The method and apparatus of the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical vapor deposition (options), the product obtained in this way, the feeder of the first of a reagent gas into the furnace for infiltration and deposition from the gas phase and the friction disk

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to high-temperature composite materials obtained by infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and deposition of matrix binder material in the porous structure. Essence: the invention relates to processes forced infiltration of a reagent gas when the pressure gradient, the device for the implementation of these processes and to the products resulting from these processes by partial sealing of the porous structure in a furnace at a pressure gradient, and the first part of the porous structure is subjected to a higher pressure than the second part, the first part has a higher increment of bulk density and subsequent compaction of the porous structure by deposition of another matrix in the porous structure with at least one additional compaction process, and the second part has a higher increase in bulk density, than the first part. The invention provides the ability to simultaneously seal a large number of porous structures, in particular billets for aircraft brake discs. 8 C. and 69 C.p. f-crystals, 29 ill., 10 that is the situation of the gas phase chemical substances and deposition of matrix binder material in the porous structure. More specifically, the present invention relates to methods of forced infiltration of a reagent gas in a porous structure when the pressure gradient, to a device for the implementation of these methods and to the resulting products.

Art

Infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase is a well-known deposition method matrix binder material in the porous structure. The expression "chemical deposition from the gas phase" generally refers to the deposition of surface coatings, but this expression is also used in relation to infiltration and deposition of matrix binder material in the porous structure. In this application the expression "the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase" refers to infiltration and deposition of matrix binder material in the porous structure. This technology is especially suitable for high-temperature composite materials by deposition of carbon or ceramic matrix in carbon or ceramic porous structure, allowing you to get the very useful structures, such as aircraft brake discs, carbon/carbon and the th substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase can be divided into four groups: isothermal, when the temperature gradient, pressure gradient, and in the case of pulsating flow. (See the work of centuries Kulinskogo, the Deposition of pyrolytic carbon in the porous bodies 8 Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, 173, 190-203 (1973); B. J. Lucky, Overview, current state and future of the way the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances to obtain fibre reinforced ceramic composites, Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 10 [7-8] 577, 577-81 (1989) (C. J. Lucky refers to the process when the pressure gradient as "isothermal forced flow"). In the isothermal method, the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase gas-reagent takes place in a heated porous structure of the absolute pressure of the order of a few thousandths of millimeters of mercury. This gas diffuses into the porous structure under the influence of gradients of concentration and decomposed to precipitate the binder matrix material. This method is also known as the "standard" way of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. The porous structure is heated to more or less uniform temperature (in this regard, there is the term "isothermal"), but actually it is not suitable for the e non-uniform heating (essentially inevitable in most stoves (heating apparatus)), cooling of some parts in connection with the flow of a reagent gas and heating or cooling of other parts due to heat of reaction processes. Essentially, the term "isothermal" means that there is no attempt to create a temperature gradient, which would be preferable influenced the deposition of the matrix binder material. This method is well suited for the simultaneous sealing of a large number of porous products and is particularly suitable for manufacturing brake disc carbon/carbon. Under appropriate process conditions may be precipitated matrix having the desired physical properties. However, the standard method of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase continuous deposition to achieve an acceptable density may occur in a few weeks and the surface in this case will tend to thicken, leading to the formation of a hermetic coating, which prevents further infiltration of a reagent gas in the inner region of the porous structure. Thus, this technology usually requires several operations mechanical surface treatment, which disrupt the continuity of proce from the gas phase in the temperature gradient porous structure is heated so that to create large temperature gradients that stimulate the deposition at the side of the porous structure. Temperature gradients can be obtained by heating only one surface of the porous structure, for example by placing the surface of the porous structure against the wall of the pantograph (induction currents), and can be increased by cooling the opposite surface, for example by placing the opposite surface of the porous structure against the wall, liquid cooled. The deposition of the matrix binder material develops from hot to cold surfaces. The need to create a temperature gradient complicates and increases the cost and complicates the implementation of concurrent compaction (density) of a large number of porous structures.

In the method of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient of the gas-reagent is forced to pass through the porous structure by creating a pressure gradient from one surface of the porous structure to the opposite surface of the porous structure. The flow rate of a reagent gas is considerably more speed of a reagent gas in isothermal what I matrix binder material. This method is also known as the way of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase with "forced flow". To develop this method of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase simultaneously seal a large number of porous structures were complex, expensive and difficult to implement. An example of the way in which a pressure gradient in the longitudinal direction along the beam unidirectional fibers described in C. Camuri, N. Takase, S. Kasui and E. Azodi, Cracking carbon fiber/carbon composite material obtained by chemical deposition from the gas phase, Carbon '80 (German Ceramic Society (1980). An example of the way in which to seal the annular wall creates a pressure gradient only in the radial direction, is described in U.S. patent N N 4212906 and 4134360. The annular porous wall, described in these patents may be formed from a large number gathered in the package, the annular disks for the manufacture of disc brakes) or may be a unitary tubular structure. For thick-walled structural composite materials purely radial pressure gradient sotdae the Noah cylindrical surface of the annular porous wall. The surface is exposed to high pressure, also tend very quickly to thicken, leading to its seal that prevents the passage of a reagent gas in a region of low density. This behavior severely limits the usefulness of the method, implemented in a purely radial pressure gradient.

And finally, the pulsating flow provides fast and cyclical filling and pumping chamber containing a heated porous structure with gas-reagent. Cyclical action causes the gas-reactant to penetrate into the porous structure, and to remove from the porous structure of the by-products of the decomposition of a reagent gas. Apparatus for implementing such a process is complex, costly, and cumbersome in operation. This process is very difficult to simultaneously seal a large number of porous structures.

Many developers in this field of technology combined method, implemented in the temperature gradient, the process is carried out at a pressure gradient, resulting in the method, implemented in temperature gradient and forced flow. The combination of methods allows to eliminate the drawbacks of each is osobov doubles the complexity, since in this case should be provided with equipment and technology that allows you to create both the temperature gradient and the pressure gradient, with some degree of regulation. The method of sealing a small disks and tubes, made in accordance with the process with temperature gradient and forced flow, described in U.S. patent N 4580524 and in the work of A. J. Caputo, and C. J. Smith. Lucky, the Obtaining of fiber reinforced ceramic composites by infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances made in the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY for the U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract no DE-AD05-840R21400 (1984). In accordance with this method the fibrous workpiece disposed in the cooling jacket. The upper part of the preform was heated and forced gas to pass through the workpiece to the heated part where it is decomposed, and besieged the matrix. The method of deposition of matrix in the tubular porous structure is described in U.S. patent N 4895108. In accordance with this method, the outer cylindrical surface is heated and the inner cylindrical surface is cooled by a water jacket. Gas-reagent was applied to the inner cylindrical surface. Similar methods, implemented with forced flow and tempestatum in "Seal thick disk blanks matrix of silicon carbide by seepage of gas phase chemical substances", Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 12 [9-10] pp. 2005-2014 (1991); T. M Bestmann, R. A. Laudanum, D. P. Stinton and T. L. Starr in "a Method for rapid infiltration of the gas phase ceramic composites", Journal De Physique, Colloque C5, supplement au n'5, Tome 50 (1989); Etc., the Guilder, J. L. Kay and K. P. Norton in "the Infiltration of the gas phase (with forced flow and temperature gradient) ceramic matrix composites", Proc. -Electrochemical Society (1990), 90-12 (Proc. Int. Conf. Chem. Vap. Deposition, 11th, 1990) 546-52. In each of these works described the processes seals at one time only one porous product, which is impractical for simultaneous processing of a large number of products from composite materials, such as brake discs, carbon/carbon.

Despite the described advantages, there is a need in the way of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase and in the device for implementing this method, which would allow to quickly and uniformly compacted porous structure, minimizing at the same time, the cost and complexity. Preferably, this method gave the ability to simultaneously seal a large number (e.g. hundreds) of individual porous large number of structures annular fiber preforms for aircraft brake discs, having the required physical properties.

The invention

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention is claimed method infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, including:

partial compaction of the porous structure in a furnace (heating apparatus) for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase by one matrix deposition in a porous structure by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, and the first part of the porous structure is subjected to a higher pressure than the second part of the porous structure, and the first part has a higher increment of bulk density than the second portion; and

the subsequent compaction of the porous structure by deposition of another matrix in the porous structure with at least one additional compaction process, and the second part has a higher increase in bulk density than the first part.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention is claimed how the infiltration of gas out of a large number of annular fibrous carbon structure in the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase by deposition of the first carbon matrix in the annular fibrous carbon structure through a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, the first part of each annular fibrous carbon structure is subjected to a higher pressure than the second portion of each annular fibrous carbon structure, and this first part has a higher increase in bulk density than the second portion; and

subsequent sealing of a large number of annular fibrous carbon structures by deposition of the second carbon matrix in each annular fibrous carbon structure using at least one additional seal, and the second part has a higher increase in bulk density than the first part.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention applying a friction disk having

reinforced annular porous structure having a first carbon matrix deposited in the annular porous structure and the second carbon matrix deposited in the annular porous structure on top of the first carbon matrix, and the densified annular porous structure has two generally parallel planar surfaces, the United inner annular surface and an outer annular surface is she annular surface, and the second annular portion adjacent the outer annular surface, the first and second ring parts are connected by two generally parallel planar surfaces, the second annular portion has at least 10% less carbon matrix per unit volume than the first annular portion, the first and second carbon matrix are essentially coarse lamellar microstructure, and the first carbon matrix more grafitizirovannogo than the second carbon matrix.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention is claimed method infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase in the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, providing

the introduction of a reagent gas in a sealed heater, located in the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase and having inlet and outlet openings, and gas-reagent is injected into the inlet of the heater and removed from a sealed heater through the outlet and diffuse through at least one porous structure located in the furnace dlese least one porous structure;

heat sealed heater to a temperature that is greater than the temperature of a reagent gas;

the gas temperature measurement of a reagent gas near the outlet;

temperature control of the heater to achieve a desired gas temperature;

and the release of a reagent gas from the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention is claimed device for introducing the first of a reagent gas into the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, containing

the first main gas pipeline to supply the first gas-reagent;

lead piping furnace, connected to the first trunk pipeline and a microwave for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase;

first flowmeters for measuring the flow rate of the first gas-reagent through each supply line of the furnace; and

the first regulating valves for regulating the flow rate of the first gas-reagent through each supply line of the furnace.

In accordance with another one the ski substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, providing

the first seal porous wall in the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, and the first stream of a reagent gas is diffused through the first porous wall;

seal the second porous wall by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, and the second flow of a reagent gas is diffused through the second porous wall; and

independent control of the first stream of a reagent gas and the second gas flow of reagent.

List of drawings

Fig. 1 - schematic representation of the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase according to the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a cross - section of the clamp for the implementation of the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase in accordance with an aspect of the present invention.

Fig. 3-7 - section of the retainer according to the present invention.

Fig. 8-13 section densified structure according to the present invention.

