Getter materials for cracking ammonia

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of hydrogen by cracking ammonia. Method of cracking ammonia for hydrogen production includes the steps of passing ammonia over the catalyst in the cracking of ammonia, which represents an alloy having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2where M1and M2selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, and x has a value between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive and 20 - 50% Al by weight. The invention also includes a method for operation of internal combustion engines on hydrogen fuel and hydrogen fuel cell using the catalyst in the cracking of ammonia, and the invention describes an internal combustion engine on hydrogen fuel and hydrogen fuel cells, comprising the above catalyst cracking of ammonia. The efficiency of the cracking of the ammonia is 95% and the getter material of the present invention allows to produce hydrogen with a flow rate of 100 SML up to 200 SML (standard liters per minute), which is very important for the effective use of hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines. 5 C. and 45 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to prosperitate gas of hydrogen from ammonia. In one aspect, hydrogen, selected from ammonia, used as fuel.

Over the last thirty years the efforts of the U.S. and other industrialized countries for the control of polluting emissions, significantly reduced the number of air pollutants that have been associated with serious risk to the environment and health. For example, in the United States in most urban areas the air quality has improved significantly, even compared with the average for the preceding decade. However, much still needs to be done to further reduce the amount of harmful chemicals released into the atmosphere by internal combustion engines. Indeed, one of the main goals of the automotive industry is the development of engine technology with low emissions for vehicles that have reduced, or even zero, the impact on the environment. For example, in California will soon require that at least 2% of the cars sold in the state, did not produce polluting emissions.

To find the answer to these problems is extremely difficult. All modern cars SUB>H2n+2)) and air (mostly nitrogen and oxygen) is used for the production of energy necessary for movement of the engine. However, the combustion of hydrocarbons in air generates various polluting gases, including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), oxides of nitrogen and sulfur (i.e., NOxand SOx), aldehydes, hydrocarbons and lead compounds (Greenwood and Earnshaw, 1984). CO2became known as the "greenhouse gas" for its ability to capture infrared radiation and thereby to prevent the escape of heat from the Earth's atmosphere. Ozone is associated with respiratory diseases, and it is a strong oxidant, thereby contributing property damage from air pollutants. Nitrogen oxide and sulfur contribute to acid rain, which is a big problem for the environment, but also leads to property damage due to the formation of nitric acid upon contact with water (H2O) in the atmosphere. Nitric and sulfuric acid are of particular concern in European countries, as acid rain likely contributed to the destruction of such well-known ancient monuments like the Colosseum in Rome and the Parthenon in Athens. m effect on the brain.

Studied a number of possible replacements hydrocarbon fuel. Among the various considered decisions hydrogen (H2) seems very promising alternative for several reasons. The use of hydrogen fuels in internal combustion engines would require only minor modifications to existing engine designs. The burning of hydrogen in air produces water, which, of course, does not raise significant issues regarding the environment and creates a relatively large amount of energy. In alternative motor installations, such as in electric vehicles, hydrogen can be used in fuel cells, in which it unites with the oxygen of the atmosphere more controlled way than burning through electrochemical reaction. The electric energy generated by the fuel element can either be stored in batteries, or directly used to power the electric motor to supply energy to the electric vehicle. In this latter case, the efficiency is much higher than in internal combustion engines, reaching 90%, compared with values of about 30%, typical of internal combustion engines. Although the motors are driven from the fuel elem is camping, they will gradually acquire a significant role in the transport equipment. However, one problem with hydrogen is a safe handling: hydrogen is explosive reaction with air. As a consequence, the use of hydrogen as fuel for widespread use, either in gaseous or in liquid form (which would also require expensive cooling) poses numerous security issues, technical and economic problems that make its use as fuel prohibitively difficult.

