Sterilization method non-dairy food product having a ph of 4.6 or higher
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a method of sterilization of foods with low acidity, utilizing a combination of high pressure and high temperature. Instant temperature change that occurs due to the applied pressure, combines high-temperature short-time process high pressure, providing fast and so gentle heat treatment pre-packaged product. The method involves heating foods with low acidity to the temperature of the initial pressure, the influence of high pressure on the product in which the product instantly increases the temperature. Then the pressure drop so that the achieved temperature is returned to an initial temperature initial pressure. The invention improves the efficiency of sterilization. 10 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill., 7 table. The invention relates to a method of sterilizing food by a combination of high pressure and high temperature. In particular, the present invention relates to the use of synergies between the corresponding adiabatic increase of the temperature to which the institutional capacity of the pressure, to meet the conditions of sterilization.Theoretically, the processing of certain foods, using sterilization or ultra high pressure (UHP), known since the beginning of this century, when it was investigated hydrostatic pressure in excess of 100,000 psi (about 690 MPa) at ambient temperature, and found that it kills vegetative bacteria. This process involves sealing material (in this case food) at ultrahigh pressures from 50000 to 150000 (from about 345 to 1035 MPa) psi and above. This method is very effective for the destruction of vegetative bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Such processing is uniform throughout the product and more rapid in its ability to inactivate microorganisms than conventional methods periodic sterilization, which is slowly heated the corresponding food product. UHP-processing is often referred to as the so-called method of "weak heat" or "cold pasteurization. In the literature it is considered that the UHP treatment is not very effective for the destruction of bacterial spores or denaturing of enzymes, which first of all must be destroyed according to the ptx2">The increasing interest in recent times high-quality food led the food industry to UHP treatment, as is common practice provides only low-temperature pasteurization of foods with low acidity and commercial sterilization of foods with high acidity. The advantage of UHP over conventional thermal processing is, theoretically, increase retention and without significant prejudice to the relevant nutritional characteristics, flavor and color quality of this food. Chemical modification/degradation that occur as a result of thermal processing are possible, and this method seems theoretically more economical consumption of energy.The Japanese were the first in the commercialization of UHP in 1990, when MEIDI-YA introduced canning jam for retail sale. Currently on the Japanese market, you can find several products with high acidity, processed UHP, including fruit, yoghurt, jams, jellies and fruit juices.Inactivation of bacteria ultrahigh pressure not fully explained. It is believed that the germs are destroyed due to changes Prony is by rupture of hydrophobic linkages, ionic bonds and the subsequent unfolding of the protein structure. In contrast, thermal denaturation of the protein and, to a considerable extent, microbial inactivation due to certain destruction and creation of covalent bonds. It is now obvious that the UHP-the method is only effective in inactivating vegetative bacteria, yeasts and moulds.For this reason, commercial processing are limited to the sterilization of foods high in acidity or pasteurization of foods with low acidity. Pasteurization of food with low acidity involves heating the corresponding product to 60-100oC and is only effective for inactivation of not spore-forming pathogens. This method of sterilization is particularly demanding, because the time needed to complete heating of the relevant product, in particular the core part of this product, when heat treated above the 100oC. That is, the time in the medullary part of this product is achieved corresponding to the desired peak temperature processing, within a certain specified time, the outer parts , the particularly in packaging (which serves as a fence this product is undesirable, since the lengthening of the time of heat treatment often affects the relevant characteristics of this product.The following links and references, which are further, each of which is incorporated herein by reference, disclose prior art.Japanese patent 2257864 (Ajinomoto) describes the sterilization of bacterial spores by pressure. This publication describes the sterilization of bacterial spores under pressure during the processing of a food product during 5 are 300 minutes at 30-100oC under a pressure of from about 70 to 700 psi (0.5 to 5 MPa).Japanese patent 3183450 (Dainippon Printing) describes the cooking cut vegetables, implying stage of pasteurization of the relevant product by applying pressure of at least 70 psi (0.5 MPa).Australian Patent 425072 (Donald) describes the sterilization of food compositions. This method provides for a given increase in pressure of the preheated product, the steam injection box in a sealed chamber to allow this couple to condense this product, raising the temperature of this composition, the