Optical device with low transmittance of visible light and low visible light

 

(57) Abstract:

Solar control film with a low transmittance of visible light and low visible light includes first and second substrate of a transparent material coated on each of them thin and non-uniform film of metal, which reduces the transmittance of visible light. In the manufacture of solar control film precipitated on a substrate of transparent material, a thin transparent coating of metal and are combined into a multilayer film a few of coated substrates so that an inhomogeneous metallic coatings were facing each other and not optically connected to each other. Formed multilayer film has a total retention capacity of the transmittance of visible light of approximately the amount of the inhibiting ability of heterogeneous metal films, and the reflection of visible light, essentially equal to the reflection of visible light is only one of inhomogeneous films. The reflection of visible light with a multilayer film of less than 15% when the transmittance of visible light of not more than 35% and not greater than 12% when the transmittance of visible light up to 50%. Facilitates the creation of superior films that have low prop is finding relates to optical devices, such as window film, solar control energy having a low transmittance of visible light and low reflection of visible light, and the method of their manufacture.

Prior art

Industry engaged staining glass, is interested in the creation of glasses with coatings or films, control of solar energy, with the transmission of visible light (PVA) less than 50%, and preferably less than 30%. At the same time, you want these coating or film had a visible light (OBC) on clean glass less than 15%, and preferably equal to or less than 10%.

Using metallized plastic films, which are usually used to control the solar energy industry related to the production of window glass, the transmittance of visible light or PVA can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the metal layer on the film, but this leads to an increase in the reflection of visible light or SVG. For example, the conventional solar film coated metal with PVA 25% are allied from 30% to 35% and more. Hence, PVA and SVG are inconsistent with each other's interests without acceptable for the industrial production of compromise in the middle. As the m is required.

Another approach to the resolution requirements of the production was to use dyed (colored) plastic films or thin plates, either individually or as substrates for metal films or layers. However, colored films have very low performance when sun exposure and over time their color disappears. Consequently, the painted film does not provide a satisfactory solution to those requirements that are put forward by the industry.

Another attempt to reduce allied metallized films with low PVA was applied coatings of titanium oxide or indium oxide-tin that is deposited on the film or layer of metal to control the reflectance in a narrow spectral band. In accordance with classical optics structure type of sandwich consisting of a metallic film between the layers of material with a high refractive index may increase the transmittance of visible light, the so-called induced transmission, and to reduce the reflectance. In normal practice, this requires the thickness of the layers of titanium oxide or indium oxide-tin from 70 to 100 nanometers, which is very long to apply, and it is hard upravi, additionally, at best it provides only a partial solution to Dilema between PVA/SVG.

In the Patent US 4,799,745 (Certificate of re-examination, B1 4799745) disclosed film that reflects infrared radiation used in the filters of the Fabry-Perot interferometer, which contains two or more transparent layers of metal, for example silver, gold, platinum, palladium, aluminum, copper, Nickel and their alloys, separated directly adjacent bulk dielectric layers, which may be made of oxides of indium, tin, titanium, silicon, chromium and bismuth. Related Patent US 5,071,206, which is a continuation in part of patent 4,799,745, discloses a color correction film that reflects infrared radiation, which contains the substrate, which is applied to seven directly adjacent to each other and alternating layers of dielectric and silver. Despite the fact that these films have a low reflectivity for visible light, but to perform it by spraying apply five to seven layers of material to each other. This technology is expensive and not easy to perform. And when you reduce the transmittance of visible light, this is the one thin plate-based polymer can be lowered by applying a spray on the plate spaced, branching layer of the inorganic substance having a refractive index greater than that of the polymer. The inorganic substance may be oxide, nitride or oxynitride primary metal selected from tantalum, niobium, titanium, hafnium, tungsten and zirconium. The primary coating can be added to the upper layer containing oxide, nitride or oxynitride secondary metal selected from indium, tin and zinc. These coatings increase the transmittance of light through the polymer film with minimal staining and dulling, when they are used as internal plastic surfaces in windowed blocks consisting of several window panes. Therefore, although the reflectivity and reduced, but the transmittance is not reduced.

Thus, the industry remains a great need for the development of inexpensive class of coatings and/or coating films, which would have low PVA, and low SVG.

Disclosure of the invention

The purpose of this invention to provide improved optical devices, in particular superior films, control of solar energy, which have a low transmittance of visible SV is I the task of the invention to provide improved films and/or coatings, control of solar energy, which have good characteristics of refraction of solar energy, and low PVA and low SVG.