One approach to solving the problems of the disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel includes consideration less expensive, simpler, cheaper materials that can act as carriers of hydrogen. Ammonia (NH3) was identified as a suitable carrier for hydrogen: ammonia is not inherently flammable and easily obtained, and in liquid form, it does not require expensive and complicated cooling technology. In addition, ammonia contains approximately 1.7 times more hydrogen than liquid hydrogen in this volume in its liquid form; thereby allowing more efficient transport of hydrogen fuel. Ammonia may be dis is accordance with the reaction:

2NH3---> 3H2+ N2< / BR>
Nitrogen can be injected into the atmosphere without significant impact on the environment. Ammonia may be present in the fuel mixture of hydrogen/oxygen in small amounts, up to about 5% by volume of the fuel mixture, without exerting significant influence on the combustion of hydrogen. In fact, although pure ammonia hardly burns in air, it burns easily when mixed with hydrogen. Thus, there is no need to dissociative capacity of the plant would be 100%. Moreover, ammonia has a significant vapor pressure (approximately 100 pounds per square inch (psi) at the 27oC).

The use of ammonia as a storage medium for hydrogen fuel has been disclosed, for example, in U.S. patents N N 4478177 and 4750453, both assigned Valdespino and included in this material by reference for all purposes. These patents describe the internal combustion engine with hydrogen fuel, which is produced by disproportionation of ammonia in the separating chamber. The block separation of ammonia is a chamber containing a catalyst, which is one (or more) of metals, including iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), osmium (Os), zinc (Zn) and uranium (U).the Torah based on gland also described (Georgiev, 1989). However, for the disproportionation of ammonia on these metals require a low flow rate of ammonia and/or high temperature catalyst. Another material useful to break down the ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, is an alloy consisting by weight of 40.5 percent Zr, 24.5% of Mn and 25% Fe, commercially available under the trademark St 909 manufactured by SAES Getters from Lainate, Italy, with 10% aluminum (Al) used as ligament (Baker and others, 1994).

Unfortunately, known techniques of cracking ammonia is insufficient to allow use of hydrogen fuel in internal combustion engines. In particular, the above low flow rate of ammonia in the currently available catalysts cracking does not make use of hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines or in fuel cells. Preliminary calculation (Brabbs, 1978) showed that in order that hydrogen has become a real alternative to hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines, requires the flow of hydrogen to the engine between 100 and 200 standard liters per minute (SML).

Thus, it would be a great advantage to identify materials capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of amiable, to get access to a huge potential of hydrogen fuel as an environmentally friendly energy source.

The present invention provides materials and methods that provide for the production of hydrogen in the high-performance disproportionation of ammonia. Moreover, the described materials and methods can be used for the production of hydrogen at flow rates that are acceptable for use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Thus, the present invention can make an important contribution to the use of environmentally friendly energy resources.

In one aspect the present invention provides materials for cracking ammonia, which is capable of producing hydrogen from ammonia with an efficiency of about 95%. In one embodiment of the invention, the materials for cracking ammonia according to the invention are alloys comprising (1) an alloy having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2, characterized in that M1and M2independently selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, and x is between about 0.0 and about 1.0 inclusive; and (2) Al. The amount of aluminum is I in the alloy is between about 20 and 40% by weight. In another example embodiment of the invention, the amount of Al is between about 20 and 30% by weight. In yet another example embodiment of the invention, the amount of Al in the alloy is about 20% by weight.

In one embodiment of the invention, alloys having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2include alloys, for which x = 0.0, i.e., the alloys with the General formula ZrM1M2where M1and M2are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. In a more specific embodiment of the invention, the alloy includes ZrMnFe.

In the second aspect of the above materials were reacted with ammonia under conditions effective to produce hydrogen, and nitrogen. In one embodiment of the invention these conditions include the reaction of the above-mentioned material for cracking ammonia with ammonia at a temperature between 500 and 1000oC inclusive for the production thereby of hydrogen and nitrogen. In yet another example embodiment of the invention, the temperature range is between about 600 and 800oC inclusive and more specifically between about 600 and 700oC inclusive. In yet another example embodiment of the invention, the temperature used with materials sobrac way of actuation of the internal combustion engines and fuel cells, running on hydrogen, using the same methods and materials further include fuel cells and engines, including materials for cracking ammonia according to the present invention. In one embodiment of the invention the present invention provides a method of operating a fuel cell powered by hydrogen, in which ammonia reacts with the materials of this invention for producing hydrogen, which is then further reaction is used to produce electrical current. In yet another example embodiment of the invention described herein, the materials and methods used to provide hydrogen fuel for internal combustion engines with hydrogen fuel.

