(57) Abstract:The invention relates to accelerator technology and is intended for acceleration of electrons by a vortex electric field. The technical result - the increase of the pulse repetition rate of acceleration. In series and oppositely connected windings of the excitation and compensation with a closed magnetic circuit, in parallel with the excitation winding through the inductor and the capacitor connected to the constant current source and the capacitor through the thyristor is connected to the compensating winding and the diode, optionally bridged by a diode. To reduce the change of the radius of the equilibrium orbit is proposed to introduce an air gap in a closed magnetic circuit, compensating the influence of the nonlinearity of the magnetization curve of steel. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of accelerator technology and is intended for acceleration of electrons by a vortex electric field.Known induction accelerators - betatron bias [1-3], in which the magnetic accelerator in the Central part is made without air gaps, and betatron ratio of magnetic flux in the field of accelerators camera on the equilibrium radius and within CSOs Central core and loaded on the inductance. In such circuits the magnetic flux on the radius of the equilibrium orbit is generated by the leakage flux between the excitation winding and the compensating winding, and phase relations in time supported by the load inductance.Known magnetic system induction accelerator , in which in order to reduce the amount of energy required for excitation of the electromagnet of the accelerator, the excitation winding is connected in series and opposite compensating winding. To obtain the initial state of the magnetic circuit (demagnetization) at the end of each pulse from the source of direct current in the compensation coil is wound, the degaussing current, which requires considerable time and limits the pulse repetition rate. In addition, to compensate for losses in the circuit requires another source of energy for charging the capacitive storage device in the pause between pulses. These drawbacks reduce the pulse frequency and create additional energy losses in the compensation winding is the most loaded node in the accelerator.The purpose of the invention is the increase of the pulse repetition rate of acceleration.This is achieved by the fact that the target sequence is Denia through the throttle compensator connected to a power source, moreover, the capacitor through the thyristor is connected to the compensating winding and the diode, and the compensation winding with additional diode shunted by a diode, and the fact that in a closed magnetic circuit made the air gap with a magnitude depending on the gap in the interpolar space on the radius of the equilibrium orbit and changes in the relative permeability of the steel during the acceleration cycle.With the high performance induction accelerator required proportionality of change of flux of the magnetic field on the orbit and within the orbit (betatron ratio 2:1) is determined by the ratio of the magnetomotive force (VAT) winding and VAT compensation winding directed oppositely with respect to the Central core and according to the field of accelerator chamber. With VAT winding more VAT compensation winding by an amount necessary to generate the magnetic flux in the closed magnetic circuit, having a small magnetic resistance due to the high value of magnetic permeability steel. The accumulation of energy in the capacitor through the inductor and the excitation winding for subsequent input of energy in the resonant circuit to compensate for it allows obespecheniya pulses and to improve thermal regime of the compensation winding due to the exclusion of the bias current in the interval between the current pulses.In Fig. 1-3 are given the scheme of the magnetic system of the accelerator and its supply system. The magnetic induction accelerator consists of: 1 - the Central core; 2 - way lugs; 3 - return of the magnetic circuit, for example, four-leg design. At the Central core 1 laid the compensation winding 4, and around the pole 2 - excitation winding 5. Between pole pieces 2 is the vacuum chamber 6. Capacitive memory 7 through the branches of the thyristors 8 and 9, collected under the scheme of the inverter current, is connected to a counter-consistently included windings 5 and 4, and in the circuit of the compensation coil 4 includes a diode 10. Parallel to the excitation winding 5 through the inductor 11 and the capacitor 12 is connected to the constant current source 13. Through the thyristor 14, the capacitor 12 is connected to the winding 4 and the diode 10, and they (4, 10) shunted by a diode 15.The operation of the circuit illustrated plots in Fig. 4, where indicated:
16 - voltage capacitive drive 7,
17 - change induction in the Central core 1 (Bm- maximum induction steel, Bnthe saturation induction),
18 - change induction in equilibrium orbit (Babout)
19 - current field winding 5,
