The method of attachment of the anchor in the array
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the construction and can be used in mining for fastening capital, preparation and treatment of mine workings as a means of combating swelling rocks, soils, consolidation of mining equipment, as well as to achieve similar goals in other industries, household, construction, etc. the Method includes mechanical jamming of the anchor. What's new is that use anchor consisting of a rod, lock, spacer elements, thermo-sensitive power element having a temperature in the pre-installation condition, different from the temperature of the array, and the rear stop and jamming, fixing and tensioning of the anchor in the array implement due to the deformation of thermosensitive elements of power. The technical result is to reduce the complexity and increase the reliability of the fastening of the anchor in the array. 2 Il. The invention can be used in mining for fastening capital, preparation and treatment of mine workings as a means of combating swelling rocks, soils, consolidation of mining equipment, as well as to achieve similar goals in other from the genera are artificial hardening and the array is formed of the carrying structure, similar composite beam, slab, arch or arch. Fix the rocks exposed in this case, mainly, compression, and shear perceive tensile forces.For securing mining is widely used so-called spacer bolting (e.g., AK-8, AD-1, AR-2 ), which is characterized by mechanical (castle) the fixing of the breeds that are triggered when a moving anchor that is installed in the borehole, the borehole, in the opposite direction. When this spacer cylinder lock (wedge or other) interacts with the coupling halves, pushing them in a radial direction to contact with the borehole wall. Final disposition is made by screwing the tensioning nut at the bottom of the anchor. The disadvantages of mounting stud anchors in the array is a need for additional tools (e.g., installation pipes) and additional costs of time and labor.From some of these shortcomings are free ways of fixing anchor, the castle is samosatenus action  (the prototype). This ability is implemented, for example, due to the special design of the coupling is the presence of troughs parallel narrowing (anchor t is Gino the coupling halves are shifted in the direction of the threaded part of the rod, based on the spring attached to the rod. By tightening the nuts are pre-tension in the anchor. When pipe installation is not applied. Unfortunately, this method of fixing the anchor does not preclude the expenditure of time and labor to create pre-tension, which, obviously, leads to the need for solving the problem of mechanization of this process, but, in addition, it does not provide sufficient reliability of fixation of the anchor in the future, over time, due to natural mass deformation or weakening due to mining operations.The objective of the invention is to reduce the complexity and increase the reliability of the fastening of the anchor in the array.To achieve the technical result in the method of attachment of the anchor, including its mechanical jamming, use anchor consisting of a rod, lock spacer elements and temperature-sensitive power elements and rear focusing, and jamming, fixing and tensioning of the anchor in the array implement due to the deformation of thermosensitive elements of power, due to the difference in their temperatures and array, and subsequent movement of spacer elements in the direction of the axis of the anchor in F them reactive voltage provide actuation of the lock bolt, which performs as its spreading and fixation, and the creation of pre-tension. In addition, further weakening over time of the reaction force of the breed on arching elements of the castle deformation and providing a force AE does not stop, maintaining an adequate level of fixation of the anchor and the regulation of its tension over time.The material for the execution of the active element of the castle can serve NiTi alloys having the hysteresis curve of the type shown in Fig. 1. Point Mn and MK in this diagram correspond to the temperatures at the beginning and end of martensite transformation, respectively; and An AK - temperatures at the beginning and end of the reverse transformation (martensite to austenite). The dotted line in the figure shows the result of the shift of the hysteresis curve due to the action of mechanical stresses, With the degree of transformation.The constancy of temperature of the massif is one of the factors the use of thermosensitive material . Note that despite the undoubted merits of alloys with shape memory effect (APF), their demand in order to design active power elements for new means of fastening mountain expressed the Fig.2. Part of the anchor includes a rod 1, lock 2, the spacer elements 3 (e.g., coupling), the active element with APF 4, the back rest 5 (Assembly with the latter may be provided for controlling the puck 6).Before placing the anchor in the borehole lock with a constructive element of the alloy with APF has a temperature T < aan, it is easy to provide (in many practical cases, an can be taken, for example, 0oWith), especially if you keep the locks or only active items in separate packages supporting the required temperature during transportation to the installation site. After preparing the hole castle 2 is connected with a rod 1 (or the active element 4 is inserted into the lock that is already attached to the rod and the assembled anchor is inserted into the hole. Within a few minutes after that, the active element 4 acquires the temperature of the massif (breed) and reconstructing the form, mechanically acts on the spacer elements 3. The last move in the direction of the axis of the anchor to the side and down, penetrating their projections in the surface of the hole, which is accompanied by a certain supply of anchor up. Provides reliable fixation of the anchor and creates a pretensioning of sweetzyme 2 at this stage is not completely exhausted due to the counteraction of the breed further penetration of the spacer elements 3, the subsequent weakening of the level of fixation and tensioning anchor for a sufficiently long period of time is virtually eliminated.This method is practicable and in the case when the temperature of the active element of the anchor immediately before you install it above the temperature of the array. In the proposed scheme is sufficient along with AE enable conclusio that with the weakening of AE in the process of direct martensite transformation will provide the necessary thrust lock anchor. Then, before installing the anchor must withstand temperatures of AE is equal to or slightly greater point Mn (in some practical cases, it is justified).In addition, the authors allow the use of this method and other materials for the manufacture of temperature-sensitive power AE (for example, bimetals), experiencing deformation required for the implementation of the spacer actions castle level, in terms of temperature changes in a given interval.Literature
1. Melnikov N. And. Bolting. - M.: Nedra, 1980. - 252 S.:S. 15-16.2. Melnikov N. And. Bolting. - M.: Nedra, 1980. -252.: C. 17-20.3. Koskov I., New materials and designs are mine timbering. - M.: the tives such as those what use anchor consisting of a rod, lock, spacer elements, thermo-sensitive power element having a temperature in the pre-installation condition, different from the temperature of the array, and the rear stop and jamming, fixing and tensioning of the anchor in the array implement due to the deformation of thermosensitive elements of power, due to the difference in their temperatures and array, and subsequent movement of spacer elements in the direction of the axis of the anchor to the side and down, and anchor up.
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing foundations of various building structures.
SUBSTANCE: bearing pile comprises head, rod and tip fixed to embedded rod part by embedded member. The tip is formed of thermoplastic concrete and has electric heater located inside the tip. Electric heater heats the tip after driving thereof into ground as far as it will go to obtain softening temperature of 80-150°C. Then the pile is fully driven in ground. Electric heater wires are placed in tube in longitudinal rod direction and brought outside under pile head for connection thereof with electric power source.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing pile capacity due to provision of widened pile tip support area.
2 cl, 5 dwg