These and other aspects and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent when reading the following description together with the accompanying drawings.

Fig. 1 is an illustration of apparatus used to determine the effectiveness of cracking of materials for cracking ammonia according to the present invention.

Fig. 2 illustrates the efficiency of the cracking of ammonia relative to the speed of material flow for cracking ammonia to St 909 n is t 909 and material according to the invention at 500oC.

Fig. 4 illustrates the efficiency of the cracking of ammonia relative to the flow rate for St 909 and material according to the invention at 600oC.

Fig. 5 illustrates the efficiency of the cracking of ammonia relative to the flow rate for St 909 and material according to the invention at 700oC.

In accordance with the first aspect of the present invention provides a method of cracking of ammonia, including the provision of contact of the ammonia with the material for cracking ammonia, which in one example embodiment of the invention is an alloy comprising (1) an alloy having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2, characterized in that M1and M2selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, and x has a value between about 0.0 and about 1.0 inclusive; and (2) Al. The amount of Al in the alloy is between about 10% and 50% by weight. In one embodiment of the invention, the amount of aluminum is between about 20 and 40% by weight. In another example embodiment of the invention, the amount of Al in the alloy is about 20 and 30% by weight. In yet another example embodiment of the invention, the amount of Al in the alloy is about 20% by weight.

In one example of the invention, the SPL is 0, i.e., the alloys having the General formula ZrM1M2where M1and M2are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. In a more particular example embodiment of the invention, the alloy includes ZrMnFe, which is available commercially under the trademark ST 909 manufactured by SAES Getters S. p.A (Milan, Italy).

Preparation of these materials is carried out in accordance with methods well-known in the field of metallurgy and these are described, for example, in U.S. patent N 4269624 and 5180568, both of which are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. For example, the alloys can be obtained by melting pieces or large pieces of necessary components in the desired weight ratio. Usually the pieces or large pieces preferable, as it reduces surface contamination from atmospheric gases; however, to achieve the necessary weights you can use a small amount of powder. Uniformity can be improved by re, approximately two-five-melting alloy, while the ingot from the previous melt is broken, and the resulting powders are mixed before the subsequent melting. In one example of the invention, the materials useful for nastojashego inclusive and in a more particular example embodiment of the invention is approximately between 50 and 200 μm inclusive. Powders are enclosed in a suitable chamber having a porous ends to provide an inlet and outlet for gases. Materials and methods to ensure this camera is known for having experience in the field of getter materials. In another example embodiment of the invention, the powders are compressed to obtain pellets. In General the treatment of granulated materials more easily than with powder materials.

In one embodiment of the invention, the alloy according to the invention can be prepared by arc melting the metal components in the purified atmosphere of argon (Ar), using standard methods, such as the so-called "method of cold furnace" a water cooled copper substrate to obtain ingots of metal components. The ingots are re-melted to achieve homogeneity. For example, useful uniformity can be achieved by melting ingots of at least about 4 times. The ingots are then broken down into powder using a mill in an atmosphere of inert gas. The powder is then sieved to obtain the desired grain size. In one embodiment of the invention additional powder of Al, for example, approximately between 5 and 10% is envisaged to operate ways to obtain the above desired alloys according to the invention will be apparent to those who has experience in metallurgy.

Ammonia and material for cracking ammonia react under conditions effective to create nitrogen and hydrogen from ammonia. In one embodiment, of the invention such conditions include the reaction of the above-mentioned material for cracking ammonia with ammonia at a temperature of between approximately 500 and 1000oC inclusive to create through this hydrogen and nitrogen gases. In one example of the invention, the temperature range is between 600 and 800oC inclusive and more specifically between 600 and 700oC inclusive. In one embodiment of the invention used temperature materials for cracking ammonia was approximately 700oC. In another example embodiment of the invention, the reaction of cracking ammonia is performed at a pressure between about 1 bar and about 5 bar. However, it should be noted that at high temperatures the hydrogen can penetrate through the metal wall of the pipe and block the dissociation. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, the reaction of ammonia and the above-mentioned materials is carried out under conditions effective to generate hydrogen having less than about 5%, what is the flow rate of hydrogen is a value between about 100 standard liters per minute (SML) and 200 SML.