Fig. 14 is a schematic Sardinia from the gas phase.

Fig. 15 is a schematic diagram of the furnace for simultaneous sealing of a large number of porous structures by seepage of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient according to the present invention.

Fig. 16 is an isometric image of a heater according to the present invention.

Fig. 17 is an isometric image retainer with a porous structures according to the present invention.

Fig. 18 is a view of the latch with porous structures according to the present invention.

Fig. 19-21 - schematic diagram of the process according to the present invention.

Fig. 22 is another embodiment of a flat cover for use with the heater shown in Fig. 16.

Fig. 23 is a cross - section of the compacted structure according to the present invention.

Fig. 24 is a plot of bulk density over time for several of the processes according to the present invention.

Fig. 25 is a graph of the average deposition rate from a preset flow rate of a reagent gas for several processes according to the present invention.

Fig. 26 is a graph of the average current invention.

Fig. 27 is a graph of pressure through a porous wall, depending on the average bulk density for different costs of a reagent gas and the pressure in the reactor according to the present invention.

Fig. 28 is a latch with a partial slit for holding the porous structures having alternating annular gasket on the exterior and interior diameters.

Fig. 29 - clamp with a partial slit for holding the porous structures having a all ring-shaped strip at the inner diameter.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention

The present invention and different ways of its implementation is shown in Fig. 1 -29, where similar elements are indicated the same reference numbers, and the accompanying description. Used in this application, the expression "standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase" refers to the above-described method of isothermal infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. The expression "the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when Graziano deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient or the method implemented with forced flow, and is intended to replace the exceptions mentioned above, carried out in the temperature gradient and forced the flow to the extent to which these methods are used intentionally created by the temperature gradient, which affects the deposition process.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic representation of the furnace 10 for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, made with the possibility of deposition of matrix in the porous structure 22 in the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient according to the present invention. The furnace 10 includes a housing 13 having an inner surface 12, which limits the amount of furnace 14, gatwood 16 for introducing gas into the furnace 10. The current collector 30 (induction currents) is around volume 35 of the reactor and is heated by induction through inductor 20 in accordance with methods which are well known in this technical field. Can also be used with other heating methods, such as resistive heating or microwave heating, and each heating method seems to be nahoditsya 30 has an inner surface 33, which limits the amount of 35 reactors in volume 14 of the furnace. The porous structure 22 is located in the retainer 2 in volume 35 of the reactor and is predominantly heated by radiation from the collector 30. The vacuum device 58 that contains a vacuum pump or prevacuum system, communicates with the exhaust pipe 32, and is intended for pumping volume 14 of the furnace to a pressure below atmospheric. Gas-reagent is injected in volume 35 of the reactor through gatwood 16 from the inlet pipe 26 of the furnace. Gas reagent infiltrate through the porous structure 22, where it decomposes and besieging the matrix in the porous structure 22. To gasovoda 16 can be filed one or more types of gases.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the gas-reagent contains a mixture of the reactant gases are injected through the first gas pipeline 42 and the second gas pipeline 44. The supply line 26 of the furnace communicates with the first and second pipelines, 42 and 44 and gazivoda 16, providing in accordance with this flow of the reactant gases into the furnace 10. The first flow meter 46 measures the flow rate of the first gas (arrow 50), supplied to the supply line 26 of the furnace through the first main gas the supply line 26 of the furnace through the second gas pipeline 44. The gas flow in the inlet line 26 of the furnace to regulate the first control valve 54, which regulates the flow of the first gas reactant from the first main gas pipeline 42 and the second control valve 56, which regulates the flow of the second gas reactant from the second main gas pipeline 44.

The porous structure 22 includes a hole 23. Tube 60 communicates with the retainer 2, providing a supply of a reagent gas in the retainer 2. The latch comprises a pair of plates 38 and 40, and the tube 60 is sealed with gazivoda 16 and plate 38. The porous structure 22 is sealed between the plates of the annular gaskets 62 and 64 on the inner and outer diameters, respectively, and the plates 38 and 40 are interconnected coupling pins 66. The porous structure 22 forms a porous wall 68 located between gazivoda 16 and the exhaust pipe 32. Volume 14 of the furnace and the amount 35 of the reactor is evacuated to a pressure below atmospheric, and the gas is fed through the hole 23 of the porous structure at a higher pressure than the pressure in the reactor volume, which creates a pressure gradient across the porous wall 68 and forces the diffusion of gas through the porous structure before it is removed from volume 35 of the reactor and the volume 14 of the furnace is measured by a sensor 72 pressure release, as the pressure in the hole 23 of the porous structure is measured by a sensor 70 pressure inlet. The approximate temperature of a reagent gas in the hole 23 of the porous structure is measured by the temperature sensor 74 of the flow and temperature of the porous structure are approximated by using the temperature sensor 76 patterns, which is located in close proximity to the plate 40. As will be described in more detail, the parameters of temperature and pressure is chosen such that the gas was decomposed and precipitated matrix having certain desirable properties in the porous structure 22. Various aspects of the present invention can be used for the deposition of any type of matrix, obtained by infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, including, but without limitation, carbon or ceramic matrix is deposited in the porous structures 22 carbon-based or ceramic. The present invention is particularly suitable for deposition of a carbon matrix in the porous structure of the carbon-based and mainly for the production of composite structures, carbon/carbon, such as aircraft brake disks.

In Fig. 2 shows detail from the exercise, the porous structure is annular and has two opposing generally flat surfaces 78 and 80, which are connected to the inner annular surface 82 and an outer annular surface 84. The annular gasket 64 on the outer diameter with an average diameter less than the diameter of the outer annular surface 84 is located between the porous structure 22 and the plate 38. The annular spacer 62 on the inner diameter with an average diameter slightly larger diameter inner annular surface 82, is located between the porous structure 22 and the plate 40. Annular gaskets 62 and 64 also serve to allow passage of the gas flow between the porous structure 22 and the end plates 38 and 40, as well as to seal the porous structure 22 with the plates 38 and 40. The tie rods 66 can be threaded on one or both ends and are screwed on them nuts 67. To distribute the load on the plates 38 and 40 can be used washers 69.

As described above, the volume of the furnace is pumped out using a vacuum pump and gas-reagent is injected into the tube 60 at a higher pressure than the pressure in the furnace volume. Thus, the first part 86 (indicated dashed Lin thin dashed line) of the fibrous structure 22, that creates a dispersion of a reagent gas through the porous structure 22, as indicated by the arrows 90. When the gas is diffused through the porous structure, the additional gas stream passes through the tube 60 to the porous structure 22, as indicated by the arrows 92. Thus, the gas-reactant is fed continuously and forcibly dispersed through the porous structure 22. In this example, the first portion 86 has a surface 78 and the second part 88 has another opposite surface 80. The first portion 86 also has an inner annular surface 82 and the second portion 88 has an outer annular surface 84.

In Fig. 3 shows an alternative clamp 4 (which can be used instead of the latch 2), which are collected in the package and simultaneously compacted two porous structure 22. In this case, used two annular gasket 64 and the tie rods 65, which is similar to the clamping stud 66, shown in Fig. 2, but having a greater length. To the porous structure of the applied pressure gradient (as described above with reference to Fig. 2), leading to the diffusion of a reagent gas through the porous structure, as indicated by the arrows 90. Other elements of the retainer 4 are identical to the elements of the latch 2.

Gas-reagent is derived from Gauda a relatively high pressure, than the pressure in other parts. For example, in Fig. 8 shows the densified structure 300, the structure 22, which is obtained by using the processes illustrated in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. Relative density corresponds to the density of hatching: more finely shaded areas have a higher density than the large shaded area. The density monotonically decreases from zone 302 having the highest density, up to zone 308, which has the lowest density, and areas 304 and 306 have an intermediate density. The densified structure 300 has an average bulk density, and area 302 has a density, which is usually 110-140% of the average bulk density, and area 308 has a density component, typically 60-90% of the average bulk density. It should be noted that the area 302 of the highest density, as a rule, corresponds to the first portion 86 and area 308 lowest density, as a rule, corresponds to the second portion 88. Thus, in the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, shown in Fig. 2 and 3, the first portion 86 has a greater bulk density than the second portion 88.

The density gradient shown in Fig. 8, is unacceptable to many is the established levels through a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. In this first process, the first portion 86 has a greater bulk density than the second portion 88, as shown in Fig. 8. After that, the porous structure 22 may be additionally sealed by deposition of the second matrix within at least one additional compaction process during which the second part 88 has a greater bulk density than the first portion 86. For example, partially densified structure 300 shown in Fig. 8, may be inverted and subjected to a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient shown in Fig. 2 and 3. The second part 88 is exposed to higher pressure than the first portion 86 that leads to the second part 88 has a greater bulk density than the first portion 86. In Fig. 9 shows the densified structure 310, obtained using a two-step process, carried out with the flip of a porous structure. The density monotonically decreases from zone 312 of the highest density areas 316 lowest density, and area 314 has an intermediate density. The densified structure 310 has an average objemail density, and area 316 density is bulk density, component, typically 85-95% of the average bulk density. The density gradient in this case, usually symmetrical in the thickness of the porous structure 22, which is desirable in the manufacture of brake discs. This density gradient is also less than the gradient of the density of the compacted structure 300 shown in Fig. 8. Other or additional processes may include infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase with the pressure gradient, the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical vapor deposition and impregnation with resin after charring. In addition, to increase the graphitization of a carbon matrix prior to deposition of additional porous matrix structure, partially densified carbon matrix can be subjected to a heat treatment at a temperature higher operating temperature of the preceding processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase.