The problem is solved by the fact that according to the invention the metal film is made thin and non-uniform and have the specified low reflection of visible light and not optically connected to each other, so that the coated substrate of transparent material forming a multilayer film, have a total retention capacity of the transmittance of visible light of approximately the amount of the inhibiting ability of heterogeneous metal films, and the reflection of visible light, essentially equal to the reflection of visible light is only one of inhomogeneous films, and the reflection of visible light each heterogeneous film such that the reflection of visible light with a multilayer film on a clean glass less than 15%, if the transmittance of visible light of less than 35% and less than 12% when the transmittance of visible light up to 50%.

Preferably, one or two above-mentioned substrate of transparent material has a layer of material with a high refractive index, which was located between the substrate and varying the metal film made with the possibility of additional the>It is desirable that the materials with high refractive index selected from silicon nitride, oxides: chromium, niobium and titanium, and the synthesized bismuth oxide having an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to 2.5.

It is desirable that a thin inhomogeneous metallic film selected from chromium, alloys of Nickel-chromium and stainless steel.

Preferably, chromium, an alloy of Nickel-chromium or stainless steel was applied to the substrate by spraying.

It is desirable that contained a third substrate of a transparent material coated with a thin inhomogeneous transparent film of metal, that reduce the transmittance of visible light and having essentially the same low reflection of visible light as other heterogeneous films, and mentioned the third substrate was located in a layer between the aforementioned first and second substrates, and non-uniform film of metal would be on it separated and optically not associated with inhomogeneous films of metal on said first and second substrates.

Preferably, one, two or all three of these substrates contained a layer of material with a high refractive index between the substrate and neoderma multilayer film.

It is desirable that contained a layer of binder material, pressure-sensitive, on one side of the multilayer film for bonding it to the window and the protective coating on the other side of the multilayer film to protect the film from damage.

It is desirable that the material with high refractive index contained synthesized bismuth oxide deposited on the substrate material reactive sputtering and having an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to 2.5.

It is desirable that the material with high refractive index selected from silicon nitride and oxides: chromium, niobium and titanium.

It is desirable that the transmittance of visible light with a multilayer film would lay in the range from 25% to 50%. A known method of manufacturing a solar control film, which precipitated on a transparent substrate a transparent metal coating, which reduces the transmittance of visible light through the coated substrate (US 3889026A, 10.06.1975).

The present invention is to provide a method for highly efficient and economical mass production of improved solar films and coatings.

The problem is solved in that precipitated heterogeneous who have covered several substrates so, in order inhomogeneous metallic coatings facing each other inside the multilayer film and were separated from each other and are not connected optically, and so heterogeneous metallic coating together provided a set retarding ability for visible light, which is sufficient to provide the specified low transmittance of visible light through a multi-layer film, with the multilayer film has a total retention capacity of the transmittance of visible light of approximately the amount of the inhibiting ability of heterogeneous metal coatings, and low reflection of visible light, essentially equal to the reflection of visible light is only one of the heterogeneous metal coatings the multi-layer film on a clean glass is the reflection of visible light, which is less than 15%, when the transmission of visible light of less than 35% and less than 12% when the transmittance of visible light of less than 50%.

Preferably, layer-by-layer overlay coated substrates to each other, and separating them from each other and elimination of optical communication between them is carried out using one or more intermediate layers of a binder material.

It is desirable that when given a metal coating on a material with a high refractive index.

It is desirable that the material with high refractive index had a refractive index of at least a 2.0.

Preferably, besieged on a substrate by the method of reactive sputtering synthesized bismuth oxide having an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to 2.5, and then besieged would spray a thin coating of metal on the synthesized oxide of bismuth.

It is desirable that the metal deposited on each substrate, contained chromium, an alloy of Nickel-chromium or stainless steel, it is desirable that the steel was besieged on a substrate by sputtering technique.

It is desirable that a material of high refractive index was synthesized bismuth oxide with an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to 2.5.

By combining two or more modules, each of which consists of a thin metal film with low reflection film or layer of a material with a high refraction, in particular BiOx(x = 1.7 - 2.5), the present invention allows to obtain films and/or coatings that control solar energy, which are good indicators reflect solar energy, low reflection of visible light and low transmittance of visible light is Mary mass production of improved solar films and coatings.

According to a preferred variant of the method in accordance with the present invention a conventional transparent film or a thin plate of the substrate material is first processed at the facility magnetron cathode sputtering, the substrate is deposited by spraying a layer of material with a high refractive index. Preferably, the material with high refractive index contained bismuth, obtained by reactive sputtering with oxygen in the atmosphere of oxygen with controlled partial pressure, and deposited on substrate synthesized bismuth oxide with a high oxygen content must be atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth in the range of 1.7 - 2.5. Dynamic deposition rate of the synthesized BiOxvery high and the coating or film, therefore, applied to the substrate easily, quickly and economically. The substrate with the coating then passes through the installation of magnetron cathode sputtering, where a very thin metal film is fast and economical spray-applied (deposited) by the method of spraying the coating with high refractive index.

