gauges are mounted. Hydraulic cylinder rods are connected with stop screws of upper flange lever. Two hydraulic cylinders and two pressure-gauges are installed on each hydraulic monitor. Pressure-gauge scales are recalibrated to index of torque developed by hydraulic monitor and are installed on gauge board located on drilling rig slider. Two regulating throttles are installed on liquid feed lines, which supply each monitor with working liquid.

EFFECT: possibility to determine power to synchronize operation of several hydraulic monitors.

7 dwg

FIELD: oil production industry, particularly for applying pressure to chisel providing with downhole motor.

SUBSTANCE: method involves installing acoustic noise transducer above downhole motor; converting downhole motor noise into ultrasound so that ultrasound have action on friction reduction between drill string and bottomhole motor and well walls to apply following effective pressure to chisel in accordance with geological-technical order.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of deviating and horizontal well drilling.

1 ex, 4 dwg

Well drilling rig // 2265121

FIELD: mining industry, particularly for drilling exploratory and pressure-relief wells before mineral extraction from formations, including outburst-dangerous formations and ones characterized with high gas content.

SUBSTANCE: drilling rig comprises housing, support, drive to rotate drilling rod provided with cutting tool and hydraulic cylinder for cutting tool pulldown. Electrohydraulic valve is installed in hydraulic cylinder circuit. Electric drive of electrohydraulic valve is linked with load-sensing unit, which detects load applied to drilling rod rotation drive. The electric drive is connected to load-sensing unit through amplifier relay to provide bringing amplifier relay into operation when load applied to rotation drive exceeds nominal load by 20-30%. Cutting tool is made as symmetric screw conveying surfaces defining forward and reverse strokes connected one with another through generatrix. Side cutting edges of surfaces defining forward and reverse strokes are spaced apart.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability along with reduced power inputs for drilling, possibility to remove rod from well with negligible deviation thereof from predetermined direction of drilling.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: borehole drilling, particularly to control drilling machine rod rotation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing drilling machine rod rotation frequency with the use of microprocessor-controlled servomotor on the base of signals received from rotational velocity and feed rate sensors. Above control is performed in two stages. At the first stage cutter rotation frequency is smoothly changed from 50 rpm to 700 rpm and optimal rotation frequency value corresponding to maximal drilling speed is determined with the use of microprocessor, which controls the servomotor. At the second stage optimal cutter rotation speed is set by microprocessor-operated servomotor.

EFFECT: increased reliability and accuracy of drilling machine rod rotation control.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment engineering, possible use for measuring flow and properties of solutions, in particular, in oil-gas extractive industry for controlling flow and properties of drilling and cementing agent during drilling of wells and their cementing.

SUBSTANCE: system contains indicators of pressure and temperature, device for measuring density of solution, device for measuring conductivity of solution, computing device, information display. Indicators of pressure and temperature, device for measuring solution density, solution conductivity meter and computing device are positioned in compact manner within one measuring module, installed in main pipeline; measuring module contains additionally device for measuring pressure drop on narrowing device, solution density meter is made in form of two-probe gamma density meter with low-background source of gamma-radiation, computing device provides, in accordance to given algorithm, for determining and computation of volumetric flow of solution, of mass flow of solution, of solution density, of electric conductivity or mineralization of solution, of solution temperature, of system pressure, content of solid phase in solution, well hydraulic losses coefficient; measuring module via information cable is connected to information display for controlling the process of drilling or cementing.

EFFECT: increased parameters being measured, increased reliability of system operation and decreased costs of same.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment, possible use for measuring volume, density and temperature of liquids in reservoirs connected to atmosphere in oil and gas extractive industry and prospecting for controlling volume, density and temperature of washing liquid in receiving and topping up vessels of drilling plants during drilling of wells.

SUBSTANCE: system contains at least two measuring modules, each one of which is represented by a structure, consisting of two coaxially positioned pipes, connected in upper section to hermetic section, in which devices for measuring level, pressure and temperature of washing liquid are positioned, electronics block, measuring modules are provided with overhanging supports for mounting in vessels and are connected by information cables to information display of driller.

EFFECT: increased precision of parameters being determined, and also increased reliability of system operation and decreased complexity of maintenance due to simplification of construction.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: automatic control systems specially adapted for well drilling operations used for drilling and operation of wells, blast-holes and for other procedures.

SUBSTANCE: recorder comprises body with electronic unit and power supply unit arranged in the body. Electronic unit includes microprocessor with executive program, x and y plane accelerometer, nonvolatile memory microcircuit, calendar time timing means, temperature sensor and data input-output port, which provides data output and input in computer with the use of communication interface. Microprocessor output is connected to the first input of nonvolatile memory microcircuit. X and y plane accelerometer is linked to the first microprocessor input, calendar time timing means is communicated with the second microprocessor input and temperature sensor output is connected to the third microprocessor input. Temperature sensor input is connected to power supply unit. Input and output of data input-output port are linked to microprocessor. Input of data input-output port is connected to power supply unit. Calendar time timing means input, the forth microprocessor input and accelerometer input are linked to the second nonvolatile memory microcircuit input.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and information content due to recording of new parameters, hydraulic downhole motor rotation speed, vertical tool vibration, temperature measurement and data binding to calendar time with high accuracy and decreased size.

2 dwg

FIELD: well drilling, particularly drilling of slightly inclined wells along with current well coordinate measurement.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining axial load applied to bit, bit rotation speed, drilling mud supply rate and current hole bottom coordinates, namely zenith, apsidal and azimuth angles; measuring natural gamma radiation of rock to be drilled and longitudinal drilling string vibration by means of sensors included in downhole instrument of telemetering system provided with communication channel to communicate hole bottom with day surface; determining lithologically uniform drillable rock bound and longitudinal drilling string vibration corresponding to them; comparing obtained values of actual longitudinal bit vibrations with that obtained from estimated dependence and if above values differ drilling operation is terminated and bit is lifted for inspection thereof.

EFFECT: increased time of bit presence in well bottom.

1 ex, 2 dwg

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