second pressure, that the steam was condensed in the water, giving its latent heat in the processing composition, and gradually lower the achieved pressure, causing boiling of this condensed water, simaudio its latent heat and thus cool it.Although in the past used sterilization, high pressure processing of foods high in acidity, in the prior art are not described sterilization products with high acidity ultra-high pressure. It would be desirable to develop a method of processing food products to the level of commercial sterility without the appropriate food product of thermal degradation.The present invention is to overcome the above problems of the prior art.The next task of the invention is to provide a method of sterilization of foods with low acidity, using ultra-high pressure.Another objective of the present invention is to provide a method of sterilizing products with low acidity, using ultra-high pressure and high temperature.An additional object of the present invention is to develop SS="ptx2">Another objective of the present invention is to provide a method for implementing specific planned level of lethality that uses a particular instant increase in adiabatic temperature.Another objective of the present invention to provide a commercially sterile food product processed by these methods.These and other objectives and advantages of the invention will be explained in the following detailed description, containing the data of the tests and examples.A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE SUBSTANCE OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method of sterilizing food products with low acidity, utilizing a combination of high pressure and high temperature. The specified instantaneous change in adiabatic temperature that occurs when food composition pressure, combines high-temperature short-time processing of ultra-high pressure, to obtain a rapid and so gentle heat treatment pre-packaged product.The corresponding destruction of microorganisms refers to the destruction of life at the level of the respective single cells (P). One of the specific microorganism that is targeted by the methods of thermal sterilization is Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum in any product is not damaged as long as it can develop from spores in the vegetative form, producing botulinum toxin. Growth depends on the respective food product that meets the nutrient needs of these organisms. However, this growth also depends on other factors (see Food Born Diseases, edited by Dean Cliver, pages 116-120 and Basic Food Microbiology, second edition, by George Banwart, pages 219-239).The present invention provides a commercial sterility foods with low acidity, i.e. inactivates all disputes, able to grow in conditions of long-term storage. The present invention results in the death of 10+log spores (kills 1010dispute or more). The products obtained by the method according to the invention appear more fresh compared to the sterilized normal heating products, because these products are processed in accordance with the present invention, is subjected to high temperatures for only short periods of time. Because now eliminated the long, high-temperature oppo invention with thermally processed products, because now temperaturescale additives can be used more easily.One variant of the invention provides for heating of the food product to a temperature initial pressure, effects on the food product of ultra-high pressure, which instantly raises the temperature and o adiabatically and then dropping ultra high-pressure to ultrahigh temperature has returned to an initial temperature initial pressure. This technique controls the adiabatic increase in temperature, which occurs when the food material is subjected to hydrostatic pressure, in combination with the lethality of this pressure to achieve adequate sterilization conditions. In this way reach 10+log spore destruction (on test data) mesophilic, anaerobic and thermophilic spores (B. subtilis C. sporogenes u B. stearotermophilus) a combination of pressure and elevated temperatures.The technology described here provides a new way of sterilization and processing technology food, especially canned foods with low acidity, which seems to be faster, more energy efficient and less harmful is a mini heat treatment and autoclaving).The present invention offers several advantages over the current technology of sterilization. The first advantage is the ability to sterilize foods with low pH with high efficiency. The duration of the manufacturing process is substantially reduced by eliminating the traditional increase the pressure (30-35 psi) heating stage, holding and cooling at the end of the cycle. In accordance with the method of the present invention, for example, any product can be quickly heated by conventional UHT equipment to 80-99oC, Packed, loaded in packetization chamber filled with pre-heated environment, raise the pressure to 50000-150000 psi (about 345-1035 MPa), preferably 70000-130000 psi (about 483-896 MPa), relieve pressure, and then transferred to the cooling capacity for cooling this product with 80-99oC to ambient conditions.Sterilization conditions according to the invention are achieved with reduced peak temperatures and at much shorter time intervals-keeping, because the combination of high pressure and temperature acts synergistically with regard to mortality, in this technological prinosti this combination. In addition, the reactions of