In Fig. 4 shows another alternative latch 6, which can be used instead of the latch 2 to the other process, infiltrate the 6 has an annular gasket 62, internal diameter, which leads to the fact that only the inner annular surface 82 of each of the porous structure is subjected to a higher pressure than the pressure in volume 35 of the reactor. Thus, the first portion 87 of the porous structure 22 is exposed to a higher pressure than the second part 89. This leads to the fact that under the action of pressure is the flow of a reagent gas through the porous structure, as indicated by the arrows 91. In this example, the first portion 87 has an inner annular surface 82 and the second part 89 has an outer annular surface 84 and two opposing surfaces 78 and 80. Gas-reagent has the ability to quickly pass through the porous structure 22 and out near the annular gasket 62. Thus, the gas-reactant are forced to diffuse through the porous structure 22. In Fig. 10 shows the densified structure 320, obtained by the process illustrated in Fig. 4. The densified structure 320 has an area of 322 the highest density located adjacent the inner annular surface 82, and the density decreases to the area 328 lowest density, which is located in the middle. The density monotonically increases from zone 328 least the weft density values. The densified structure 320 has an average bulk density, and area 322 has, as a rule, bulk density, which is approximately 140% of the average bulk density, and area 324 has, as a rule, bulk density, which is approximately 115% of the average bulk density. Area 328 has, as a rule, bulk density, comprising approximately 80% of the average bulk density. Area 322 greatest density, as a rule, corresponds to the first part 87, shown in Fig. 4. The region of intermediate density 324 adjacent the outer annular surface 84, is formed using a standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase by means of a reagent gas that is not fully decomposed, leaving the adjacent porous structures. The densified structure 320 may be further condensed with other or additional processes seals, which include the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical vapor deposition and impregnation with resin after amplifeeder 2 for the alternative process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient. The latch 8 has an annular gasket 64, od leads to the fact that the inner annular surface 82 and the opposing surfaces 78 and 80 of each of the porous structure are exposed to a higher pressure than the pressure in volume 35 of the reactor. The outer annular surface 84 is exposed to the pressure of volume 35 of the reactor. Thus, the first portion 94 of the porous structure 22 is exposed to a higher pressure than the second portion 96. This leads to the fact that under the action of pressure is the flow of a reagent gas through the porous structure 22, as indicated by the arrows 98. In this example, the first portion 94 has an inner annular surface 82 and the opposing surfaces 78 and 80, and the second portion 96 has an outer annular surface 84. As shown, the gas-reactant is dispersed through the porous structure 22. In Fig. 11 shows the densified structure 330, obtained using the process illustrated in Fig. 5. The densified structure 330 has an area of 332 the greatest density adjacent the inner annular surface 82, and a part consisting of two opposing surfaces 78 and 80. Area 332 sometimes goes up to the outer annular surface 84 and contains PI density to areas 338 lowest density, moreover zone 334 and 336 have an intermediate density. The densified structure 330 has an average bulk density, this area 332 density has, as a rule, the density component 110-125% of the average bulk density, and area 338 has, as a rule, the density constituting 80-90% of the average bulk density. The process illustrated in Fig. 5, allows to obtain a reinforced structure 330, which has a symmetric density gradient across the thickness of the structure. However, in some compacted structures 330 the density gradient may move to one of the surfaces 78 or 80 due to deviations of process parameters. It should be noted that the zone 332 and 334, as a rule, correspond to the first portion 94 shown in Fig. 5, and the second part 96 has a relatively lower increase in density, as shown by the zone 336 and 338. The densified structure 330 may be further condensed with other or additional processes seals, which include the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase and the curing small seal porous structure 330, illustrated on Fig. 11, using the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. As shown, the greatest density is in the area of 342 adjacent the inner annular surface 82, which remained from the zone 332, shown in Fig. 11. Subsequent the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase reduces the density gradient in the radial direction. This is shown by the area 344 intermediate density adjacent the outer annular surface 84. Area 346 lower density surrounds the Central zone 348 lowest density. The subsequent process compacts the part of the lower density remaining in the compacted structure 330, shown in Fig. 11. Thus, the second portion 96 shown in Fig. 5, in the next standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase has a higher increase in bulk density than the first portion 94. In addition, the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient was performed as shown in Fig. 5, POS is sustained fashion to the subsequent compaction using standard processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. The densified structure rather 330 reaches the final density and has a minimal tendency to thicken over the next standard processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase than the structure having the same bulk density, which was previously sealed only through the standard processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. This significantly reduces the need for machining operations surface for subsequent processes, which greatly simplifies and accelerates the entire process of sealing. This synergistic effect was startling discovery.

In Fig. 6 shows an alternative clamp, which can be used instead of the latch 2 to the alternative process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient. The process illustrated in Fig. 6, is a process of "reverse flow", in which the gas-reactant is fed into the porous structure from the outside and not the inside of the porous structure 22. This process is carried out by placing the porous structure 22 between A 43. The insulating cylinder 350 surrounds the porous structure 22, is located between the plates 38 and 41 and compacted with them. Peripheral portion of the surface 80 is separated from the plate 41 and is sealed to it by means of annular spacers 64 on the outer diameter. Peripheral portion of the surface 78 is separated from the sealing plate 352 and sealed to it by means of annular spacers 64 on the outer diameter, and the sealing plate 352 is located between the porous structure 22 and the plate 38. A number of spacer sleeves 353 provides a gap between the sealing plate 352 and the plate 38, forming a number of holes 354. Gas-reagent served in the latch 9 by the arrow 92. Through the sealing plate 352, the gas flow passes radially outwards through holes 354. Then through the insulating cylinder 350 the gas stream passes upward as shown by arrows 356 to the outer annular surface 84 of the porous structure 22. The hole 43 in the plate 41 provides the message inland area of the latch with the volume of the furnace and is under pressure that is less than the pressure of the gas supplied through the tube 60. Thus, the first portion 95 is exposed to higher pressure is. the EP comes from the retainer 9 in volume 35 of the reactor through the opening 43, as shown by the arrow 358. In this example, the first portion 95 has an outer annular surface 84 and the second portion 97 has an inner annular surface 82 and the opposing surfaces 78 and 80. The densified structure can be further compacted by using other or additional processes seals, which include the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical vapor deposition and impregnation with resin after charring.

In Fig. 7 illustrates an alternative retainer 7, which can be used instead of the latch 2 to the alternative process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient. Fig. 7 illustrates the process of reverse flow, which is very similar to the process shown in Fig. 6. The latch 7 is essentially identical to the retainer 9 except that the latch 7 includes an annular gasket 62 at the inner diameter, instead of the annular strip 64 on narodnosti 84, and extends from the inner annular surface 82 of the porous structure 22, as shown by arrows 101. The inner annular surface 82 are under pressure of volume 35 of the reactor, and the outer annular surface 84 and the opposing surfaces 78 and 80 are exposed to the pressure of supplied gas-reagent. Thus, the first portion 552 of the porous structure 22 is exposed to a higher pressure than the second part 550. In this example, the second portion 550 has an inner annular surface 82, and the first portion 552 has an outer annular surface 84 and the opposing surfaces 78 and 80. In Fig. 13 illustrates the densified structure 341, obtained through the process shown in Fig. 7. The densified structure 341 has an area of 343 greatest density adjacent the outer annular surface 84, and a part consisting of two opposing surfaces 78 and 80. The density monotonically decreases from zone 343 highest density to the area 349 lowest density, and area 345 and 347 have an intermediate density. The densified structure 341 has an average bulk density, and area 343, typically has a density, which is approximately 120% of the average bulk density, and area 349, shall be additionally sealed by using other or additional processes seals, which include the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical vapor deposition and impregnation with resin after charring.

The various elements of the tabs 2, 4, 6, 7 are preferably made of graphite, but from the practice of application of the present invention can be used any-resistant material. Different connections can be sealed with an elastic sealing and/or liquid adhesive, for example graphite cement. The porous structure may be pressed against the ring-shaped gaskets for the formation of an adequate seal, if the porous structure to seal are malleable. Suitable gaskets may be made from flexible graphite, for example, flexible sheet of graphite collection EGC Thermafoilsupplied EGC Enterprises Incorporated, Mentor, Ohio, USA, and tape sealants supplied from UCAR Carbon Company Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

The standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase can be carried out

c using a furnace 11, parismou plate 362, located on the supporting pillars 364. The porous structure is installed on the pads 368, which separates the porous structure 22 from the plate 362, allowing the passage of a reagent gas between the plate 362 and the porous structure 22. Support plate 362 has a large number of holes (not shown) to provide a dispersion of a reagent gas through the plate and around the porous structure 22. Legs 364, strip 368 and the support plate 362 with holes preferably made of graphite. The tube 60, as illustrated in Fig. 1, is replaced by a pipe 366, having a larger diameter. The gas enters the furnace volume and freely extends, as shown by arrows 370. The gas passes over the porous structure, as shown by arrows 34, and out of volume 14 of the furnace in a vacuum device 58, as shown by arrows 36 and 28. Usually use only one temperature sensor 76, which measures the overall temperature of the porous structure 22. The pressure measured by the sensor 70 pressure, just a little more pressure measured by the sensor 72, the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. The mixture of the reactant gases can be entered from the main gas pipelines 42 and 44, as described in orita structure 22 has a surface area, several large part of which (more than 50%) is subjected to gas-reagent, when he enters or exits the porous structure 22. Fitted with a high level of impact reduces the pressure gradient required to force a gas dispersion through each porous structure. Preferably exposed to gas-reagent as much surface area of the porous structure. It is preferable that affected were at least 80% of the surface area of the porous structure.

In Fig. 15 shows the oven to 400 for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase and the device 402 to supply the first of a reagent gas into the furnace 400. Oven 400 and the device 402 is particularly suitable for the simultaneous sealing of a large number of porous articles, for example from five hundred to a thousand annular preforms for the production of aircraft brake discs. The first main gas pipeline 404 delivers the first gas-reagent, as shown by the arrow 406. Supply pipeline 408 of the furnace are connected with the first main gas line 404 and oven 400. The first flow 410 measure the flow rate of the first gas-reagent through each inlet, trubor the agent through each supply line 408 furnace. The device 402 includes four inlet pipeline 408, four control valve 412 and four meter 410, but the present invention is not limited to this number of elements, because it can be more or less in accordance with the requirements of a particular application.

In accordance with the preferred embodiment, the microwave device 400 and 402 for the filing of a reagent gas is controlled using the controller 414. Each flow meter 410 may transmit data to measure the flow controller 414 on line 416 transmission of measurement data of the first stream and the controller 414 may control each valve 412 on line 418 of the first control valve. Thus, for each of the inlet pipeline 408 can be independently installed and adjusted the flow rate of the first gas reactant in a furnace 400. The controller 414 is preferably microprocessor-based and has a screen 415 to display various settings and States of the control device 402 for the filing of a reagent gas and the furnace 400. In accordance with a specific embodiment, each supply line 408 furnace contains one first flow meter 410 and one of the first regularuse the pipeline 404 preferably for the regulation in its pressure. The first main flow meter 422 may also be located in the first pipeline 404.

To the furnace 400 may be filed with a mixture of gases by performing at least a second main gas pipeline 424 for supplying a second gas-reagent, as shown by arrow 426. Provided second 430 meters that measure the flow rate of the second gas-reagent through each supply line 408 of the furnace, with the second regulating valves 432, designed to regulate the flow rate of the second gas-reagent through each supply line 408 furnace. Each flow meter 430 may transmit data to measure the flow controller 414 on line 436 transmission of measurement data of the second stream and the controller 414 may control each valve 432 on line 438 of second control valves. In accordance with a specific embodiment of the second main gas pipeline 424 contains a control valve 440 of the second line located in the second pipeline 424. The second main flow 442 may also be located in the second pipeline 424. Control valve 440 of the second line preferably adjusts my volume 446 of the furnace. In volume 446 of the furnace is the volume 447 of the reactor. Supply pipeline 408 furnace communicate with the volume 447 of the reactor. The vacuum device 448 communicates with the volume 446 of the furnace and the volume 447 of the reactor through a discharge pipe 450. The vacuum device 448 reduces the pressure in the volume 446 of the furnace to a pressure below atmospheric, and may include any acceptable device, such as a vacuum pump or prevacuum system with appropriate filters and scrubbers, which remove unwanted by-products from the used of a reagent gas. Gas-reagent supplied from the inlet pipeline 408 furnace, falls into the corresponding heater 458. The first heater 458 is located in the volume 447 of the reactor and has an inlet 460 and the exhaust hole 461. The first heater 458 compacted so that essentially all of the gas-reactant is supplied through the inlet opening 460 from the corresponding supply line 408 furnace, heated up and out of the heater through the corresponding outlet 461, where he infiltrate at least one porous structure located in the furnace. The expression "essentially all of the gas includes a small leak. The first heater 458 has. is agreta also the porous structure. In this example, the porous structure has a first porous wall 452, located in volume 447 of the reactor. The first porous wall 452 is preferably annular and includes a first top plate 454, which seals the upper open end of the first porous wall 452, limiting in accordance with this first closed cavity 456. The other end of the first porous wall 452 is sealed with the first heater 458, and the first exhaust hole 461 of the heater communicates with the first sealed cavity 456.