Deposition by sputtering technique two coatings or films can be PU is the stop, having two or more spray devices arranged in series along the path of movement of the substrate. The substrate may consist of thin plates or continuous web of glass or plastic. In any case, the substrate is coated with a thin layer having a high refractive index and a thin coherent film of metal. This is done very efficiently and quickly, as a result it turns out the device or element, managing solar energy, which is cheap and has very high performance.

The resulting device or element has a very low reflection of visible light and the degree of transmission of visible light, depending, primarily, on the nature and thickness of the metal film. When layered overlay two or more devices or elements to each other can be obtained, essentially, any required level of control the transmission of visible light.

Additional options optical performance can be obtained by using different materials to perform multiple coatings included in the final multi-layer device.

Thus, the invention provides a floor is obecny method for the mass production of such devices.

These and other objectives and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the subsequent detailed description with regard to the accompanying drawings.

Brief description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a schematic representation in section and greatly enlarged scale of the preferred option solar control film, made in accordance with the invention and consisting of two devices or elements of the invention with a low reflection;

Fig. 2 is a similar schematic representation of another embodiment of the layered structure shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a similar schematic representation of the preferred option solar control film according to the invention and consisting of three devices or elements according to the invention with a low reflection; the film is shown glued to the window glass or window;

Fig. 4 is a similar schematic representation of another embodiment of the layered structure shown in Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 provides a graphical comparison of the characteristics of transmittance and reflectance of visible light for films made according to the invention, and a conventional commercial production of solar control films;

Fig. 6 is a graphical comparison of the characteristics of the PCC is;

Fig. 7 is a schematic representation of an installation for the manufacture of devices or elements with a low reflection coefficient according to the invention; and

Fig. 8 is a graph illustrating the correlation of the dynamic deposition rate and the atomic ratio in the oxide of bismuth with high oxygen content with a gradual increase in the partial pressure of oxygen to reactive sputtering bismuth.

The best way of carrying out the invention

Following is a detailed disclosure of the variants of the invention, which, in the opinion of the inventor, at the present time are preferred, in order to best carry out his invention.

Used in this description and appended claims, the following terms have the following meanings:

"Visible light" or "light" means electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength from 380 nm to 750 nm (Standard CIT).

"Transparency" means having the property to pass visible light.

"The transmission of visible light, the transmittance of visual light" and the abbreviation "PVA" means the percentage amount of visible radiation or light that passes cher, a visual reflection of light" and the abbreviation "allied" means the percentage amount of visible radiation which is reflected from the optical device.

"The absorption of visible light, absorption of the visual world" and the abbreviation "PGS" means the percentage amount of visible radiation or light that is absorbed by the optical device. Typically, the amount of PVA, allied and PHVS must equal 100%.

"Short circuit" or "shading coefficient" is building the index, related to the efficiency with which the window system is capable of controlling solar radiation. It is expressed as the ratio of the increase of heat with the passage of solar radiation through any given window system to increase heat, which would be under the same conditions, if the window is made clear, unobscured, window glass double strength. The lower the shading coefficient, the greater the window's ability to manage solar energy (Standard calculation method ASHRAE). Clear glass is attributed to the value (shading coefficient) 1.00. The value of KS is below 1.00 indicates greater reflection (scattering in General) heat than a single clean window glass.

"Heterogeneous" in relation to met the discrete elements, inconsistent, non-uniform.

"Deposition by spraying or deposited by sputtering" refers to the process or product of this process, in which the layer of material is deposited on a substrate using magnetron sputtering.

Fig. 1 schematically illustrates a part cross-section with a significant increase in the scope of the preferred option multilayer film that manages the energy of solar radiation according to the invention. In Fig. 1 multi-layer film, which is indicated by item 10 consists of two optical modules. Elements or devices 12 each consists of a substrate 14, a layer of material with a high refractive index of 16 and thin, discontinuous, heterogeneous, branched metal layer 18.

The substrate 14 can contain any of the transparent materials used as the basis, which are typically used for solar control films, in particular flexible polymer films applied in the form of cloth. The preferred polymer is usually polietilentereftalata (PET) film having a thickness of approximately 1-2 mils (1 mil = 0.025 mm) to 50 mils. The refractive index of these films is typically in the range 1.4 - 1.7.