thermal decomposition that occur in traditionally sterilized pre-Packed products, significantly reduced due to the short duration of thermal treatment in the range of high temperatures. This reduces the loss of vitamins, degrades dimichele and opens the possibility of utilization of thermally sensitive, natural additives and pigments. The deterioration smell and taste the flavors of thermal origin, the destruction of systems of gelation and viscosity also significantly reduced. An additional advantage is the reduction of heat and energy needs and consumption of water for cooling. Besides enzymes, which could cause deterioration of the product, denature and therefore inactivated.This technological process in accordance with the present invention similar to high temperature, short time process but relies on a more complex conditions aseptic packaging to maintain sterility of the product. Processes at high temperatures, short on time, appropriate food product is heated to high temperatures of the order of 250oF (121o
Fig. 1 is a graph of the time - temperature - pressure one of the variants of the process of high pressure in accordance with the present invention, in which this left vertical axis represents the temperature, this right vertical axis represents the pressure and the horizontal axis represents time,
Fig. 2 is a graph of the time - temperature - pressure the next variant of the process of high pressure in accordance with the present invention, in which this left vertical axis represents the temperature, this right vertical axis represents the pressure and the horizontal axis represents time,
Fig. 3 is a graph of the time - temperature - pressure of another version of the process of high pressure in accordance with present ecstasy pressure, the horizontal axis represents time,
Fig. 4 is a graph of the time - temperature - pressure another variant of the process of high pressure in accordance with the present invention, in which this left vertical axis represents the temperature, the right vertical axis represents the pressure and the horizontal axis represents time,
Fig. 5 is a graph of the time - temperature - pressure of another version of the process of high pressure in accordance with the present invention, in which this left vertical axis represents the temperature, the right vertical axis represents the pressure and the horizontal axis represents time,
Fig. 6 is a graph of the time - temperature - pressure the last variant of the process of high pressure in accordance with the present invention, in which this left vertical axis represents the temperature, the right vertical axis represents the pressure and the horizontal axis represents time.Refer first to Fig. 1, illustrating the relationship of time - temperature - the people, the horizontal axis represents time. This temperature during processing the product shown in the form of a curve. This pressure is shown as a hatched area. This temperature initial pressure was about 85oC, and the maximum pressure was of 90,000 psi (620 MPa) applied for about one minute.Fig. 2 provides a graph of the corresponding UHP-process Series In example 4, where the temperature initial pressure was 85oC and the pressure was of 90,000 psi (620 MPa) applied for about five minutes. Fig. 3 is a graphic image corresponding UHP-process Series C in example 4, where the temperature initial pressure was 85oC and the pressure was of 90,000 psi (620 MPa) applied for 30 minutes. Fig. 4 provides a graphical representation of the corresponding UHP-process Series D in example 4, where the temperature initial pressure was 98oC and the pressure was of 90,000 psi (620 MPa) applied for about one minute. Fig. 5 is a graphic image corresponding UHP-process E-Series according to example 4, where the temperature initial pressure was 98ooC and the pressure was of 90,000 psi (620 MPa) applied for thirty minutes.Example 1
Fifty grams of the emulsion of raw meat were individually weighed at each of the four packages (thermoerosion plastic bags) for each evaluation pre/main UHP treatment. Used temperature initial pressure up to 80oC or higher, and the pressure levels up to 120,000 psi (827 MPa) and more. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different additives, such as surfactants, nutrigold and chelating agents (adtc). Striped with sporos Bacillus subtilis were individually placed in every two packets per preliminary/primary treatment before sealing to determine sporicidal activity. All packages were kept on ice for 24 hours before processing.After processing, all samples were kept in refrigerator (4oC). Appropriate packages containing the spore strips were analyzed for total counts of aerobes and anaerobes, total number of aerobic and anaerobic spores fecal Streptococci, yeast/fungi, and Clostridia B. subtilis. Suitable for:
There was obtained a reduction in the number of microbes order 3-7 log units per gram. Pascalcase (pressure treatment) was effective for inaktivirovanie vegetative organisms, yeast and moulds. Microbial spores inaktivirovanie not fully established conditions. Anaerobic spores were more resistant to packetization than aerobic. The degree of spore inactivation was increased when the temperature of the pre-treatment of the sample is raised above 80oC. in Addition, higher pressure levels of the order of 120,000 psi (827 MPa) increased appropriate sporicidal activity due to the increase of the adiabatic temperature. The use of carbon dioxide, vacuum or nitrogen had no effect on the process lethality. Besides, it was found that the supplements had no antagonistic effect on the process lethality.Example 2