The first stream of a reagent gas enters the first heater 458 and then sent to the first closed cavity 456 at a higher pressure than the pressure in the volume 447 of the reactor. Thus, one side of the first porous wall 452 is exposed to higher pressure gas-reagent than the other side of the first porous wall. In the example shown in Fig. 15, the inner side of the porous wall 452 (closed cavity 456) is subjected to a higher pressure gas-reagent than the outer side of the porous wall 452. The differential pressure causes the first flow of a reagent gas to pass through the first porous wall, where the heated ha is Inoi gas and by-products out of the first porous wall 452 and disposed of volume 447 of the reactor through a discharge pipe 450 using a vacuum device 448. Thus, the gas-reactant is dispersed in the annular porous wall by filing and release of a reagent gas from the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase on opposite sides of the annular porous wall. Between every two porous walls is preferably provided by at least one exhaust pipe 450. Each heater 452 may also supply gas-reagent to more than one annular porous wall 452. Furnace 400 may be heated by any method known in this technical field, intended for the heating of the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, and this method may be resistive heating and induction heating.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the heater 458 and porous wall 452 heated by radiation from the current collector 462 (induction currents), which surrounds the first heater 458 and the porous wall 452 from all sides. The current collector 462 limits the amount of 447 reactor and the base 463, on which rests the first heater 458. The current collector 462 preferably contains an annular portion 464, and the 4. The current collector 462 associated with inductors 466, 468 and 470, which provide energy to the current collector, where it is converted into heat known in this technical field the way. Maintaining a uniform temperature from the lower to the upper part of the furnace for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase in the process of sealing a large number of porous structures (hundreds) can be difficult. The speed with which the gas decomposes and besieging the matrix binder material is largely determined by the temperature that the gas concentration of a reagent is sufficient. Thus, the temperature variation of the porous structure in the furnace cause the appropriate deviation increase in bulk density, which can reduce the yield in the process of implementing this technological cycle infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. The use of multiple inductors, as shown in Fig. 15, allows you to apply different amounts of heat along the length of the furnace. Thus can be obtained a more uniform temperature profile of the porous structure along the furnace (in the direction of gas flow).

In accordance with drho holes 461 of the first heater by using the first temperature sensor 490. The temperature sensor 490 can include a thermocouple type K in the corresponding protective case. To achieve the required gas temperature can be adjusted by the temperature of the heater. There is no need to directly measure the temperature of the heater as the temperature of the heater by convection associated with the gas temperature at the outlet 461. The temperature of the heater adjust by increasing or decreasing the heating of the first heater 458. As shown in Fig. 15, a wall 464 of the current collector consists of a first part 467 walls of the current collector, the second part 469 walls of the pantograph and the third part 471 wall pantograph. The first coil 466 is connected with the first part 467 wall of a current collector so as to convert electrical energy into heat energy in the first part 467 wall pantograph. The same applies to the second part of 469 walls of the current collector and the second inductor 468, as well as to the third part 471 wall of a current collector and a third inductor 470. The first heater 458 is heated mainly by heat emitted from the first part 467 wall of a current collector, which is located adjacent to the first inductor 466. Thus, the temperature of proctoru 466. Electric power supplied to the second inductor 468 and to the third inductor 470, can be adjusted to the required speed to maintain the desired temperature profile of the porous structure along the length of the furnace. The first heater 458 preferably located near the first part 467 walls of the pantograph, which improves the transfer of heat energy by radiation. The temperature measured by the first temperature sensor 490, can be transferred to the controller 414 on the first line 494 transfer measurement of the first temperature sensor. The controller can process the measurement data of the temperature sensor and automatically adjust the electric power supplied to the first inductor 466 as necessary to achieve the desired temperature of the first gas stream as it exits from the exhaust holes 461 of the first heater. In some devices, furnaces heater may be located near the center of the furnace and is surrounded by adjacent heaters, which are located near the wall of a current collector and a unit for transfer of thermal energy by radiation to the center of the heater. In this case, the Central heater is heated mainly by teploprovodna is heated by radiation from the walls of the current collector, and the temperature of the Central heater can be adjusted by changing the electric power supplied to the first inductor 466. The heaters may also have resistive heating, which will allow you to regulate the heat energy supplied to each heater. Any of these options are possible for use in the present invention.

The second porous wall 472 may be sealed with a second heater 478 and has a second top plate 474. The second heater 478 has an inlet opening 480 and the exhaust hole 481. To measure the temperature of the second stream of a reagent gas, when he comes out from the exhaust hole 481 of the second heater may be provided a second temperature sensor 492. The second porous wall 472 restricts the second closed cavity 476, which communicates with the exhaust hole 481 of the second heater. The second gas stream serves to the second heater at the appropriate inlet pipeline 408 furnace, after which he scatters through the second porous wall 472 and out of the volume 446 of the furnace as described in relation to the first porous wall 452. Thus, one side of the second porous wall 472 with a specific embodiment of the second heater 478 and a second porous wall 472 is heated mainly by radiation from the wall 464 of the current collector. The second heater 478 heated to a temperature above the temperature of a reagent gas from the respective inlet pipeline 408 furnace. Heated gas infiltrate through the second porous wall 472, where it decomposes and besieging the matrix binder material. After that, the remaining gas and by-products out of the second porous wall 472 and out of volume 446 of the furnace using a vacuum device 448. The second temperature sensor 492 may be located near the outlet opening 481 of the second heater. The temperature measured by the second temperature sensor 492 may be transferred to the controller 414 on line 496 data measuring a second temperature sensor. The controller 414 may process the measurement data of the temperature sensor and automatically adjust the electric power supplied to the first inductor 466, to the required value to achieve the desired temperature of the second gas stream as it exits from the exhaust hole 481 of the second heater. Electric power supplied to the first inductor 466 can also be manually adjusted to the required size to achieve the desired temperature of the gas stream. At Imicheskogo substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, moreover, in this process, at least a third flow of a reagent gas is forced to disperse through at least the third porous wall, exposing one side of at least a third of the porous wall to the impact of higher pressure than the other side, while the third gas stream can be independently adjusted. Similarly, using the secondary inlet pipes 408 furnace and additional heaters can be added and sealed with an additional porous wall. May provide additional heaters and temperature sensors gas flow near the outlet of each of the additional heater. Thus, the present invention allows for the simultaneous sealing of a large number of porous walls.

To measure the temperature of the first porous wall 452 in close proximity to it can be provided for temperature sensor 498. The temperature of the first porous wall may be raised or lowered by increasing or decreasing the flow rate of the first stream of a reagent gas, which passes through the first porous wall 452. For example, a first stream of a reagent gas may be at a lower t is giving flow of the first stream of a reagent gas at this lower temperature leads to a decrease in the temperature of the porous wall, and reducing the flow rate leads to an increase in temperature of the porous wall. The opposite phenomenon will occur when the first stream of a reagent gas has a higher temperature than the first porous wall 452. Temperature sensor 498 first porous wall may be associated with the controller 414 line 502 transfer of measurement data of the temperature sensor of the first porous wall, and this line allows automatic or manual regulation of the flow rate of the first gas stream to the required size to achieve the desired temperature of the first porous wall. Similarly, using the temperature sensor 500 may be the measured temperature of the second porous wall. The temperature sensor 500 of the second porous wall may be associated with the controller 414 line 504 data temperature measurement sensor of the second porous wall, and this line allows automatic or manual regulation of the flow rate of the second gas stream to the required size to achieve the desired temperature of the second porous wall. Similarly can be measured and adjusted the temperature of the third and additional porous walls. Each individual gas flow from the inlet phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase through the device 402 for the filing of a reagent gas. Temperature sensors porous walls can also be installed directly in the porous walls, as the temperature sensor 506. thermocouple may be installed between adjacent pair of annular porous structures, if the porous wall is formed from a package of porous structures. The temperature of the porous wall can also be measured using an optical pyrometer 548, focused through the window 546 optical target 544 located between the adjacent pair of porous walls 452 and 472.

In accordance with the preferred embodiment, the volume 446 of the furnace is supported at a constant vacuum pressure. The pressure within the first enclosed cavity 456, the second enclosed cavity 476 and any third or additional closed cavity is defined by the flow of a reagent gas introduced into this cavity, and the porosity of the respective porous wall. For example, the flow in the first closed cavity 456 can be maintained at constant volume. At the beginning of the densification process, the pressure within the first sealed cavity may be only slightly higher than the pressure of the volume of the furnace outside of the closed cavity. The pressure within the first enclosed cavity 456 increases as the matrix binder material asadata remains constant. The pressure within the first enclosed cavity 456 can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the amount of a reagent gas in the first sealed cavity. The increase in flow rate increases the pressure and flow reduction reduces the pressure. For measuring the pressure within the first enclosed cavity 456 may be provided in the first sensor 508 pressure. The first sensor 508 pressure may be connected by line 512 controller 414, which allows automatic and manual regulation of the flow rate of the stream fed to the first closed cavity 456, to the required size to achieve the required pressure. In a similar manner to regulate the flow rate and pressure within the second enclosed cavity 476 may be provided by the second sensor 510 pressure and line 514 data measuring the second pressure sensor. If necessary, can be provided for the third and other pressure sensors and the data line measurement pressure sensors. The flow rate of the gas stream in this closed cavity preferably is maintained constant and the pressure will naturally increase as the porous wall is sealed, but it should not rise too quickly and not to exceed the maximum is 402 for gas-reagent enables independent control gas flow to each of the porous walls. Current control the pressure inside the porous walls provides an indication of the degree of compaction of each of the porous walls in real time. No increase of pressure or very low pressure increase indicates the presence of a leak in the heater and/or in the porous wall. The process can be stopped and later resumed after the leak is detected and corrected. Unusually rapid increase in pressure could indicate a sooting or resinification of one or more annular porous wall.