In one embodiment of the invention, ammonia is preheated to approximately the same temperature as the catalyst prior to contact with the material for cracking ammonia. It was found that such preheating improves the efficiency of the reaction disproportionately and provides a higher flow rate. In internal combustion engines ammonia can be pre-heated by using the heat generated by the combustion of hydrogen in the engine. In one embodiment of the invention the outlet from the combustion chamber of the engine is placed in a counter channel for ammonia, so that the heat released by the combustion of hydrogen can be used to pre-heat the gas behind the camera dissociation.

In another aspect, the present invention relates to methods provide engines on hydrogen and fuel cell using the above methods and materials, and further, fuel cells and engines, including materials for cracking ammonia according to the present invention. Design the I of any existing engine or fuel cell, working with hydrogen, can be adapted to use the methods and materials described herein by incorporating the reaction chamber, which includes the above-described materials for cracking ammonia, in this case, the reaction chamber includes an inlet connected to the flow of ammonia to the input of ammonia in the reaction chamber and the outlet connected to the combustion chamber, or chamber, generating electricity for the passage of hydrogen gas for combustion or electrochemical reaction. In some cases it may be included as a separate outlet for nitrogen. Alternative nitrogen can be passed together with hydrogen into the combustion chamber or chamber of generating electricity. Design and materials for forming the reaction chamber, a container for the storage of ammonia, various compounds known to have experience in this field.

In addition it should be noted that for some applications the hydrogen gas, it is necessary to apply a controlled flow rate. For example, it was found that for internal combustion engines of the flow rate of hydrogen between 100 standard liters per minute (SML) and 200 SML enough to obtain useful performance of the engine. Further, some of the fuel from the ammonia was maintained in the liquid and/or gaseous state for providing a controlled flow of ammonia into the reaction chamber. Characteristics and design of such heater and its use to achieve different flow rates depend on various factors, including ambient temperature, at which it is expected the system, and they are known to have experience in this field.

For example, one useful internal combustion engine on hydrogen in accordance with the present invention are described in U.S. patent N 4478177 and 4750453 for Valdespino, both of which are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. In one example implementation of this invention, the motors described in the above U.S. patents, modified so that the catalyst used for the cracking of ammonia into its constituent gases, nitrogen and hydrogen, is selected from the materials described here. It should be noted that the use of such engines will be especially attractive in agricultural applications (e.g., tractors, trucks and generators), where the network, tools and procedures for the delivery and handling of ammonia are well developed.

It was found that the materials of the present invention a highly effective break down ammonia. As described in the examples below, comparing the performance is able to achieve the efficiency of cracking, component of 95%, as opposed to 75% efficiency of the cracking of ammonia using alloy, known as St 909. In addition, it was found that the materials of the present invention to produce hydrogen with a flow rate of approximately 100 SML up to 200 SML, which is very important for the effective use of hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines.

The following examples describe specific aspects of the invention to illustrate the invention and the help of specialists in this field with the understanding and practical use of the invention. However, these examples should not be construed as in any way limiting the invention.

EXAMPLE 1

Alloy preparation A ZrMnFe

The above alloy was prepared arc melting 100 grams of the 36.1 grams (g) Zr, 21.8 g Mn, 22.1 g of Fe and 20.0 g Al in a purified Ar atmosphere. This was done by the so-called method of "cold furnace" a water cooled copper substrate. The resulting ingots of alloy ZrMnFeAl were melted about 4 times to ensure a homogeneous composition, which is confirmed by standard metallographic analysis. The ingots were then razelcraz to powder in the mill in an atmosphere of inert gas, using stoneline 10% of Al powder (by weight) was added as a mechanical binder and the resulting powder mixture was then merged into tablets with a diameter of 6 mm and height 4 mm