Estimated thirty-seven variants of the experience. For testing used environmental control system for dispute contained in phosphate buffer. This made it possible respectively to evaluate the influence of treatment conditions on these disputes are not associated with any variability with regard to the influence of other substances. It includes megascopic the clusters) to increase the pressure effect. Various processing options included (a) pressure from 100 Kpsi (689 MPa) and temperature initial pressure at 100oC for 1 minute, (b) multistage creating high pressure using pressure 7500 (52 MPa) and 60,000 (414 MPa) (with subsequent 10-minute exposure to each of the pressure) and (C) pressure from 120 Kpsi (827 MPa) temperature initial pressure 80oC for 1 minute. Three individual package containing 1 spore of B. subtilis on each strip was subjected to a separate process (the process varied and/or added chemicals). After processing these packets were stored in the refrigerator until analysis on the survival of spores. Two of the 3 packages for each treatment were individually cultured for sterility by aseptic transfer of the respective strips in a sterile 10-ml volumes of trypticase O-soy broth (DifcoThese cultures were incubated at 35oC for 7 days and evaluated for signs of growth. Bar with no growth meant sterility.The remaining third strip was used to determine the level of survival of spores. This strip and package contents are thoroughly mixed and diluted using saline solution. Pollpri 35oC for 72 hours. The appropriate number of colony forming units per milliliter was determined by counting the corresponding colonies on each plate and used was multiplied by the dilution factor.Conclusions:
Pressure 100 Kpsi (689 MPa) and the maximum temperature 100oC for 1 minute was not enough to inactivate 6 logs of spores of B. subtilis. Total spore inactivation was achieved, however, by keeping the B. subtilis spores at a pressure of 120 Kpsi (827 MPa) and temperature initial pressure 80oC and above for 1 minute. Adding sodium bicarbonate (2%), propionic acid (1%) or sodium chloride (5% or more) defended disputes from inactivation and reduced processing efficiency.Multistage pressure increase using pressure 7500 (52 MPa) and 60,000 psi (414 MPa) did not ensure inactivation of 6 log spores of B. subtilis. The survival of these spores was observed during the subsequent 10-minute dwell time at each pressure.Increased sporicidal activity was observed in the corresponding environmental system (example 2) compared with the environment in which they emulsiable meat (example 1). It can be assumed that the fat, protein and other substances protect the spores from inactivation at high isostatic who weighed in thermoerosion plastic bags with subsequent inoculation of the mixed spore culture (Clostridium sporogenes. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus). Group raw pinakamaraming the same meat served as a control. The operation of insulinopenia was repeated using pre-sterilized material. All packets after inoculation was thermoerosional, and then kept on ice until packetization.Before masculinities at 90 Kpsi (620 MPa) these samples and the camera for processing previously brought to temperatures of 75, 85 or 95oC. Three samples from both groups - the raw and pre-sterilized, was evaluated by process conditions. Appropriate samples kept at each combination of temperature/pressure for up to 30 minutes. After packetization these samples were stored on ice until you determine the survival of microorganisms. However, visual inspection of thermal adhesions showed that they are violated in the course of treatment and do not retain the hermetic integrity. Insufficient spike was also found in the analysis of germination, where he observed the growth of bacteria; however, the lack of inoculated spores were measured (within the sensitivity of this test for the same variables. Therefore, it must be assumed that the germination was associated with the subsequent process for the data, anaerobic and thermophilic spores. The remaining sample in the group/the way incubated at 37oC for 7 days, and then analyzed for commercial sterility.Conclusions:
The results showed the level of spore contamination 6 log on packaging, which is slightly below the planned level 13 log. This level of spore contamination presents an appropriate amount of the dispute, which was inoculable the corresponding sample. Lack of infecting spores because of the incomplete germination of spores by the time of sampling.The investigated parameters of the experience provided a 5 log reduction in spore populations for all inoculated organisms. The results obtained in the testing of commercial sterility indicate that contamination occurs after processing. However, it appears that the process up to 1 minute at 85oC (temperature pre-treatment) provide a 6 log reduction for these 3 inoculated organisms.Example 4