the LCD 14, and preferably it has a refractive index of 2.0 or more. In addition, it is preferable that this was material that is relatively easily may be deposited on a substrate by spraying. Suitable materials are conventional oxides: chromium (chromium oxide, dioxide and trioxide, CrO, CrO2, CrO3), niobium (Nb2O5) and titanium (TiO2) and silicon nitride (Si3N4). All of them can be directly deposited on the substrate 14 or deposited using the method of reactive sputtering. However, as will be described hereinafter in more detail, the preferred material for the layer 16 with high refractive index is synthesized bismuth oxide with a high content of oxygen, which has an atomic ratio (A/O) of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to about 2.5. Conventional oxide of bismuth Bi2O3has too much absorption in the visible spectral range (PGS) to be considered as an optical material, and certainly not a candidate for execution layer 16. Using spray bismuth in an atmosphere with controlled partial pressure of oxygen can be obtained synthetic bismuth oxide with a high content of oxygen, which is the thickness of the layer 16 of a material with a high refractive index will vary depending on the required PVA multilayer films 10, as well as the thickness and the metal selected for the layer 18, all of them are interrelated. Typically, multilayer films having a PVA is equal to or greater than 20-25%, the thickness of the layer 16 will be of the order of 0.1 - 10 nanometers (nm), and multilayer films having PVA equal to or less than 20-25%, the layer thickness is of the order of 10-50 nm.

The formation of the metal layer 18 in each optical module or element 12 of the multilayer film 10 is very critical to how successful the invention is implemented in practice. Reflection or allied each layer 18 should be almost the same or reasonably close in value to the required allied multilayer films 10 and has at the same time to ensure a reasonable level of ability to delay the visible light so as to reduce PVA multilayer film to the required percentage of PVA would be merged reasonable small number of modules. To resolve these conflicting tasks, each metal layer 18 should be an incoherent film, having the opportunity to dissipate, diffusion to dissipate and/or absorb visible light, but to be thick enough to partially delay or reduce the transmittance of visible light is ay deposition by sputtering technique.

The deposition method of spraying a very thin metal layer or coating leads to the fact that the metal is deposited in three-dimensional clusters, very similar to the stones or the trees in the forest. The film or coating recorrente and, one might say, has the form of branching. The flow of the deposited metal does not form a coherent, smooth, highly reflective layer, as it would be if the deposition was carried out continuously until you obtain a certain thickness. Usually they say that the thickness of the metal layer should not exceed values of the order of 20 nm and, preferably, to be in the range of values from approximately 1 nm to 20 nm, and still more preferably fall within the range of 2 to 5 nm, depending on the required or installed PVS. For films with low reflection, made according to the invention, the coating should be sufficiently thin and patchy, to allied for each metal layer 18 does not exceed approximately 12%.

Used metal preferably is selected from the group including chromium, alloys of Nickel-chromium and stainless steel. The choice of materials for the layers 16 and 18 will determine the color of the multilayer film. For example, stainless steel will form a film of gray otlichayuschihsya from those used in the manufacture of another module or element 12. This is because in the multilayer film 10 modules are physically isolated and not optically connected to each other.

As shown in Fig. 1, two modules or optical element 12 are superimposed on each other so that their surface with a metallic coating are side by side with each other and spatially separated they intermediate transparent layer 20 of the conventional binder material. Therefore, in the multilayer structure, the ability of these two modules 12 to delay the visible light are all added together they can reduce PVA multilayer film to the required level. Moreover, the layers 16 made of materials with high refractive index can be performed to complement the incoherent metal films 18 to further reduce the transmission and/or reflection and/or to increase the absorption. Therefore, the refractive layers metal layers 16 and 18 are interdependent and are changeable in accordance with the required result, i.e. they depend on the installed PVS, SVG, color and darkness of the multilayer film 10.

To finish the product, which can be used in industries associated with the production is ikim and protects from scratches, and the open surface of the other substrate 14 is covered with a bonding material (adhesive) 24 pressure-sensitive, in order to facilitate the imposition of a multilayer film on the window, at block window glass, etc. During use of the film bonding material 24, a pressure-sensitive, stored and protected by the usual heat-generating plate 26. As is usual in the art, the binder material 24, a pressure-sensitive, preferably additives are introduced, absorbing ultraviolet light, and other similar substances.

In Fig. 2 shows another simplified variant of the multilayer film which is illustrated in Fig. 1. Despite the fact that the structure in Fig. 2 does not provide the same ability to control the PVA and allied, as the structure shown in Fig. 1, however, it contains practical and less expensive film having acceptable low control characteristics of PVA and allied. This structure is suitable for use in those cases when the demands are less stringent than those who can only provide the structure shown in Fig. 1. Since these two structures are similar, the elements shown in Fig. 2, and corresponding elements shown in Fig. 1, and respective structures is in the structure of Fig. 2 there are no layers 16 made of a material with high refractive index.

In those cases in which there are solar film on a clean glass with a relatively high transmittance of visible light (for example, 20 to 50%), reasonably low, but not excessively low reflection of visible light (for example, 13%) and does not require a dark color film, then a simplified multi-layered structure shown in Fig. 2, it will be a very good fit.