EXAMPLE 2 (comparative)

Preparation of sinter A ZrMnFe+10% oxidized Al

90 grams St 909 prepared arc melting of 40.6 g Zr, 24.5 g Mn and 24.9 g of Fe. The resulting ingots intermetallic compounds Zr1Mn1Fe1then melted 4 times to ensure a homogeneous composition. The powder is sifted to obtain a grain size between 88 μm and 180 μm approximately. The powder was mixed with 10% of Al powder with the same grain size as the powder St 909, and the mixture was merged into tablets with a diameter of 6 mm and height 4 mm

EXAMPLE 3

To determine the effectiveness of cracking ammonia for alloys according to the invention

Properties cracking ammonia alloy, prepared as described in example 1 above, was measured using the experimental system is illustrated in Fig. 1. This system included a nozzle for gas stainless steel, through which is supplied either inert gas or vapor from the liquid ammonia in the reaction chamber. The gas passed through one of two flow controllers (depending on the desired range of flow rate), the cartridge with the catalyst, and in the end itna the gas sample, now we have to test, was applied to the mass spectrometer with variable inlet valve. It was also provided that the gas is bypassed material for cracking ammonia using a shunt that could be measured the relative amount of ammonia present in the stream of raw gas. All research material for cracking ammonia consisted of 40 cm3volume of material. Ammonia was pre-heated to the same temperature as the material for cracking ammonia. Temperature and flow velocity in different experiments varied. Temperatures ranged approximately between about 500 and about 700oC; the flow rate was approximately from 0.1 to 10.0 standard liters per minute (SML). Data from these experiments were generated by obtaining distributed in time mass spectrum, while the SJC gas ammonia is passed through the material for cracking ammonia. Three spectrum were selected for each flow and temperature and were averaged. By comparing the peak heights corresponding to the NH3N2and H2in the gas which passed through the material to cracking of the ammonia peak, which was held material for cracking ammonia through the shunt was determined, and the efficiency is respectively shown as curves 1, 2 and 3.

EXAMPLE 4 (comparative)

The efficiency of the cracking of ammonia to materials of the prior art

The efficiency of the cracking material, prepared as described in example 2, was determined using the apparatus and method described above in example 3.

The results of experiments on the cracking shown in Fig. 3, respectively in the form of curve 4 test 600oC and curve 5 for tests performed at 700oC. Results of cracking at 500oC in this case are not due solely to the low efficiency of conversion of the material at a given temperature. The test results of examples 3 and 4 are also shown in the graph of Fig. 4 and 5, which are repeated curves 2-5. In Fig. 4 compares the properties of the cracking of ammonia at 600oC for alloys according to the invention (curve 2) and of the materials of the prior art (curve 4), and Fig. 5 compares the properties of cracking ammonia at 700oC for alloys according to the invention (curve 3) and materials of the prior art (curve 5).

As can be noted based on the analysis of the graphs, the alloys according to the invention show superior properties cracking of ammonia when comparing the efficiency of the cracking of ammonia. In particular, the alloys according to the invention can decompose ammonia with an efficiency of at least 95% at flow velocities, the components of 2 standard liters per minute (SML). Under the same conditions the efficiency of the cracking of the materials of the prior art falls below the limit of 95% at flow rates of around 1 SML; that is, at about half the flow rate achieved by the alloys according to the invention. Similarly, as shown in Fig. 5, the alloys according to the invention retain the efficiency of the cracking of ammonia more than 95% to the flow velocity of about 8 SML, whereas in the prior art this level of efficiency is lost at a flow rate of about 4 SML; again is half of that, which is achieved with new materials according to the invention.

Thus, the methods and materials described herein provide a means for cracking ammonia to produce hydrogen with very high efficiency. Using these materials and methods, ammonia can be used to supply hydrogen a safe and effective manner. In particular, the present invention can efficiently supply the hydrogen gas with flow rates suitable for use in engines internal SGAs who make an important contribution to the development and commercial use of cleaner engines.