Thirty grams of raw, emulsified meat were individually weighed in plastic thermoerosion packages after inoculation of the mixed culture of spores (Clostridium sporogenes. Bacillus subtilis is repeated using a pre-sterilized material. All packages were thermoerosional after inoculation, and then kept on ice until packetization.Before masculinities at 90 Kpsi (620 MPa) these samples and the camera for processing previously brought to a temperature of 85oC or 98oC. Three samples from both groups, raw and pre-sterilized, was assessed by the treatment conditions. These samples kept at each combination of temperature/pressure for up to 30 minutes. After packetization, these samples were kept on ice to assess the survival of microorganisms.Table 1-6 give the appropriate processing conditions for test groups A-F of example 4.Fig.1-6 illustrate the relationship of the time - temperature - pressure UHP processing for each of the Groups A-F of example 4.Two samples from each group/method analyzed for total presence of aerobic, anaerobic and thermophilic spores. The remaining sample on the group/the way incubated at 37oC for 7 days, and then analyzed for commercial sterility.Conclusions:
The results (table. 7) clearly show the level of spore contamination log106,3-10,2 on the package, below the planned level 13 log.In table. 7 EN 13 log inoculation pre-sterilized product, which was not subjected to pressure (zero pressure for zero time). C2 (sample 0-85-SI) was the same as C1, except that this sample was subjected to the action of ultra high pressure for zero minutes, that is instantly increased pressure and subsequent discharge. C3 (sample 0-0-EN) is a raw (not sterilized) nemnogolyudny the sample which was subjected to increased pressure. C4 (sample 0-85-EN) is a raw nemnogolyudny sample, which was subjected to an instantaneous increase in pressure and temperature, the initial pressure 85oC. C5 (sample 0-0-R1) represents untreated inoculated sample not subjected to increased pressure.C1, C3 and C5 demonstrate an appropriate level of dispute, which was received without UHP treatment. C2 and C4 show that the instantaneous application of high pressure is insufficient to inactivate the corresponding number of spores to achieve sterility.Some of the assessments of the conditions of experience provide a reduction to 10+log (sensitivity of experience) in the spore population. Commercial sterility was obtained by treatment of the corresponding oblati were confirmed by incubation which showed no future dispute after this processing.Example 5
Received calibrated spore suspension containing from 107up to 1013spores per milliliter. 1 ml volume of one of the calibrated suspensions were individually added to 10 ml of broth with phenol red added 1% dextrose and was thermally sealed. This operation is repeated until then, until he had 3 test package for each spore concentration/infecting organism (Clostridium sporogenes. Bacillus subtilis, or Bacillus stearothermophilus). All packages were kept on ice prior to determination.Two packages to infect the body/spore concentration of pre-treated temperature to 98oC, and then were exposed to 90 Kpsi (620 MPa) for up to 30 minutes. Just carried out a series of 5 experiments. After processing these samples were placed on ice before determining the survival of spores. Packages with B. subtilis were incubated aerobically at 35oC for 7 days. Packages containing the C. sporogenes were incubated anaerobically at 35oC for 7 days. Packages with B. stearothermophilus were incubated at 55oC for 7 days. All packets observed on the expression of bacterial growth, is proved by the yellow color BU is camping to some extent inconclusive, because this experience with packages were used for isolated spores exposed to the required temperature. Several packages were tested simultaneously, which was located in respective packages in contact with each other. Packages, surrounded by other packages were isolated and, therefore, they did not reach the temperature of the initial pressure. Additionally, the elements turned out to be faulty during this experience, so that the temperature measurements were determined inaccurately.Reduction of spores on 6-11 log observed depending on the conditions of the method of processing/determining the form of spores. The highest level of inactivation was observed when using temperature initial pressure 98oC and 30-minute exposure at 90 Kpsi (620 MPa). This led to a real reduction in the number of spores on the order of 9 logs (B. subtilis) to 11 logs (B. stearothermophilus).As shown in the above description and examples, the present invention is to a great extent applicable to the sterilization of a wide variety of foods. The present invention provides an effective method of sterilization of foods with low acidity, due to the reduction of the time of sterilization required ora occurs in traditionally sterilized products due to the shortened duration of thermal treatment in high temperature ranges.The relevant terms and expressions which have been used are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there was no intention to use such terms or expressions of excluding any equivalents of the illustrated signs described in the form of their parts, because it should take into account the possibility of various modifications within the scope of the present invention. 1. Sterilization method non-dairy food product having a pH of 4.6 or higher, providing stage:
a) heating non-dairy food product having a pH of 4.6 or higher, to a temperature above approximately 75oC and below 105oC, before sterilization,
b) the premises of non-dairy food product into the chamber pressure,
(C) exposure to non-dairy food product of ultra-high pressure, essentially in the range of 50000 psi (344,75 MPa) to 250,000 psi (1723,75 MPa) for a period of at least 1 min, during which high temperature and ultrahigh pressure cause instantaneous adiabatic temperature rise all over the dairy food etc is ment to return non-dairy food product to its temperature to increase the pressure,