In Fig. 16 shows the heater 100, which is the preferred embodiment of the heaters 458 and 478, as shown in Fig. 15. The heater 100 is described in more detail in the process of simultaneous consideration of the application for U.S. patent entitled "Device for use with the processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical vapor deposition", filed on the same day as the present application, the inventors James C. Rudolph, mark J. Purdy and Lovella Forth Sideways, which is fully incorporated in this application by reference. The heater 100 comprises a sealed duct structure 102. the (Fig. 15), which can be connected to one or more perforated tubes 19, facilitate the distribution of gas in the sealed duct structure 102. The heater 100 comprises a sealed guide structure 108, which is based on a sealed duct structure 102. Sealed design guide 108 includes a series of spaced perforated plates 128 and 129, which includes a lower perforated plate having the inlet port 104 of the guide structure, and the upper perforated plate having an exhaust channel 106 of the guide structure. Sealed structure 102 and sealed design guide 108 are sealed to each other, in addition, channel structure 102 is sealed with the base 463 pantograph connection 118 so that the gas can flow only through a tight guide structure 108. Sealed duct structure 102 contains at least the elements 119, 120 and 121, the upper ring 122 and the lower ring 123, which together form several sealed joints 124, 125, 166, 168, 170, 172 and 174. The supporting elements 119, 120 and 121 and the lower ring 123 support sealed the guide structure 108. Flat cap 110 preferably adjacent to the sealed channel device in the Directors porous structures and are designed to be used with the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient and has a number of holes 114 and 116, each of which ensures the supply of a reagent gas to the annular porous wall. Flat cap 110 is sealed with a sealed duct structure 102 by means of an elastic strip that is installed in the connection between them. Perforated plates 128 and 129 of adjacent and are located in the block bounded by perimeter 132 of the guide structure. Each plate 128 sealed the guide structure has a set of perforations 130 and perforation 130 one plate 128 poles are not aligned with the perforations 130 adjacent plate 129 of the current collector. This device greatly facilitates the transfer of heat by radiation from the wall 464 of the current collector directly perforated plates 128 and 129. Along the plates 128 and 129, heat is transferred by heat conduction, and to gas - forced convection. Perimeter 132 guide the design is sealed by means of elastic strips 134, and the outer border of each plate 128 and 129 and is located in close proximity to the wall 464 of the current collector. Strip 134 also serve to explode perforated plates 128 and 129 relative to each other. Sealed duct structure 102 preferably has a ledge 136, which is based on the specified GE is rancimat ledge in combination with the lower ring 123. Can be provided for the rack 140, which reduces the load on the guide structure 108 in the furnace, as well as additional support structure 108 and a flat lid 110. Each rack 140 has a larger portion (not shown), which is built on the basis 463 pantograph. Sealed design guide 108 rests on the support. The various elements of the heater 100 is preferably made of reinforced graphite. Various sealed connection is preferably formed using elastic strips and/or graphite cement. Suitable pliable strip may be made from flexible graphite, for example, flexible sheet of graphite collection EGC Thermafoil, and tape sealants supplied from EGC Enterprises Incorporated, Mentor, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Compatible materials can be supplied from UCAR Carbon Company Inc., Clevelend, Ohio, USA.

The porous walls 452 and 472, as shown in Fig. 15, can be formed from packets annular porous structures, which are particularly preferred for the production of aircraft brake discs. In Fig. 17 shows the preferred latch 200 to seal the package annular porous structures 22 through a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical is Isan in the process of simultaneous consideration of the application for U.S. patent, entitled "Device for use with the processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical vapor deposition", filed on the same day as the present application, the inventors James C. Rudolph, mark J. Purdy and Lovella Forth Sideways. The latch 200 is preferably used with heater 100 shown in Fig. 16. The porous structure 22 is assembled in the package 202. The latch includes a base plate 204, the spacer structure 206 and the upper plate 208. The top plate 208 may be provided with a hole 210, which is sealed with a flat lid 212, an elastic strip 213 and weighing 214. The base plate 204 is configured to connect with a flat lid 110 and has a hole (POS. 216 in Fig. 18), which is combined with one of the holes 114 or 116 of the flat cover. The base plate 204 is preferably positioned by means of a tapered pin 226. This device facilitates the alignment holes of the base plate with the corresponding hole of the flat cover. The base plate 204 is preferably sealed with a flat lid 110 by means of an elastic sealing gasket.

The top plate 208 is located at a distance from the base plate 204. The spacer structure 206 is settled of the spacer structure includes spacer rack 218, set around a package of porous structures and passing between the base plate 204 and the upper plate 208. Each rack 218 has pins 220 at each end, which are mounted in paired holes 224 in the base plate 204 and the upper plate 208. The spacer structure 206 preferably contains at least three hours 218 and can be performed as a single item, and possible other devices for joining the base plate 204 and the upper plate 208, which can be used in the present invention. At least one ring-like spacer 234 on the outer diameter is in the package 202 porous structures 22 between each pair of adjacent porous structures 22. The annular gasket 234 surrounds the openings 23 adjacent porous structures. At least one of the annular pads 234 on the outer diameter preferably is located between the base plate 204 and the adjacent porous structure 22 and between the upper plate 208 and the adjacent porous structure 22. The base plate 204, the packet porous structures 202 and at least one ring-like spacer 234 limit closed cavity 236 passing from the opening of the base plate (item 216 in Fig. 18), each M of the embodiment the outer diameter of the annular gasket 234 is approximately of 21.9 inches (556,26 mm), and the inner diameter of the gasket is 19.9 inches (505,46 mm) for receiving the annular porous structures 22, having an outer diameter of approximately 21 inches (533,4 mm). Annular spacers preferably have a thickness of at least 0.25 inches (6.35 mm).

In Fig. 18 shows the preferred latch 201 to simultaneously seal a large number of porous structures 22 through a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient. The spacer structure 207 includes at least one intermediate plate 272, located between the base plate 204 and the upper plate 208, which separates the batch porous structures 203. Rack 218 are held between the upper plate 208 and one of the intermediate plates 272, between the base plate 204 and the other intermediate plate 272 and between adjacent pairs of intermediate plates 272. In another respect, the latch 201 is essentially identical to the latch 200. Each intermediate plate 272 has a hole 274 located between a pair of porous structures 22. Closed cavity 236 further comprises a hole 274 of each of the intermediate plate. At least one annular procla can be assembled in the package. In this case, the base plate of one of the latch 201 is in contact with the upper plate 208 of the lower latch 201, and the hole 216 of the base plate of the upper retainer communicates with the hole 210 of the upper plate of the lower retainer. Thus, a closed cavity passes from one latch 201 to the next until, until flat cover 212, located on top of the holes 210 of the uppermost plate. As can be seen from this drawing, the base plate 204 is provided with conical holes 230 in which you installed the conical portion of the conical pins 226 and flat cap 110 is provided with holes 228 in which is installed a cylindrical part conical pins 226.

In Fig. 28 shows an alternative clamp 299 for sealing when the pressure gradient package porous structures. The latch 299 essentially identical to the latch 200 except that the package 302 includes an annular gasket 234 located on the outer diameter of each porous structure 22 alternating with annular spacers 284 located on the inner diameter of each porous structure. The annular gasket 234 on the outer diameter preferably have an internal diameter of 233, which have preferably have an outside diameter of 286, several larger inner diameter 610 porous structure, and the inner diameter of 288, which generally coincides with the inner diameter of 610 porous structure. In the presence of the annular gasket 284 outer diameter 608 porous structure larger outer diameter 286 annular gasket 284. The wall thickness of each annular strip 234 and 284 preferably minimize in order to ensure maximum impact on the surface area of the porous structure of a reagent gas as it enters or leaves each of the porous structure 22. In Fig. 29 shows an alternative latch 301 to seal when the pressure gradient package porous structures 303. The latch 301 is essentially identical to the latch 200 except that all the annular gasket package 303 are annular gaskets 284 internal diameter, located on the inner diameter of each porous structure.

The various elements of the clamps 200, 201, 299 and 301 are preferably made of graphite. Various compounds, formed in place, preferably sealed by annular seals made with the possibility of compression of the flexible graphite Materialovedenie to the ring-shaped spacers 234 to provide sufficient sealing and exclusion seals, between the porous structures 22 and annular spacers 234. The annular gasket before use preferably covered with a sealant having a surface deposition of pyrolytic carbon, which facilitates removal of the ring-shaped strip with densified porous structure after deposition of the matrix binder material.

Tabs similar to the tabs 200 and 201 can be used in the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, in which the annular gasket 234 replaced by spacer blocks that share the porous structure and enable gas to the substrate to pass freely through, over and around the porous structures 22. In this case, the flat cap 110 may be replaced by a flat cover 152, shown in Fig. 22, in order to facilitate the distribution of a reagent gas in the furnace volume. Flat cap 152 includes a set of holes 153. Seal the various compounds formed in the retainer made with the possibility of application in the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, are not necessary or deletelist and chemical deposition from the gas phase, the corresponding aspect of the present invention. In accordance with a preferred embodiment a large number of annular porous carbon structures have in the oven for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, for example in a furnace 400 (Fig. 15), using group latches, such as latch 201 (Fig. 18), which is condensed to a group heaters, such as heater 100. Gas-reagent fed to the furnace, using such a device, the device 402 for gas supply (Fig. 15). The furnace is heated up until not stabilized conditions, after which the first carbon matrix precipitated porous structures by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient. Greater reliance for porous structures, as shown in Fig. 17 and 18, during the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient is not necessary, since the porous structure is not subside during this process. Then, the porous structure is subjected to heat treatment without removing them from the oven or out of place. In the alternative termicheskuyu treatment is carried out at a higher temperature, than the temperature of the above-described deposition process, which increases graphitization first carbon matrix. After the heat treatment of the porous structure is removed from the furnace and subjected to a mechanical surface treatment to ensure accurate measurement of volumetric porosity. Mechanical surface treatment may also increase the open porosity on the surface. Then in porous structures using the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase precipitated the second carbon matrix. Thus, the second matrix overlaps the first matrix. After reaching the final density of the compacted structure is subjected to a mechanical treatment to obtain the final details. In a particular embodiment, the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient and the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical vapor deposition conducted at a temperature of approximately 1750-1900oF (954,4-1037,8oC), and heat treatment was carried out at a temperature of approximately 3300-4000oF (1815-2260,0

In Fig. 20 shows a schematic diagram of an alternative method, which starts the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, which in porous structures precipitated the first carbon matrix. Then, the porous structure is subjected to heat treatment without removing the porous structures of the furnace or of the holders. Then within another process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient immediately after the heat treatment process, precipitated the second carbon matrix. Alternatively, the porous structure can be extracted from the furnace and retainers before heat treatment process and returned to the latches for the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient before the second such process. Then, the porous structure is subjected to the operation surface machining. After that, using the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase is precipitated by DuChene final details. The abandonment of the porous structures in the same furnaces and place during the first and second processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient and heat treatment process provides receive a "continuous" way. To prevent sagging during thermal treatment process may require additional support units located between adjacent pairs of porous structures in place.

In Fig. 21 shows an alternative schematic diagram of the method that starts the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, which in porous structures precipitated the first carbon matrix. The porous structure is subjected to surface mechanical treatment and then using the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient precipitated the second carbon matrix, followed by thermal treatment.

