Dam hydroelectric

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and can be used in the construction of hydropower plants in any location. Dam hydroelectric includes derivational channel that is made with a slope of less than the slope of the river bottom at the place of installation of hydroelectric power, impulse turbine, on the rim of the impeller which is rigidly fixed blades, made in the form of buckets, a generator and a mechanism for reducing the speed of the impeller of the turbine to the speed of the generator. Inlet flow from the diversion canal to the impeller has a hydroelectric turbine volute. The mechanism for reducing the speed of the impeller of the turbine to the speed of the generator is installed artificial braking the shaft of the generator, made in the form of a controllable hydrodynamic coupling, one impeller which is rigidly fixed on the shaft of the generator, and the second impeller is mounted on this shaft is movable in the axial direction with the possibility of changing the gap between the cups impeller clutch for regulating the magnitude of the braking torque on the generator shaft from zero to maximum torque. The invention Obi regardless of the load on the generator rotor, and as a consequence, the constancy of the rotation shaft of the generator regardless of the electrical loads in the network. 5 Il.

The invention relates to engineering and can be used in the construction of hydropower plants in any location.

Until the late 19th century, the hydraulic preferred active turbines /grinding wheel/ able to take from the river flow the maximum of its energy potential, however, with the invention and improvement of the jet turbines /jet/, the increase in pressure in newly constructed hydropower plants impulse turbine faded into the background. Dam hydro - power small heads, which can be used as an energy source or energy of the free stream flow, or the pressure of the water column between the end of the diversion canal and the river. Small head require as active propulsion turbines and their improvement.

Diversion channels can be open or closed /penstock/. Penstock to create more hydro power, however, requires the installation of turbines just before a surge tank, which is responsible for smoothing the peaks in the cost of the turbine. Ur the s in the penstock, which by its strength in dozens of times to exceed the pressure on the walls of the conduits in the static mode. In addition, jet turbine is a turbine in which the shaft rotates from the direct effects of water flow on the turbine blades, and from the reactive component of the pressure of this stream. This technical solution allows you to process the turbine driven, although the turbines of this type for each kilowatt of electricity produced is consumed in two times more water than the active turbines, for example bucket. Pelton turbines have instead of the blades at their work wheels, buckets, allowing you to get on the wheel shaft high torque at a low cost. This turbine with high efficiency. The difficulty lies in the fact that the jet turbines are controlled in the course of their employment and for active turbines have not yet found a technical solution at low pressures to manage them in the course of their operation.

The need for this exists. The maximum active power turbine, for example Pelton, paid when the speed of the wheel, which turns the flow is half the speed of the flow. Enough to change the load on the shaft of the wheel and immediately begin the TEW, require a constant speed of rotation of the shaft of the generator, i.e. the propulsion dam hydroelectric must contain the item reduction of the numbers of revolutions of the turbine wheel to the shaft speed of the generator, which would allow to rotate the impeller of the turbine with constant torque on its axis and at a constant speed, at a constant flow settings rivers and regardless of the load on the generator.

Closest to the technical essence of the present invention is the diversion hydroelectric turbines with bucket /see "the Hydropower plant". Edited by Oxalic D. C. L.: Energy, 1972, S. 241/. All the shortcomings of active turbines and hydroelectric derivational channels mentioned above speech inherent in the prototype.

The purpose of the invention is to provide a rotation of the impeller of the turbine at a constant speed to provide a constant torque on its axis regardless of the load on the generator rotor and thereby to maintain the constant rotation of the shaft of the generator regardless of the electrical loads in the network.

This objective is achieved in that dam hydroelectric includes der the active turbine, on the rim of the impeller which is rigidly fixed blades, made in the form of buckets, a generator and a mechanism for reducing the speed of the impeller of the turbine to the speed of the generator, for supplying a flow from the diversion canal to the impeller has a hydroelectric turbine spiral casing, and mechanism for reducing the speed of the impeller of the turbine to the speed of the generator is installed artificial braking the shaft of the generator, made for example in the form of a controllable hydrodynamic coupling, one impeller which is rigidly fixed on the shaft of the generator, and the second impeller mounted on this shaft is movable in the axial direction with the possibility of changing the gap between the cups impeller clutch for regulating the magnitude of the braking torque on the generator shaft from zero to maximum torque.