Metal films, which have required the ability to delay the visible light, can be easily obtained by deposition by sputtering technique in the form of a rather thin and inhomogeneous layer, which provides low-SVG - 9-10%. As a concrete example, the solar control film is made, as shown in Fig. 2, and has two films 18a of chromium, each of which bears on the corresponding substrate 14a thickness of 2.5 nm, forming a multilayer film having on clean glass PVA 45% and allied 9%. In another example, the thickness of each layer of chromium was increased to 3.5 nm to obtain a multilayer film having a PVA 25% and allied 13%. For comparison, the conventional solar film having a single layer of metal and providing PVA 25% will be allied to 30% or even E known technical solutions in relation to the low reflectance of visible light and a low cost of manufacture regardless of the form in which it is implemented: in the form of a more complex structure (Fig. 1) or in the form of simplified construction, as in Fig. 2. Moreover, when the requirements are more stringent than those discussed above, it may be necessary to refer to the hybrid structure shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, i.e. the structure in which two control element 12/12a: one of the more complex filters 12 (Fig. 1) and one from the simplified elements 12a (Fig. 2).

When the requirements become more stringent, the need to address the structure shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, where the solar film glued to the window glass 28. In the structures of Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the transmittance of visible light and visible light are reduced to extremely low levels through the use of three control elements disclosed in the explanation of Fig. 1. Since the elements are similar and largely identical, Fig. 3 used the same designation of positions as in Fig. 1, with the addition of the letter "b", and Fig. 4 with the addition of the letter "c".

Please refer to Fig. 3, in which the solar control film made according to the invention, designated 10b, consists of three modules 12b, each of which, in turn, contains a polymer Pontus combined so that three metal surface 18b are intrinsic to the multi-layered unit 10b and laminar located relative to each other through an intermediate layer of bonding material 20b. The thickness of each layer of the binder material is typically from about 0.5 to 5.0 microns. In fact, this unit is the same as the structure in Fig. 1 with the third module 12b placed in a layer between the initial two modules.

When using three or even more metal films 18b PVA multilayer film can be reduced to a very low level, for example 20% or below and, in addition, a separate film 18b can be kept quite thin and inhomogeneous, i.e., branched so as to provide a very low level of command, e.g. 10% or below. Layers 16b with a high refractive index also contribute to the achievement of very low command and obtain a darkened film, if darkness is required characteristic.

The layer of binder material 24b, pressure-sensitive, is applied on an outer surface 14b of the multilayer film for bonding it to the window 28, and a hard coating 22b, wear-resistant and scratch-resistant, is applied to another maringola film 10b in normal use will be pasted to the inner surface of window 28 or the surface of the window side of the room. As shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the surface of the window on the right hand as an internal or surface side of the room to which the film is attached, and the surface on the left-hand facing outwards from the door. In Fig. 3 metal layer 18b of the inner or Central module 12b facing the window glass or window 28. This leads to the fact that the levels of reflection on the surface of the window side of the room and outside the window the same, i.e., OBS (glass) = OBS (room).

Multi-layer film 10c shown in Fig. 4, represents the same film as a multilayered film 10b in Fig. 3, except that the inner or Central module 12c is rotated 180 degrees, i.e., the metal surface 18c directed into the room. This leads to reduced allied with the side of the glass around the block a little and increases the allied side of the room, i.e., OBS (glass) < SVG (room). Thus, orienting the modules, as shown in Fig. 4, the external reflection, SVG (glass) can be reduced by a few percent compared with the external reflection for the block shown in Fig. 3.

As discussed above, for the modification of the solar film shown in Fig. 1, with reference to Fig. 2, one, two, or is presented to the end-product, allow them not to include.

For a comparative assessment of solar control films made according to the invention, with existing industrial manufactured solar control films were fabricated samples using the same PET substrate, which is used in industrial films, and sputtering technique has been covering it in a thin discontinuous layer of chromium and a preliminary coating of oxide or the material with a high refractive index was not applied. Then plates of films with a chrome finish superimposed layers together with a bonding material for forming a pattern of a multilayer film comprising two substrates and two layers of chromium, as shown in Fig. 2 (hereinafter, this pattern is called DCr2), and three superimposed substrate and three layers of chromium, as shown in Fig. 3 (this sample is referred to as TCr). One sample was also prepared in accordance with Fig. 1 (labeled DCr1). These films were then tested according to the characteristics of command and PGWS and compared with the available solar films industrial manufacturing.

The applicant of the present invention. Deposition Technologies, Inc. from San Diego, California, produces a variety of the (Ti), stainless steel (SS) or Inconel or nichrome (NiCr), and a multilayer film sold under the trademark Solar Bronze (SB), which contains a polymer substrate, a thin layer of stainless steel, a thin layer of copper and a thin layer of stainless steel. Each of these films are sold on a number of classes with different characteristics bandwidth or delay the visible light. Usually classes are denoted in accordance with the effective delay of the light, i.e. film Solar Bronze, having the ability to pass visible light is 25% and the ability to delay the visible light - 75%, indicated "75SB". Similarly, "75Ti" and "75SS" respectively mean the film with a titanium-coated and film-coated stainless steel, each of which is inhibiting the ability for visible light 75% and throughput for visible light 25%.