After the heat treatment fully densified porous structure is subjected to mechanical obrabotka to be modified, and additional operations without deviating from the essence and scope of the present invention.

The first and second carbon matrix preferably have essentially coarse lamellar microstructure. Coarse lamellar microstructure has a higher density (about 2.1 g/cm3), a higher conductivity and a lower hardness than homogeneous layered microstructure. Coarse lamellar microstructure is particularly preferred for some aircraft brake disc carbon/carbon. The microstructure can be optically characterized as described M. L. Lieberman and H. O. Pearson in the work "the Influence of the gas phase on property obtained matrix in composite materials carbon/carbon 12 Carbon 233-41 (1974).

In Fig. 23 illustrates the densified porous structure 600 received in accordance with any method shown in Fig. 19, 20 or 21. The densified porous structure 600 has a first annular zone 612 adjacent the inner annular surface 82, and a second annular zone 614 adjacent the outer annular surface 84. First and second annular zone 612 and 614 are held throughout the thickness of the densified porous structure 600 and connected to the opposing surfaces 78 and 80. The densified porous structure 600 includes the first carbon matrix OS, gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the first carbon matrix deposited by a process in which used the clamps 200 and/or 201, having a ring-shaped outer spacer 234 (Fig. 17 and 18), which is similar to the process described with reference to Fig. 5, and results in uneven deposition of the first carbon matrix, providing the density distribution, similar to that which takes place in the densified porous structure 330, shown in Fig. 11. The first annular area 612 is exposed to higher pressure gas-reagent than the second annular zone 614 during the compaction process by infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient that causes the first annular zone 612 has a higher increase in density than the second annular zone 614. In accordance with a specific embodiment, the second annular area 614 is approximately 15% less than the first carbon matrix per unit volume than the first annular area 612, and the first carbon matrix preferably has essentially coarse lamellar microstructure. The second annular zone 614, as a rule, has the t to be less than the first carbon matrix by 20% 30%, 40% and then %. The densified porous structure 600 also includes a second carbon matrix deposited using standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase on top of the first carbon matrix, resulting in the densified porous structure 600 has a finite density distribution is the same as in the compacted porous structure 340, shown in Fig. 12. The second carbon matrix also preferably has essentially coarse lamellar microstructure. The first and second carbon matrix preferably have at least 90% coarse lamellar microstructure, more preferably at least 95% of the coarse lamellar microstructure, and in some preferred embodiments, the implementation of 100% coarse lamellar microstructure.

The first carbon matrix may be subjected to heat treatment, which leads to the fact that it becomes more graphitized than the second carbon matrix. Increasing graphitization increases the bulk density and thermal conductivity. Thus, the initial density gradient after infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition izadinia second carbon matrix. If the first carbon matrix has such a distribution as shown in Fig. 11, the first annular zone 612 has a generally higher conductivity than the second annular zone 614, and, as a rule, a higher bulk density than the second annular zone 614, even after the deposition of the second carbon matrix. Closed porosity remaining in the compacted porous structure 600 has an impact on the measurement of the volumetric porosity. The effects of porosity can be minimized by measuring the bulk density of crushed samples, which in this application referred to as the bulk density of the crushed samples. In accordance with a specific methodology, the volume density of the crushed samples were measured by cutting a sample from the compacted porous structure and destruction of the sample between parallel steel plates installed for testing at maximum load. The sample is preferably destroyed to keep it in one piece. This can be done by compressing the sample in yield stress without breaking. After that bulk density was measured in accordance with the method of Archimedes, using white spirits, such as Isopar M (synthetic isoparaffinic it-spiritualists in this structure. Bulk density is determined by measuring the density of material that is not permeable to the penetration of white spirits. The destruction of the sample opens a previously closed porosity, which was impervious to the penetration of white spirits and minimizes the effects of porosity. In an alternative embodiment, the bulk density of crushed crushed samples can be measured using a helium pycnometer. Measuring the density of the compacted porous structures obtained similarly densified porous structure 600, showed that the volume density of the crushed samples adjacent to the inner annular surface 82, was suitably at least 0.2% more, and may be 0.4 and 0.5% more than the adjacent outer annular surface 84. Thus, the bulk density of the crushed samples tends, as a rule, be reduced in the direction from the inner surface 82 to the outer surface 84.

thermal conductivity of compacted porous structures similar to the densified porous structure 600 (as described in the preceding paragraph), were measured in two directions: perpendicular to the opposite surfaces 78 and 80, which will be referred to as

"teplo which will be referred to as "conductivity region". thermal conductivity of plane annular zone 614 was at least 5% less than the annular zone 612, when measured on the opposite surfaces 78 and 80. thermal conductivity of plane annular zone 614 was at least 12% smaller than the annular zone 612 at one-half the distance between the opposing surfaces 78 and 80. thermal conductivity of the edge of the annular zone 614 was at least 5% less than the annular zone 612, when measured on the opposite surfaces 78 and 80. thermal conductivity of the edge of the annular zone 614 was at least 4% less than the annular zone 612, when measured at half the distance between the opposing surfaces 78 and 80. Thus, thermal conductivity, as a rule, tend to decrease from the inner annular zone 612 to the outer annular zone 614. This tendency is explained by the higher grafitizare first matrix than the second.

The following examples further clarify various aspects of the present invention.

EXAMPLE 1

For the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase revealed the following. Fibrous textile structure thickness of approximately 1.5 DUI crylonitrile fiber. Then, of textile patterns carved annular porous structure, having an outer diameter of about 7.5 inches (to 190.5 mm) and an inner diameter of approximately 2.5 inches (63.5 mm). The annular porous structure was then subjected to pyrolysis to convert fibers into carbon. After that paralizovannnuyu porous structure having a bulk density of 0.49 g/cm3, was placed in a furnace similar to the furnace 11, shown in Fig. 14. The pressure inside the furnace was reduced to 10 mm Hg and the furnace was heated and stabilized at a temperature of approximately 1860oF (EXPENSES WERE 1015.6oC), measured using a temperature sensor as a temperature sensor 76, shown in Fig. 14. A mixture of a reagent gas was introduced, as described in Fig. 14, where it is freely dissipated through and around the porous structure as in the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. A mixture of a reagent gas contained 87% natural gas and 13 vol.% propane at a flow rate of 4000 cm3/min. and at length of stay, which constitutes approximately 1 second in the reactor volume. Natural gas had the content 96,4% vol. methane, 1,8% vol. atentry times to measure the volumetric increase of porosity. The total time of the deposition process was 306 hours. For each of the three cycles of compaction was calculated the average deposition rate. Table 1 shows the test conditions and data taken from this example, which includes the total deposition time and a General increase in density for each specified total of time. Almost all of the carbon matrix deposited in the densified porous structure, at the end of the process had a rough layered microstructure with minimal sediment smooth layered microstructure on the surface of the porous structure.

EXAMPLE 2

The annular porous structure having a thickness of 1.6 inches (40,64 mm), the outer diameter of 6.2 inches (157,48 mm and an inner diameter of 1.4 inches (35.56 mm), cut from fibrous textile patterns and subjected processed as in example 1, using the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. Table 2 shows the test conditions and data taken from this example.

EXAMPLE 3

Two annular porous structure (drives a and B) obtained from fibrous textile patterns and has the same dimensions as in example 1, UE is the phase when the pressure gradient, using a furnace similar to the furnace 10 shown in Fig. 1, a clamp similar to the clamp 2, as shown in Fig. 2, having an annular gasket on the inner and outer diameters, and the mixture gas of the reagent of example 1. Test conditions and data from this example are shown in table 3. The furnace pressure was 10 mm Hg. The temperature of the gas stream is measured using a temperature sensor such as temperature sensor 74, shown in Fig. 1, was 1740oF (948,9oC). The gas flowed through the porous structure, as described above with reference to Fig. 2, at a flow rate of 4000 cm3/min. All carbon matrix deposited in the disk A, had a rough layered structure. The microstructure of the disk B is not defined. Drive a cut on small samples and the method of Archimedes measured the bulk density of the samples and the resulting density profile was similar to the profile shown in Fig. 8.

EXAMPLE 4

Three annular porous structures (disks A, B and C) were obtained separately and sealed by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient in the same way as in example 3, for the number distribution of the target density. The temperature of the gas stream is measured using a temperature sensor such as temperature sensor 74, shown in Fig. 1, was 1740oF (948,9oC). Test conditions and data from this example are shown in table 4.

EXAMPLE 5

Two annular porous structure obtained from fibrous textile patterns and has the same dimensions as in example 1 were simultaneously condensed by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using the latch similar to the latch 6, shown in Fig. 4, having a all ring-shaped strip on the inner diameter, and a mixture of a reagent gas of example 1. The temperature of the gas stream is measured using a temperature sensor such as temperature sensor 74, shown in Fig. 1, was 1745oF (AMOUNTED TO 951.6oC). Test conditions and data from this example are shown in table 5. Data density, are given in table 5 are the average of two disks. All carbon matrix deposited in the densified porous structure, at the end of the process had a rough layered structure. Calculations on the. 10.

EXAMPLE 6

Four annular porous structure obtained from fibrous textile patterns and has the same dimensions as in example 1 was condensed by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using the latch similar to the latch 8, shown in Fig. 5, having all of the annular gasket, the outer diameter, and a mixture of a reagent gas of example 1. Two disks were condensed at the same time (disk pair A and B) and the flow rate of a reagent gas was doubled to maintain the flow rate of 4000 cm3rpm disk. The temperature of the gas stream is measured using a temperature sensor such as temperature sensor 74, shown in Fig. 1, was approximately 1750oF (954,4oC). Test conditions and data from this example are shown in table 6. Data density, are shown in table 6 are the average for each pair of disks. All carbon matrix deposited in the densified porous structure, at the end of the process had a rough layered structure. Calculations based on tomographic scan disk pair B given profiles were protocolecho of fibrous textile patterns, having the same dimensions as in example 2, and condensed by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using the latch similar to the latch 7, as shown in Fig. 7, having a all ring-shaped gasket internal diameter, providing a reverse flow of a reagent gas, and the gas mixture of a reagent of example 1. The temperature of the gas stream is measured using a temperature sensor such as temperature sensor 74, shown in Fig. 1, was 1730oF (943,3oC). Gas-reagent flowed through the porous structure as described above with reference to Fig. 7, a flow rate of 3000 cm3/min (the flow rate was reduced because the disk was smaller disks used in examples 3-6). Test conditions and data from this example are shown in table 7. Carbon matrix deposited in the densified porous structure, at the end of the process had mostly uniform layered microstructure.