In the drawings (Fig. 1-5) shows the riverbed 1 with the slope of the bottom of the river ibottomintake 2 derivational channel 3 4 shutter mounted on a rack 5. The slope of the diversion channel 3 iect.less than the slope of the bottom of the river iriver. In that place, where the level of water flow in the diversion channel will exceed the water level in the river on the magnitude of the calculated pressure head H

Turbine wheel 8 may consist of several individual wheels 10, as shown in Fig.2, or be a single wheel width Btoas shown in Fig.5.

On the rim of the impeller is rigidly fixed to the bucket 11. Axis 9 10 turbine impeller rotates in bearings 12. On the console fixed axle sprocket 13 closed chain drive mechanism for reducing the speed of the wheel to the speed of the generator. Closed transfer through the cone clutch 14, gear 15, a soft clutch 16 is connected to the shaft 17. On the same shaft 15 with its opposite side through the sleeve 25 fixed fluid coupling 18, which is a kind of controlled jet turbines. One impeller clutch mounted on the shaft firmly and rotates with the shaft of the generator, the second impeller clutch 24 18 mounted on the same shaft is movable only in the axial direction. Changing the gap between the cups impeller clutch 18, you can change the amount of braking torque on the axis of the generator from zero to the maximum torque at full electrical load on it.

The impeller 10 is closed by a cover 19. All equipment placed in the machine hall 20.

Each nozzle is closed special cone. Drive all the cones are combined into one. Traffic cones kinematically connected to the generator station and depending on the electrical load on it or them, if the station has several generators working on a turbine wheel. Covering or opening a valve cone nozzles, you can adjust the power on the shaft of the impeller impulse turbine 8 or completely stop it.

7 spillway conduit 22 is connected to the river 1 or derivational channel of the subsequent stage of the station. Weirs 7, 8 turbine, spiral chamber 6 reduction mechanism 15, which includes a whole set of mechanisms for changing the speed of the current generation - all housed in the same building 23 hydropower.

Fluid coupling 18, working in conjunction with a generator, is designed to provide constant torque on the shaft of the turbine, regardless of the load on the generator.

Application to drive the generator hydrodynamic coupling 18 solves the problem, however, is not the only technical solution. Instead of coupling 18 with a controlled braking torque can be used jet turbine, ukreplennosti from changes in the electrical load on the generator.

Station operates as follows.

After you open the shutter 4 of the water intake and the water fills derivational channel 3, it is through the Weir 7 is fed first into the channel 22, and through him back to the river 1. At this time, the shutter 21 a spiral chamber 6 is closed, and therefore the wheel and the generator remain without movement. When the valve actuator 21 water from the spiral chamber begins to flow into the buckets of the impeller 10. After the shutter 21 will depart at a specified angle and the wheel will gain momentum that enables fluid coupling 18, if the brake mechanism with a controlled braking torque chosen hydrodynamic clutch and not the pump, DC motor with a rheostat, and so forth, which creates a braking torque equal to the brake torque of the generator 17 with the electrical load. Momentum wheels thus reduced and after circumferential speed of the wheel is equal to half the speed of the jet flow nozzles, the number of wheel revolutions stabilized and stabilized all the parameters of the watercourse all derivational channel. Only then a generator 17. The rotor of the generator at idle modes gaining the necessary momentum, and the generator is placed is dependent on the electrical load on the generator. With the inclusion of consumers, the current is automatically reduced braking torque of the hydraulic clutch 18. However, the torque on the axis of the impeller, the speed of its rotation, the flow velocity in derivational channel, the second flow rate of water in it - everything remains unchanged, as would dramatically changed the generator to the load, no matter how violent or Vice versa quiet and shallow at this point was not the river.

Dam hydroelectric power plant, including derivational channel that is made with a slope of less than the slope of the river bottom at the place of installation of hydroelectric power, impulse turbine, on the rim of the impeller which is rigidly fixed blades, made in the form of buckets, a generator and a mechanism for reducing the speed of the impeller of the turbine to the speed of the generator, characterized in that the inlet flow from the diversion canal to the impeller has a hydroelectric turbine spiral casing, and mechanism for reducing the speed of the impeller of the turbine to the speed of the generator is installed artificial braking the shaft of the generator, made for example in the form of a controllable hydrodynamic coupling, one impeller which is rigidly fixed on the shaft of the generator, and the second of krilich is Latok clutch for regulating the magnitude of the braking torque on the generator shaft from zero to maximum torque.

 

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FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.

SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.

EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.

14 cl, 9 dwg

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