For differentiation during the research, development and experimentation solar film made according to the invention, was designated Vice versa, i.e., two digits in the numeric designation refers to the ability to transmit light, and not to the ability to detain him. Therefore, the film "DCr2-45" is a film made in accordance with Fig. 2 and having a PVA 45%. Similar to the SU 30%.

The test results clearly showed the effectiveness of the films made according to the invention, reduction of the allied forces, as is evident from table (see below).

The effectiveness of the invention is demonstrated by the graphs in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, which represent respectively the comparison of reflection of visible light (OMC), and absorption of visible light (PGS) multiple solar films at different levels of transmittance of visible light (PVA). Graphs illustrate the results of tests carried out on solar films made according to the invention, containing three layers, or films with chromium "TCr", containing two layers, or films with chromium, described with reference to Fig. 2, "DCr2, and on one film, containing two layers of chromium, described with reference to Fig. 1, "DCrl", and comparing them with each other, as well as allied and PGWS the above-mentioned titanium films, "Ti", and films Solar Bronze, "SB". Curves for the commercial production of films with stainless steel or Nickel/chrome is very similar to the curves "Ti" and therefore they are excluded from the graphs for clarity.

As shown by the graphs, solar film, made according to the invention have significantly lower reflectivity and significant the OE can be obtained through the use of three metal layers instead of two, and an additional reduction of the allied forces, which can be obtained by incorporating layers with a high refractive index.

As can be seen from the data contained in the above tables, the coefficient of shielding or shading "SC" solar films made according to izobreteny, even on only experimental samples, remains at a very decent level in relation to the manufactured films. Further improvement of layers of material with a high refractive index will further improve the shading coefficient.

In addition to providing significantly improved performance, solar film according to the invention can be obtained very efficiently and economically using conventional magnetron sputtering and conventional equipment for layer-to-layer overlay films. Spray the plant is used for solar control units 12, 12a, 12b and 12c, and the modules are then combined and superimposed on each other in any orientation, as shown previously.

In Fig. 7 is a schematic representation of one type of installation, suitable for forming modules by spraying.

Install the included what I input in the camera or in selected areas of the inert gas, for example argon, and/or gas, for example oxygen, which should react with the target material for deposition of reactive coating on the canvas, for example, in the form of the oxide of the target material. The camera is equipped uncoiling drum 46, which is installed on the roller to the substrate in a continuous web, which should be applied to the coating and winding drum 48 for winding webs of substrate material, after it coated. The fabric substrate may be of any material commonly used when spraying, for example, polyester such as PET. As shown by the dashed line, the cloth 50 is routed through the several guide rollers 52 into at least one apparatus for forming a coating on it, and better in the two devices. In the shown installation of the device for coating include being consistently in the direction of movement of the blade, the first device 56 for deposition by sputtering technique and a second device 58 for deposition by sputtering technique.

For transportation of the canvas at a given speed through the device forming the coating installation is equipped with a drive system of the canvas with variable speed (not the Pokal is covered with cloth and then removed from the chamber.

Two devices 56 and 58 for the deposition preferably have the same construction and include respectively cooled from the inside of a rotating cylinder 56a, 58a relatively large diameter to maintain and cooling and one or more magnetron cathodes 56b, 58b for the deposition of the coating on the fabric by spraying material. Each cathode equipped with a target 56c, 58C trainers of material which must be subjected to ion bombardment for his deposition on canvas 50.

For the practical implementation of the present invention two units for deposition of the coating, essentially, closed and isolated from each other by appropriate partitions and/or screens 59, so that accordingly the operation to spray different materials could be performed on two devices, but they were all in the same vacuum chamber and the cloth passed through them once. In a variant, the preferred implementation of the invention, the first setting 56 is used for deposition on the substrate layer 16, 16b or 16c from a material with high refractive index, and the second working space 58 is used for deposition of a thin, continuous film 18, 18a, 18b or 18c of the metal, resulting in formiruetsa">

Optical monitors 62a, 62d placed downstream from each of the devices 56, 58. The monitors are designed to monitor each step of the formation of the coating and to ensure the required thickness and composition of the coatings on the substrates.

As clear from the above description, the material should be applied in the second device 58 in the form of a very thin discontinuous film of metal or alloy of metals, preferably selected from the following range: chromium and alloys Nickel-chromium and stainless steel. The spraying of these materials is very directional and is carried out easily and quickly, particularly in relation to the film thickness, for example 1-20 nm. The metal is preferably sprayed into the atmosphere with a partial pressure of inert gas, which is, essentially, a closed device 58 through the input 43.