In Fig. 24 in the form of graphs presents the data given in tables 1-7. Data taken from tables 1 and 2, represented by a single smooth curve 516 representing the standard process of infiltration of the gas fagnou smooth curve 518, representing the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using a ring-shaped gasket on the inner and outer diameters. Data taken from table 5, presents one smooth curve 520, representing the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using only the annular gasket at the inner diameter. Data taken from table 6, represented by a single smooth curve 522 representing the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using only the annular gasket on the outer diameter. Data taken from table 7, presents one smooth curve 524 representing the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient with a reverse flow of a reagent gas and using only the annular gasket at the inner diameter. Speed seal was increased in 0.5-5 times compared with speeds seal using a standard process in the increase of bulk density of 1 g/cm3decreased by approximately 25-80% in comparison with the time required when using the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. The importance of the maximum possible exception of leakage is apparent from Fig. 24. Any leakage leads to a reduction in the rate of compaction of the maximum attainable values. High speed seals can be achieved even in the presence of small leaks. Thus, some leakage may occur according to the present invention.

In Fig. 25 shows the curves of the dependence of the rate of compaction on the magnitude of the normalized flow. Normalized flux denoted by F*and represents the amount of flow per unit volume of the disk (for example, 4000 cm3rpm on the drive capacity of 1000 cm3= 4 min-1). Additional tests were conducted in accordance with the above-described examples 6 and 7 except that the flow rate of a reagent gas was varied from test to test. Data obtained from tests conducted in accordance with example 6 under changing flow, are shown in table 8, and the data taken from tests carried out in accordance with example 7 when the s chemicals and chemical deposition from the gas phase. Data taken from table 8, is represented by the curve 528, which represents the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using all annular gasket od (Fig. 5). Data taken from table 9, is represented by the curve 530, which represents the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using all annular gasket inside diameter (Fig. 7).

In Fig. 26 shows the curves representing the dependence of the rate of compaction from the normalized flow. Additional tests were conducted in accordance with the above-described example 6 (process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient using all annular gasket outside diameter, except that the pressure in the furnace volume and the flow rate of a reagent gas was varied from test to test. Data obtained from these tests are given in table 10. Data taken from table 10, presents three curves 532, 534 and 536. Curve 532 prestatie in the furnace volume 25 millimeters of mercury, curve 536 represents the data when the pressure in the furnace volume of 50 millimeters of mercury. These pressures can be measured using a pressure sensor such as pressure sensor 72 shown in Fig. 1. The entire matrix is deposited in all these trials, has a coarse lamellar microstructure. As shown in Fig. 26, an additional increase in speed of the seal while maintaining the desired coarse lamellar microstructure can be obtained by increasing the pressure in the furnace (reactor pressure). This was an unexpected discovery.

In Fig. 27 presents the dependence of the pressure drop across the porous structure of the bulk density for several gas flow rates of the reagent. Additional tests were conducted in accordance with example 6 at different flow velocities. Data obtained from these tests are shown in table 11. Data taken from table 11, shown in Fig. 27 the first set of curves 538 obtained for a flow rate of 1000 cm3rpm on the disk, the second set of curves 540, obtained for a flow rate of 2000 cm3rpm on the disk, and the third set of curves 542 obtained for a flow rate of 4000 cm3/min to drive. The entire matrix is deposited in all these trials, e and final pressure drop in the porous structure, moreover, the pressure in the reactor was maintained constant. As follows from Fig. 27, the pressure gradient across the porous structure may at least be 80 millimeters of mercury (which indicates the pressure of 90 mm Hg on the other side of the porous structure, which has a higher pressure) while maintaining the desired coarse lamellar microstructure.

The tests showed that the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient corresponding to the present invention, can be carried out at a temperature of parts in the range of 1800-2000oF, the pressure in the reactor in the range of 10-150 mm Hg, the normalized flow rate (F*in the range 0.4-10 min-1and hydrocarbon mixture of a reagent gas which is a mixture of natural gas and 0-40% vol. propane. The conduction process in these ranges allows to obtain a layered rough and/or smooth layered microstructure. Carrying out this process with all the technological options selected at or near the upper limit of each of these ranges may cause resinification or sazheobrazovanie. Without rejected the e gases, pressure and temperature are known from the prior art for use in the processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase.

Seal porous structure by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient in accordance with the present invention, followed by the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, gives compacted porous structure having a more uniform density distribution than the porous structure, compacted only using the standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. In accordance with a particular embodiment, for example, the annular porous carbon structure having an inner diameter of approximately 10.5 in (USD 266.7 mm) (shown on Fig. 23 POS. 602), wall (indicated in Fig. 23 POS. 604) with a thickness of approximately 5.25 inch (133,35 mm) and having a thickness (indicated in Fig. 23 POS. 606) approximately 1.25 inches (31.75 mm), condensed first carbon matrix deposited when the pressure gradient (conditions of example 6), using the latch, such as latch 201 (Fig. 18), in a furnace, for example in a furnace 400 (Fig. 15), which gave a density distribution similar to the distribution density of the compacted structure 330, shown in Fig. 11. Carbon matrix, optionally precipitated using a standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase (example 1), resulted in a density distribution similar to the distribution density of the compacted structure 340, shown in Fig. 12, and had an average bulk density of approximately 1.77 g/cm3. Standard (square) deviation of the bulk density of the compacted structure was approximately 0.06 g/cm3. The standard deviation of the bulk density comparable porous carbon structures, compacted equivalent to the average bulk density using only the standard processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, was approximately 0.09 g/cm3. Thus, the porous structure, the densified by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the gradient giving the someone deposition from the gas phase, has a more uniform density distribution than the porous structure, the densified only using standard processes of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase. Decreases as peripheral, and the total deviation. Uniformity is desirable for aircraft brake disc carbon/carbon.

The standard deviation of the bulk density on the structure of the carbon/carbon obtained in accordance with the present invention, preferably less than or equal to 0.07 g/cm3and more preferably less than or equal to 0.06 g/cm3or 0.05 g/cm3and preferably less than or equal to 0.04 g/cm3or 0.03 g/cm3. The coefficient of variation of bulk density in any densified porous structure, preferably less than or equal to 4%, more preferably less than or equal to 3.5%, or 3%, and preferably less than or equal to 2.3% or 1.8%.

Obviously, without deviating from the scope of the present invention defined in the claims, it may be many changes.

1. The way the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, including the partial upl is deposition from the gas phase by deposition of one matrix in the porous structure, characterized in that the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, in which the first of the said porous structure is exposed to a higher pressure than the second part of the porous structure when the specified first part has a higher increment of bulk density than the second part, and then seal the specified porous structure by depositing another matrix specified in the porous structure through at least one additional compaction process, wherein the specified second part has a higher increment of bulk density than the specified first part.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the additional compaction process is a standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase.

3. The method according to p. 1. characterized in that the said additional sealing is a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, and the specified Tue is on p. 1, characterized in that the said additional sealing is the process of impregnation with resin, providing the charring of the specified resin.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that before the specified subsequent compaction of the porous structure by means of at least one additional sealing conduct heat treatment specified partially densified porous structure at a higher temperature than the temperature of the above-mentioned process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient.

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the porous structure is a porous carbon structure, and that the process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient is precipitated by carbon matrix specified in the porous structure.

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the porous structure is made ring-shaped and has two generally planar opposing surfaces, with the specified first part includes one of these opposite surface is>8. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the porous structure is made annular and has an inner annular surface and an outer annular surface, with the specified first part includes the specified internal annular surface, and the second part includes the specified outer annular surface.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the porous structure is made annular and has an inner annular surface and an outer annular surface, with the specified first part includes the specified outer annular surface, and the second part includes the specified internal annular surface.

10. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the porous structure is made ring-shaped and has two generally parallel planar surfaces connected by an inner annular surface and an outer annular surface spaced from the said inner annular surface and surrounding it, with the specified first part includes the specified internal annular surface and one of said two parallel flat surfaces, and specify the selected flat surfaces.

11. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the porous structure is made ring-shaped and has two parallel flat surfaces connected by an inner annular surface and an outer annular surface spaced from the said inner annular surface and surrounding it, with the specified first part includes the specified outer surface and one of said two parallel flat surfaces, and the said second part includes the specified internal annular surface and the other of said two parallel flat surfaces.

12. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that after the above process, the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient and before the specified subsequent compaction specified porous structures conduct heat processing said porous structure at a higher temperature than the temperature of the above-mentioned process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient.

13. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that after the above process, the infiltration gazowsky processing said porous structure without removing it from the specified furnace.

14. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the porous structure is a series of annular fibrous carbon structure.

15. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that each annular fibrous carbon structure has two flat parallel surfaces, with the specified first part includes one of said two parallel surfaces, and the said second part includes the other of said two generally parallel surfaces.

16. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that each annular fibrous carbon structure has an inner annular surface and an outer annular surface, with the specified first part includes the specified internal annular surface, and the second part includes the specified outer annular surface.

17. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that each annular fibrous carbon structure has an inner annular surface and an outer annular surface, with the specified first part includes the specified outer annular surface, and the second part includes the specified internal Kohl is DNA structure has two parallel flat surfaces, United through the inner annular surface and an outer annular surface spaced from the said inner annular surface and surrounding it, with the specified first part includes the specified internal annular surface and one of said two parallel flat surfaces, and the said second part includes the specified outer annular surface and the other of said two parallel flat surfaces.

19. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that each annular fibrous carbon structure has two parallel flat surfaces connected by an inner annular surface and an outer annular surface spaced from the said inner annular surface and surrounding it, with the specified first part includes the specified outer annular surface and one of said two parallel flat surfaces, and the said second part includes the specified internal annular surface and the other of said two parallel flat surfaces.

20. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that after the above process, the infiltration of gas phase chemical what Otaniemi specified annular fibrous structures conduct heat processing said annular fibrous structure at a higher temperature, than the temperature of the above-mentioned process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient.

21. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that after the above process, the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient conduct heat treatment specified porous structure without removing it from the specified furnace.

22. The method according to PP.1 to 21, characterized in that conduct heat porous carbon structures, at least to a temperature 954,4oC (1750oF) heating a hydrocarbon gas-reagent, at least to a temperature 899oC (1650oF), and partial compaction specified porous carbon structures is done by ensuring the passage of a specified of a reagent gas through the said porous carbon structure from the first part to the second part, wherein the specified first part has a higher increment of bulk density than that specified in the second part, in doing so, then seal the specified porous carbon structures by deposition of the second matrix in the specified porous carbon structure through psome increment of bulk density, than the specified first part.

23. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that the second matrix is a carbon matrix and the specified additional compaction process is a standard process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase.

24. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that the additional compaction process includes heating a porous carbon structure, at least to a temperature 954,4oC (1750oF) heating a hydrocarbon gas-reagent, at least to a temperature 899oC (1650oF) and the flow of the specified gas-reagent around the specified porous structure.

25. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that after the partial compaction specified porous carbon structures and before the specified subsequent seal conduct additional thermal processing said porous carbon structure at least at a temperature of 1815oC (3300oF).

26. The method according to p. 25, wherein the specified thermal processing said porous structure is carried out after the above process, the infiltration of gas phase chemical homestay patterns from the specified furnace.