e) cooling the non-dairy food product to the desired end temperature.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the non-dairy food product is subjected to ultra high pressure from 75000 psi (517,125 MPa) up to 150,000 psi (1034,25 MPa).3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the non-dairy food product is subjected to ultra-high pressure of 100,000 psi (689,5 MPa) to 125,000 psi (861,875 MPa).4. The method according to p. 1, wherein the non-dairy food product is heated to a temperature being between 80 and 95oC.5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the instantaneous adiabatic temperature rise leads to a peak temperature, which is essentially between 100 and 160oC.6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the instantaneous adiabatic temperature rise leads to a peak temperature, which is essentially between 120 and 140oC.7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the period during which high temperature and ultrahigh pressure cause instantaneous adiabatic temperature increase in all non-dairy food product, resulting in the destruction of 10+log a dispute with the attainment of commercial sterility is 5 minutes or more.9. The method according to p. 1, wherein the food product is pre-packaged prior to sterilization process.10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that the Packed food product is hermetically sealed.11. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the predefined level of mortality of microorganisms (F0) all non-dairy food product temperature is achieved without overheating and without excessive exposure of portions of non-dairy food product temperature.
FIELD: food-processing industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling the entire volume of working vessel with product without formation of air plugs; saturating product with gas or gaseous mixture while continuously creating pressure of from 0.5 to 6 MPa; providing holding for time interval of from 1 s to 60 min at temperature, which does not deteriorate biological value of product; relieving pressure to atmospheric pressure value for time interval of at least 1 s.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of microorganisms in liquid food products while keeping biological value of product, simplified disinfecting procedure and reduced consumption of energy.
FIELD: ecology; methods and installations for decontamination of liquids.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of ecology, in particular, to the method and the installation for decontamination of liquids. The method includes destruction of the cells of the micro-organisms present in the liquids by the decompression created by a by-pass of the liquid preliminary saturated by a gas from the container with the greater pressure into the container with the smaller pressure. The liquid subjected to decontamination is saturated by the air in the hermetic container under the excessive pressure of no less than 3 kg/cm2, keep the saturated liquid under this pressure for no less than 60 minutes. After that the saturated liquid is by-passed from the container of saturation into the container of desaturation connected with the air atmosphere through the openings with their diameter of 0.5-1.5 mm and the constant pressure fall on them of no less than 3 kg/cm2, for the purpose the air is continuously pumped through the by-pass openings into the container of saturation with the air volume of no less than the volumetric consumption of the liquid subjected to the decontamination. The installation for decontamination of the liquid contains the devices of the gas saturation and desaturation of the subjected to the decontamination liquid and the intracellular liquid of the present in them micro-organisms. The device of the gas saturation consists of the hermetic container of saturation equipped with the safety vent valve, the gas saturation reservoir uniformly distributed in its lower part and having the holes with a diameter of 0.05-0.1 mm, which cavity is connected by the pipeline with the source of the compressed gas through the controlled gate. The device of desaturation consists of the container connected with the atmosphere and equipped with the gas desaturation reservoir mounted in its upper part and having the holes with their diameter of 0.5-1.5 mm, the total passing cross area of which is less than the area of the passing cross-section of the feeding pipeline. At that the cavity of the gas desaturation reservoir is connected by the pipeline with the lower part of the container of the gas saturation through the controlled gate. The technical result of the invention is the improved quality of decontamination, reduction of the costs and time necessary for the liquids decontamination, improved protection of environments, elimination of introduction of toxicity into the decontaminated liquids, conservation of their useful properties and qualities.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality of decontamination, reduced the costs and time necessary for the liquids decontamination, improved protection of environments, elimination of the toxicity entry into the decontaminated liquids, conservation of their useful properties and qualities.
13 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: meat processing for meat tendering and controlling of bacteria therein.
SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing meat to shock wave spreading through non-compressible fluid; to do that, placing meat so that it adheres to first surface of drum-shaped diaphragm having acoustic resistance approximating that of non-compressible fluid, which adheres to second surface of drum-shaped diaphragm separating meat from non-compressible fluid; restricting displacement of meat when exposing it to shock wave penetrating through non-compressible fluid, then through drum-shaped diaphragm into meat; using shock wave generation chamber for keeping therein of non-compressible fluid having first acoustic resistance; using wave shock generation chamber in non-compressible fluid within said chamber; using drum-shaped diaphragm adhering to said chamber. Drum-shaped diaphragm has one surface adapted for contacting with non-compressible fluid when apparatus is in operating state. Drum-shaped diaphragm has opposite surface adapted for contacting with meat when apparatus is in operating position. Drum-shaped diaphragm has acoustic resistance approximating first acoustic resistance. Also, means for restricting excessive displacement of meat when the latter is exposed to shock wave is employed for performing said method.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and wider operational capabilities of method through employment thereof for meat tendering and bacteria controlling.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves thermal treatment of preliminary crushed plant raw material in a spouting bed. Thermal treatment is performed by thermal shock of preheated up to 200-250°C filtered air for 180 seconds.
EFFECT: proposed method allows qualitative disinfection with preservation of raw material healthful properties.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for treatment of liquid products by heating. Device comprises stator with cylindrical rotor installed in it to make gap. On external surface of rotor there is a set of cells arranged in rows along helical line. On internal surface of stator there are similar cells arranged along helical line as well, but with another pitch of cell rows. Stator vessel includes axisymmetric circular cavity that corresponds to rotor length and communicates with cellular working part of device through hole in zone of product heating up to pasteurisation temperature.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to provide for uniformity of load at rotor in process of its rotation and to increase efficiency of device.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method for a food product treatment under high pressure; the product includes a component with high moisture activity. The method involves the food product pressurisation under at least 200 MPa in a liquid mixed with water; the liquid has moisture activity which is no more than 0.98. The food product contains a component with low moisture activity which is less than 0.80 and a component with high moisture activity which is 0.80 - 0.99. The component with low moisture activity immediately contacts with the liquid and encloses the component with high moisture activity.
EFFECT: invention ensures a food product treatment under high pressure without detriment to the structure and appearance of the product.
10 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. According to the proposed method the products are preliminarily heated in dry atmosphere till a temperature is lower than the temperature of saturated vapour at the selected value of water vapour treatment pressure. Treatment with water vapour is performed in humid air tight atmosphere under a pressure within the range of 0.15 - 4.0 bars and at a temperature within the range of 55°C -144°C during 1-30 minutes. Condensate from the product surface is removed by way of subsequent vacuum drying under a pressure within the range of 0.15 - 0.01 bars during 2-20 minutes. The food products are represented by oil seeds, almond nuts, hazelnuts, pecan nuts, walnuts, peanuts, offal, grits, coffee, cocoa.
EFFECT: proposed invention allows to develop a method wherein water absorption and quality changes of the food products are minimised while heat treatment conditions are optimised.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for reduction of quantitative content of microorganisms in chocolate mass. The method involves the following stages: a) placement of chocolate mass and water into a container being sterilised, b) heating the chocolate mass and water (while stirring) till a preset temperature exceeding 100°C, c) creation of an excess pressure in the container for at least a part of the heating period, d) degasification and cooling of the container. According to the invention the method distinctiveness is as follows: e) after attaining the preset temperature but prior to d) stage the pressure is suddenly partly reduced so that the excess pressure remains in the container and then f) pressure is increased again to the level of the initial excess pressure.
EFFECT: invention ensures creation of a method with a help whereof one may reduce quantitative content of microorganisms in chocolate mass without additional expenditure on equipment.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fruit processing technology. The method envisages salak preparation, cutting, convective drying till intermediate moisture content, additional drying in microwave field till dry substances content is equal to no less than 85%, impregnation with liquid carbon dioxide with simultaneous pressure boost, depressurisation to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide subliming with simultaneous swelling of salak, the latter packing into package fabricated of a polymer or combined material in an oxygen-free medium.
EFFECT: method allows to reduce losses of biologically active substances of initial raw materials.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology for processing vegetables. The method envisages girasol preparation, cutting, convective drying till intermediate moisture content, additional drying in microwave field till dry substances content is equal to no less than 85%, impregnation with liquid carbon dioxide with simultaneous pressure boost, depressurisation to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide subliming with simultaneous swelling of girasol, the latter packing into package fabricated of a polymer or combined material in an oxygen-free medium.
EFFECT: method allows to reduce losses of biologically active substances of initial raw materials.