Materials with a high refractive index, commonly used in optical films, applied slower and more difficult, especially titanium oxide that is the material with the high refractive index. It can be shown that to increase the deposition rate of the oxide to keep the rate determined by the rate of deposition of metal films, it is necessary debauchee between devices 56 and 58. As is known, the composition of high refractive index can be as a target 56c or a target of the metal itself can jet sprayed in the atmosphere with a partial pressure of reactive gas, for example oxygen and/or nitrogen, is introduced into the device (s) 56 through the input 42. Even in this case, due to the fact that the deposition of TiO2the substrate is so complex and tedious process, and the resulting product is so expensive, for economy of manufacture may be used other oxide or nitride, even though he has a refractive index much lower than required.

The oxide of bismuth Bi2O3despite the fact that in literature it is referred to as materials for use in the far infrared region of the spectrum, is not considered as an optical material in the visible range of the spectrum, because it strongly absorbs in the visible spectral range and therefore he does not find application in the commercial solar films.

In part the descriptions before disclosing the invention, it was noted that when forming the synthesized BiOxhaving a high oxygen content (x = > 1.7), obtained by thin lenkafilm of refraction of TiO2. More importantly, in accordance with the method of the invention, the synthetic BiOxis the deposition rate, which is 25 or more times higher than the rate of deposition of TiO2resulting eliminated economic constraints when using TiO2and the result is a product with better performance and more affordable.

The deposition of the film BiOxcan osyshestvyatsa by deposition method, a reactive sputtering by activated reactive deposition from the gas phase and by vacuum deposition under the arc discharge, but as shown in Fig. 7, in the currently preferred is a reactive deposition method, sputtering. Namely, the target 56c contains bismuth and sprayed in the atmosphere with a partial pressure of oxygen, and the oxygen partial pressure can be changed to obtain a layer of synthetic bismuth oxide having an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth at least from 1.7 to 2.5, i.e. BiOx(x = 1.7 - 2.5).

The film thickness of the synthesized BiOx(x = 1.7 - 2.5), deposited on a substrate 50, may vary from 0.1 to 50 nm (10 - 500 ) depending on the required working nature of the nm for solar films with PVA 35%. Receive rate typically will vary from 20 feet per minute (lb/min) for thicker films up to 50 F./min for thinner films. For most applications, provided by the present invention, the film thickness of about 40 nm, is applied to the substrate at a rate of approximately 50 F./min, will provide quite suitable products.

However, the required degree of oxidation of the bismuth will also enter into the equation of the reaction. In Fig. 8 shows a graphical correlation rate reactive deposition of synthesized bismuth oxide, BiOxmethod of sputtering, the atomic ratios of oxygen to bismuth in the oxide and the partial pressure of oxygen in a vacuum chamber where the deposition by sputtering technique. In Fig. 8 the partial pressure of oxygen (MAC) deferred along the x-axis, dynamic deposition rate (DSO) - along the left axis of ordinates, and the atomic ratio (AO) - along the right ordinate axis. The descending curve refers to the DSO, and the rising curve refers to the AO. DSO was calculated in two series of tests. JSC was determined from measurements of Rutherford back scattering of a beam of helium ions (x-ray spectroscopy) and profiles "Auger" electro is toadie time unknown, "Auger"profiles result in higher values of AO compared with the results of Rutherford back scattering, especially at higher values of AO. However, it should be noted as a General observation that with increasing MPC AO grows and the film becomes prominent when the AO is equal to or greater than 1.7.

As graphically shown in Fig. 8, BiOxwith AO equal to 1.8, may be deposited at a partial pressure of oxygen 7.5 E-5T (7.510-5Torr) and LLW equal to 3.5 nm with**2/j (thickness in nm, multiplied by the area in square centimeters, divided by the energy in joules); a BiOxwith AO 2.5 can be obtained by EQS 12E-5T and DSO 2.5 nm cm**2/j. Conversely, the DSO for reactive sputtering TiO2usually 0.1 nm cm**2/j. Therefore, synthetic BiOx(x = > 1.7) obtained according to the invention, may be deposited at 25-35 times faster than TiO2that is a very significant economic advantage, especially from the point of view of the fact that the refractive indices are they essentially the same. Moreover, the increased deposition rate BiOxsimplifies the deposition of the oxide at the same speed, move the canvas by deposition of metal that obisp the speed of delivery and quality of required coverage, preferred values of AO will be in the range from 1.8 to 2.2.

Dimension "Auger"profiles show that a thin coating of BiOxon the substrate is very smooth. Pictures of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at a magnification of 50,000 times additionally show that with increasing MPC receiving film BiOxwith AO 1.7 or above, the surface becomes very smooth and homogeneous, considerably reducing the absorption and the result is a film with a high refractive index, perfect for the practical implementation of the invention.