Although some embodiments of the invention and the examples used to describe the present invention, for those who have experience in this area it will be obvious that it is possible to make various modifications to these embodiments of the invention and/or examples, without straying from the scope or spirit of the present invention. For example, from the above it follows that a wide variety of fuel cells and structures of the engine can be used with described herein methods and materials, using techniques and materials well known to have experience in this area. In addition, the materials for cracking ammonia can be used in a wide variety of forms, such as powders and tablets.

The following materials are incorporated herein by reference in full for all purposes.

Baker, J. D. and others, 1994. Purification of tritium through the alloy of Zirconium-Manganese-Iron getter St 909 in flow processes. The journal of scientific technology. A., 12 (2): 548-553.

Georgiev and others, 1989. Properties and structure of the catalyst for the dissociation of ammonia. "Powder metallurgy", 7 (319) G-65.

Greenwood N. N. and Earnshaw, A., 1984. Chemistry of the elements. Pergamon.

Brabbs T. A. 1978. "Catalytic decomposition of methanol to glucose introduction of the catalyst for cracking ammonia into contact with ammonia under conditions effective to create nitrogen and hydrogen, characterized in that the above-mentioned catalyst cracking of ammonia contains (1) an alloy having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2where M1and M2selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, and x has a value between 0.0 and 1.0, inclusive, and (2) between about 20 and 50% by weight Al.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it further includes the operation of the above-mentioned production of hydrogen at a flow rate of at least 100 standard liters per minute (SML).

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the above-mentioned flow rate is between approximately 100 and 200 SML.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the above-mentioned hydrogen contains less than about 5% unreacted ammonia.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy is ZrFeMn.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that it further includes the operation of the above-mentioned production of hydrogen with a flow rate of at least 100 SML.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the above-mentioned flow rate is set to approximately 100 to 200 SML.

8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy contains about 20-40% Al by weight.

10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy contains approximately 20-30% of Al by weight.

11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy contains about 20% Al by weight.

12. The method according to p. 11, characterized in that it further includes the operation of the above-mentioned production of hydrogen at a flow rate of at least 100 SML.

13. The method according to p. 12, characterized in that the above-mentioned flow rate is set to 100-200 SML.

14. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the above-mentioned catalyst is supported 500-1000oC inclusive.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the above-mentioned catalyst is supported at 600-800oC inclusive.

16. The method according to p. 16, characterized in that the above-mentioned catalyst is maintained at a temperature of approximately 700oC.

17. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the above-mentioned hydrogen contains less than 5% of unreacted ammonia.

18. A method of operating working on hydrogen internal combustion engine having a capacity for storing ammonia, connected with capacity for creatinga combustion hydrogen, characterized in that the above-mentioned method comprises: a) passing the above-mentioned ammonia from the above-mentioned storage tanks for ammonia in the above capacity for cracking ammonia, while the above-mentioned capacity for cracking ammonia contains a catalyst for the cracking of ammonia, comprising (1) an alloy having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2where M1and M2are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, and x has a value between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive; and (2) 20-50% by weight of Al for the production of gases of nitrogen and hydrogen; b) passing the above-mentioned hydrogen gas to the aforementioned internal combustion engine on hydrogen fuel; and C) the combustion of the above-mentioned hydrogen gas to supply energy to the internal combustion engine on hydrogen fuel.

19. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that it further includes the operation of separation of the above-mentioned nitrogen gas from the above-mentioned hydrogen gas.

20. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the alloy is ZrFeMn.

21. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy contains 20-40% Al by weight.

22. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy contains 20-30% Al by weight.

25. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that it further includes an operation temperature of the above-mentioned catalyst 600-800oC inclusive.

26. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that it further includes an operation temperature of the above-mentioned catalyst 700oC.

27. The method according to p. 26, characterized in that it further includes an operation circulation of heat from the above-mentioned internal combustion engine to the above-mentioned chamber for cracking ammonia.

28. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the above-mentioned hydrogen operation b) contains less than 5% of unreacted ammonia.