27. The product obtained using the method according to PP.1 - 26.

28. The friction disk containing compacted annular porous structure having deposited on it the first carbon matrix, characterized in that the porous structure includes a second carbon matrix deposited on the annular porous structure over a specified first carbon matrix, and has two generally parallel planar surfaces, the United inner annular surface and an outer annular surface spaced from the inner annular surface and surrounding it with the first annular portion of the porous structure specified adjacent the inner annular surface and the second annular portion adjacent the specified outer annular surface, the first and second ring parts are connected these two parallel flat surfaces, and the said second annular portion contains at least 10% less of the specified first carbon matrix per unit volume than the specified first annular part, and these first and second carbon matrix are essentially coarse lamellar microstructure, and the first carbon m is th drive p. 28, characterized in that the said first and second carbon matrix have at least 90% coarse lamellar microstructure.

30. Friction drive p. 28, characterized in that the first annular portion has a higher thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the two parallel flat surfaces than the specified second annular part.

31. Friction drive p. 28, characterized in that the first annular portion has a higher thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the specified first and second annular surfaces than the specified second annular part.

32. Friction drive p. 28, characterized in that the first annular portion has a higher bulk density of the crushed samples than the specified second annular part.

33. Friction drive p. 28, characterized in that the first annular portion is 0.2% higher bulk density of the crushed samples than the specified second annular part.

34. Friction drive p. 28, characterized in that the said first carbon matrix has a higher conductivity than the specified second carbon mA the higher the density, than the specified second carbon matrix.

36. Friction drive p. 28, characterized in that the said annular porous structure contains carbon fiber.

37. Friction drive p. 28, characterized in that the specified compacted annular porous structure has an annular fibrous structure.

38. Friction drive p. 28, characterized in that the specified compacted annular porous structure has an annular fibrous structure with carbon fiber.

39. Friction drive p. 38, characterized in that the first annular portion has a higher thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the two parallel flat surfaces than the specified second annular part.

40. Friction drive p. 38, characterized in that the first annular portion has a higher thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to said first and second annular surfaces than the specified second annular part.

41. Friction drive p. 38, characterized in that the first annular portion has a higher bulk density crushed obrana densified annular porous structure has an annular fibrous structure, having only carbon fiber.

43. A friction disk on PP.28 - 42, characterized in that the conductivity, measured perpendicular to said two opposite surfaces, and bulk density of crushed samples from the specified compacted annular porous structure is reduced, as a rule, in the radial direction from the said inner annular surface to the said outer annular surface.

44. Friction drive p. 43, characterized in that the specified compacted annular fibrous structure contains carbon fiber.

45. The way the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, carried out in a furnace, which includes the introduction of a reagent gas into the volume of the furnace which is placed in a sealed heater, characterized in that the gas-reagent serves to the inlet of the heater, remove from the outlet of the heater and dissipate at least through one porous structure located in the specified furnace, the method also includes heating the specified at least one porous structure, heating the specified sealed programmnogo of a reagent gas near the specified outlet, the regulation specified heater temperature to achieve a desired gas temperature and the specified release of a reagent gas from a specified furnace.

46. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the furnace contains a wall of a current collector, the method further includes heating the specified wall of a current collector, a study of thermal energy which is provided by the specified heat sealed heater.

47. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that said pressurized heater is located in the immediate vicinity of the specified wall pantograph.

48. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the furnace contains a wall of a current collector having at least first and second parts, and at least first and second inductors, the first of which is inductively associated with the specified first part of the wall of a current collector with the conversion of electric energy from the specified first inductor to heat specified in the first part of the walls of the current collector, and the specified second inductor inductively associated with the specified second part of the wall of a current collector with the conversion of electric energy from the specified second inductor into heat energy in the specified first part of the walls of the collector and is heated to a specified temperature, at least partially through the heat radiation from the said first side wall pantograph, and at the specified temperature control heater control electric power supplied to the specified first inductor.

49. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the furnace comprises a cylindrical wall of a current collector having at least first and second parts, and at least first and second cylindrical inductors, the first of which is coaxially located around the specified first part of the cylindrical wall of the pantograph and inductively associated with converting electric power from the specified first cylindrical inductor to heat specified in the first part of the cylindrical wall of the pantograph, and the specified second cylindrical coil coaxially located around the specified second part of the cylindrical wall of the pantograph and inductively associated with converting electric power from the second specified cylindrical inductor to heat specified in the second part of the cylindrical wall of the pantograph, with the specified sealed heater is cylindrical and races is it and is heated to a specified temperature, at least partially through the heat radiation from the said first part of the cylindrical wall of a current collector, and at the specified temperature control heater control electric power supplied to the specified first inductor.

50. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the furnace comprises a cylindrical wall of a current collector, and the specified sealed heater has a generally arcuate perimeter and is located in the immediate vicinity of the specified cylindrical wall pantograph.

51. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that said pressurized heater heated by an electric energy of a resistive heater.

52. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the outlet of the heater is made in the form of a set of perforations.

53. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the at least one porous structure has first and second parts, and the method further provide for the passage of a specified of a reagent gas through the said at least one porous structure from the specified first part specified in the second part.

54. The way the creature, coarse lamellar microstructure in the specified at least one porous structure.

55. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the at least one porous structure is a porous carbon structure, and the specified gas-reagent besieging a carbon matrix in the specified at least one porous structure.

56. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the at least one porous structure made in the form of a series of annular porous structures collected in the package that defines the annular porous wall, and the method further carry out the specified dispersion of a reagent gas through the said annular porous wall through its feed and discharge from the specified furnace on opposite sides of the specified annular porous wall.

57. The method according to p. 56, characterized in that the specified package annular porous structures has at least one ring located coaxially between each pair of adjacent porous structures, with most of the surface area of each annular porous structure is free to specified impact of a reagent gas.

58. The method according to p. 56, otlichay wall, and the method further submit the specified gas-reagent from the specified outlet of the heater in the specified closed cavity, reinforced with the specified discharge.

59. The way the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, carried out in a furnace, which includes the formation of annular porous wall and the flow specified in the oven of a reagent gas bearing carbon, characterized in that the said porous wall has a closed cavity in the form of a package of annular fibrous carbon structure, the method includes sealing the specified annular porous wall with a sealed heater with the inlet opening and the outlet opening that communicates with the specified closed cavity wall, the supply of a reagent gas at a specified inlet and release it through an outlet in the specified closed cavity, heating the specified annular porous wall, heating the specified heater to a temperature that is greater than the specified temperature of a reagent gas in the area specified inlet of the heater, the temperature measurement of the specified gas-reagent V achieve the required gas temperature and the specified release of a reagent gas from a specified furnace of the closed cavity through the opposite side surface of the specified annular porous wall with the provision of the specified dispersion of a reagent gas through the said annular porous wall.

60. The method according to p. 59, characterized in that the furnace contains a wall of a current collector having at least first and second parts, and at least first and second inductors, the first of which is inductively associated with the specified first part of the wall of a current collector with the conversion of electric energy from the specified first inductor to heat specified in the first part of the wall of a current collector, and the second inductor inductively associated with the specified second part of the wall of a current collector with the conversion of electric energy from the specified second inductor into heat energy in the specified second side wall pantograph, while specified airtight heater is located near the specified first side wall pantograph and heated to the specified temperature, at least in part by heat radiation from the said first side wall pantograph, and at the specified temperature control heater control electric power supplied to the specified first inductor.

61. The method according to p. 59, characterized in that the gas-reagent besieging a carbon matrix having, essentially, rough layered micro, the specified package annular porous structures has at least one ring located coaxially between each pair of adjacent annular fibrous carbon structure, with most of the surface area of each annular fibrous carbon structure is free to specified impact of a reagent gas.

63. The device infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, in particular for the supply of a reagent gas into the furnace, containing at least one main gas pipeline for supply of the reactant gases, the inlet piping to the furnace, control valves controlling the flow of a reagent gas through each supply line of the furnace and controller specified control valves, characterized in that it includes flowmeters flow of a reagent gas through the supply line of the furnace, the inlet piping is in communication with the main pipelines, and these control valves are connected through a controller with flow meters.

64. The device according to p. 63, wherein each supply line of the furnace contains a single flow meter associated with the controller, and one regulacio substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, in particular for sealing more porous structures containing the furnace, the first main gas pipeline and a vacuum device communicated with the volume of the furnace, characterized in that it includes the inlet pipes of the furnace provided with a first main gas pipeline, and the porous structure is installed in the specified furnace in the form of a certain number of packets porous structures, each of which has a closed cavity, communicated with the intake pipe of the furnace and compacted to the specified volume of the furnace to ensure delivery of a reagent gas in each closed cavity through the one supply line of the furnace and spreading it through these porous structure before the release of the furnace volume using the specified vacuum apparatus.

66. The device according to p. 65, characterized in that it further comprises a first main control valve located in the specified first pipeline.

67. The device according to p. 65, characterized in that it further comprises a first flowmeter for measuring the flow rate of the first gas-reagent through each supply line of the furnace and the first regulating valves for regulating ucasinofreegameu fact, each supply line of the furnace contains one first flow meter that communicates with the controller and one of the first control valve, which is managed by the specified controller.

69. The device according to p. 66, characterized in that it further comprises a second gas pipeline to supply the second gas-reagent provided with the specified inlet pipes of the furnace.

70. The device according to p. 66, characterized in that it further comprises a second flow meters for measuring the flow rate of the second gas-reagent through each supply line of the furnace and second control valves to regulate the specified flow rate of the second gas-reagent through each supply line of the furnace.

71. The way the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances chemical deposition from the gas phase, in particular seals by seepage of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase, comprising sealing the first porous wall of the furnace through the infiltration of gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient, characterized in that what does the dispersion of the first gas flow rageii gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient by diffusion of the second gas flow of reagent through the said second porous wall and independent control of the parameters of the first flow of a reagent gas and the second gas flow of a reagent.

72. The method according to p. 71, characterized in that it further includes sealing at least a third of the porous wall by a process of infiltration of the gas phase chemical substances and chemical deposition from the gas phase when the pressure gradient by diffusion, at least a third flow of a reagent gas through the said third porous wall and independent control of the parameters of this third stream of a reagent gas.

73. The method according to p. 71, characterized in that it further carry out the temperature measurement of the first porous wall and its regulation by increasing or decreasing the flow rate of the first stream of a reagent gas.

74. The method according to p. 73, characterized in that it further carry out the temperature measurement of the second porous wall and its regulation by increasing or decreasing the flow rate of the second stream of a reagent gas.

75. The method according to p. 71, characterized in that the said first seal porous wall is carried out by exposure to one side of the first porous wall of a first stream of a reagent gas at the first pressure and on the opposite side when the vacuum pressure, a smaller first specified pressure, and the criminal code is specified by a second thread of a reagent gas at the second pressure and at its opposite side when the vacuum pressure, the smaller the specified pressure.

76. The method according to p. 75, characterized in that it further carry out the specified dimension of the first pressure and its regulation by increasing or decreasing the flow rate of the first stream of a reagent gas.

77. The method according to p. 76, characterized in that it further carry out the measurement of the second specified pressure and its regulation by increasing or decreasing the flow rate of the second stream of a reagent gas.

 

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