Therefore, the invention provides for the economical mass production of highly reliable solar control film having a low absorption of visible light and low reflection of visible light.

Thus, the problems solved by the present invention and its advantages have been specified, are convenient, economical and practical way.

Although there have been described and illustrated preferred variants of the invention, it is clear that they can be made various changes, modifications, rearrangements, without going beyond izobreteny the General film with a low transmittance of visible light and low reflection of visible light, containing the first substrate of transparent material coated with a film of metal, which reduces the transmittance of visible light and a second substrate of a transparent material coated with a film of metal, which reduces the transmittance of visible light, and the above-mentioned metal film facing each other, characterized in that the metal film is made thin and non-uniform and have the specified low reflection of visible light and not optically connected to each other, so that the coated substrate of transparent material forming a multilayer film, have a total retention capacity of the transmittance of visible light, approximately equivalent to the amount of the inhibiting ability of heterogeneous metal films, and the reflection of visible light, essentially equal to the reflection of visible light is only one of inhomogeneous films, and the reflection of visible light each heterogeneous film such that the reflection of visible light with a multilayer film on a clean glass less than 15% when the transmittance of visible light of not more than 35% and not greater than 12% when the transmittance of visible light up to 50%.

2. Solar control film on p. 1, characterized in that less is th and heterogeneous metal film, made with the ability to control the transmittance of visible light and reflecting visible light multilayer films.

3. Solar control film on p. 2, characterized in that the material with high refractive index is selected from silicon nitride, oxides: chromium, niobium and titanium, and the synthesized bismuth oxide having an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to 2.5.

4. Solar control film on p. 1, characterized in that the inhomogeneous thin metallic film selected from chromium, alloys of Nickel-chromium and stainless steel.

5. Solar control film on p. 4, characterized in that the chromium, an alloy of Nickel-chromium or stainless steel applied to the substrate by spraying.

6. Solar control film on p. 1, characterized in that it contains a third substrate of a transparent material coated with a thin, non-uniform, transparent film of metal, that reduce the transmittance of visible light and having essentially the same low reflection of visible light as other heterogeneous films, and mentioned the third substrate is located in a layer between the aforementioned first and second substrates, and neo who's first and second substrates.

7. Solar control film on p. 6, wherein one, two or all of these substrates contain a layer of material with a high refractive index between the substrate and varying the metal film to control the transmission of visible light and reflecting visible light multilayer films.

8. Solar control film on p. 1, characterized in that it contains a layer of binder material, pressure-sensitive, on one side of the multilayer film for bonding it to the window and the protective coating on the other side of the multilayer film to protect the film from damage.

9. Solar control film according to p. 7, characterized in that the material with high refractive index contains synthesized bismuth oxide deposited on a substrate during reactive sputtering and having an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to 2.5.

10. Solar control film according to p. 7, characterized in that the material with high refractive index is selected from silicon nitride and oxides: chromium, niobium and titanium.

11. Solar control film according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the transmittance of visible light multilayer playedout on a transparent substrate a thin, transparent coating of metal, which reduces the transmittance of visible light through the coated substrate, characterized in that the precipitated heterogeneous metal coating, which has the specified low reflection of visible light, are combined into a multilayer film a few of coated substrates so that an inhomogeneous metallic coatings facing each other inside the multilayer film and were separated from each other and are not connected optically, and so heterogeneous metallic coating together provided the inhibiting ability for visible light, which is sufficient to provide the specified low transmittance of visible light through the multilayer film, when this multilayer film has a total retention capacity of the transmittance of visible light of approximately the amount of the inhibiting ability of heterogeneous metal coatings, and low reflection of visible light, essentially equal to the reflection of visible light is only one of the heterogeneous metal coatings, multi-layer film on a clean glass is the reflection of visible light, which may not exceed 15% when the transmittance of visible light of not more than 35% and not greater than 12% when the transmittance TS is ZHEK each other, and the elimination of optical communication between them is carried out using one or more intermediate layers of the bonding material.

14. The method according to p. 12, characterized in that the first precipitated on a substrate a thin transparent layer of material with a high refractive index, and then precipitated metal coating on a material with a high refractive index.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the said material with a high refractive index has a refractive index of at least a 2.0.

16. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the said material with a high refractive index is synthesized bismuth oxide with an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to 2.5.

17. The method according to p. 12, characterized in that the metal deposited on each substrate contains chromium, an alloy of Nickel-chromium or stainless steel.

18. The method according to p. 17, characterized in that the metal is precipitated on the substrate by sputtering technique.

19. The method according to p. 12, characterized in that the deposition on the substrate carry out reactive sputtering synthesized bismuth oxide having an atomic ratio of oxygen to bismuth from 1.7 to 2.5, then precipitated dispersion of the

 

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