29. A method of operating a hydrogen fuel cell having a capacity for storing ammonia, connected with ammonia capacity for cracking ammonia, while the above-mentioned capacity for cracking ammonia is connected with the above-mentioned internal combustion engine powered by hydrogen fuel cell, characterized in that the above-mentioned method comprises: a) passing the above-mentioned ammonia from the above shall be for cracking ammonia contains a catalyst for the cracking of ammonia, containing alloy (1), having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2where M1and M2are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, and x has a value between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive; and (2) with a 20-50% by weight of Al for the production of gases of nitrogen and hydrogen; b) passing the above-mentioned hydrogen gas to the above-mentioned hydrogen fuel element; and C) the introduction of the above hydrogen in the reaction in the above-mentioned hydrogen fuel cell to produce electric current.

30. The method according to p. 29, characterized in that it further includes the operation of separation of the above-mentioned nitrogen gas from the above-mentioned hydrogen gas.

31. The method according to p. 30, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy is ZrFeMn.

32. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy includes 20-40% Al by weight.

33. The method according to p. 32, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy includes 20-30% Al by weight.

34. The method according to p. 33, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy includes about 20% Al by weight.

35. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that it further includes an operation temperature of the above-mentioned catalyst 500-1000oC inclusive.

the catalyst 600-800oC inclusive.

37. The method according to p. 36, characterized in that it further includes an operation temperature of the above-mentioned catalyst approximately 700oC.

38. The method according to p. 29, characterized in that the above-mentioned hydrogen operation b) contains less than 5% of unreacted ammonia.

39. Internal combustion engine powered by hydrogen fuel cell, comprising: (a) the storage capacity of the ammonia that is connected with the above camera for cracking ammonia-comprising catalyst cracking of ammonia, characterized in that the catalytic cracking of ammonia contains (1) an alloy having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2where M1and M2are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, and x has a value between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive; and (2) 20-50% of Al by weight; the above-mentioned storage capacity of the ammonia is connected with b) an internal combustion engine for the combustion of hydrogen.

40. The engine on p. 39, characterized in that it further includes means for separating the above-mentioned nitrogen gas from the above-mentioned hydrogen gas.

41. The engine on p. 40, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy is ZrFeMn.

42. The engine is alloy contains 20-30% Al by weight.

44. The engine on p. 43, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy includes about 20% Al by weight.

45. Hydrogen fuel cell, comprising: (a) the storage capacity of the ammonia that is connected with the above camera for cracking ammonia-containing catalyst for cracking ammonia, characterized in that the catalytic cracking of ammonia includes (1) an alloy having the General formula Zr1-xTixM1M2where M1and M2are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, and x has a value between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive; and (2) 20-50% of Al by weight; the above-mentioned storage capacity of the ammonia is connected with b) fuel element, effective to react with the hydrogen to produce electric current.

46. The fuel element according to p. 45, characterized in that it further includes means for separating the above-mentioned nitrogen gas from the above-mentioned hydrogen gas.

47. The fuel element according to p. 46, characterized in that the above-mentioned alloy is ZrFeMn.

48. The fuel element according to p. 47, characterized in that the alloy contains 20-40% Al by weight.

49. The fuel element according to p. 48, characterized in that the alloy contains 20-30% Al by weight.

50. The fuel element according to the R>
12.03.1997 - PP.1-50.

 

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The invention relates to the processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, in particular the production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon feedstock and can be used in the oil and gas industries in the oil and gas industry and so on

The invention relates to the reaction of steam reforming of dimethyl ether in order to obtain hydrogen-rich gas mixture which can be used in hydrogen energy, in particular, as a fuel for fuel cells for various applications, including fuel cells installed on mobile media

The invention relates to the reaction of steam reforming of dimethyl ether in order to obtain hydrogen-rich gas mixture which can be used in hydrogen energy, in particular, as a fuel for fuel cells for various applications, including fuel cells installed on mobile media
The invention relates to the field of chemical technology, and more particularly to a method of producing hydrogen by an exothermic reaction of water vapor with metals

The invention relates to the production of catalysts for steam reforming of carbon monoxide in the processes of hydrogen and nitric mixture in the chemical and petrochemical industries
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