23 - voltage winding 5.In the initial state, the circuit of the inductor 11 current flows 21 (I0and charges the capacitor 12, and the capacitive drive 7 is charged. For time t1the magnetic condition of the Central core 1 and the inverse of the magnetic circuit 3 is characterized IMPELLITTERI winding 5 with current I0i.e. the magnetic accelerator resminiscin, and the magnetic field in the interpolar gap is practically absent.At time t1includes thyristors 8 and capacitive drive 7 begins to run on the counter-included windings 5 and 4. The natural frequency of the oscillating circuit (7,5,4)
< / BR>where L1and L2- self-inductance of the windings of the excitation and compensation, and L1> L2that is achieved by appropriate choice of the number of turns of the windings 5 and 4 (W1> W2);
KM - mutual inductance of the windings L1and L2and K is the coupling coefficient, which is due to the closed magnetic circuit is close to one.C is the capacitance of the capacitive drive 7.Under the action of Ampervilla
over magnetize the Central core from-Bmup +B>)=W2I(t) (3)
and varies from zero to maximum Babout. In the process of increasing the field in the orbit at time t2is the injection of electrons into the chamber 6 and the acceleration in the time interval t2-t3.At time t3when capacitive drive 7 is nearly empty, turns on the thyristor 14 and connects the capacitor 12 is charged by the current I0to the maximum voltage to the compensation coil 4. The discharge current of the capacitor 12 is directed counter-current I(t) in the compensation winding 4 and he begins to decrease, and the current of the excitation winding 5 turns in the circuit of the capacitor 12 and the thyristor 14. In the time interval t3-t4the current in the compensation coil 4 decreases to zero and the diode 10 turns off the current circuit, a compensation winding. In this time interval induction in the Central core is changed from a +Bmbefore saturation induction Bnand the Central core is saturated. In case of a compensation winding 4 is broken betatron ratio of 1:2 and the equilibrium radius of the orbit increases, as the Central core over magnetize already significantly larger than before (2), Americani
F(t3-t4)=W12(t) - current compensation winding 4, which is reduced to zero. This process is additionally accompanied by a reduction of the magnetic field in the interpolar space and there is a sharp increase in the radius of the equilibrium orbit, and resetting the electron beam on the outer target. Current field winding 5, the capacitor 12 is discharged, turns on the diode 15 and the thyristor 14 is turned off. The energy of the capacitor 12 becomes LC circuit and compensates for the loss of energy in it. After turning off the thyristor 14, the capacitor 12 is again charged by the current power supply I0and inductance 11. At time t5when the current of the inductor 11 and the current in the circuit capacitive drive 7 are compared, the magnetic induction in the Central core 1 goes to zero, and in the time interval t5-t6the Central core and reverse the demagnetized magnetic circuit to its initial state. The winding 5 is the current I0the capacitor C12charging and capacitive drive 7 is fully charged. And the next operating cycle begins with the inclusion of another branch of the thyristors 9 and the processes in the diagram are repeated.The time interval tto= t4-t3equal to the time de-energizing compensation 1= ty< / BR>K is a coefficient equal to the ratio Um/U0- maximum voltage in the LC circuit to the maximum voltage of the capacitor 12, which in turn depends on the quality factor of the oscillating LC circuit and the ratio of the capacitances of the capacitor 12 and capacitor storage 7.If changes are incremental induction in steel from-Bmup +Bmoccur on a linear plot of the magnetization curve, a given ratio of turns of the windings of the excitation and compensation, and hence the change in magnetic flux, defined by induction in the Central core 17 and in equilibrium orbit 18 during the acceleration cycle, retain their proportionality and ensure the constancy of the betatron ratio of 1:2 in time at a constant radius of the equilibrium orbit.When the initial value of the induction - Bmclose to saturation induction Bnthe nonlinearity of the magnetization curve of the steel will begin to affect the position of the radius of the equilibrium orbit, namely, with a small initial magnetic permeability of steel is the radius of the equilibrium orbit decreases. To eliminate this phenomenon, along with the known methods of correction of the equilibrium radius max,cf- maximum, and average values of the relative magnetic permeability of the steel during the acceleration cycle, b0- the height of the air gap in the interpolar space on the radius of the equilibrium orbit. The introduction of the air gap decreases, first of all, the maximum value of relative magnetic permeability of steel, bringing it to the average value.Goal - increase the pulse repetition rate of acceleration, and hence the intensity of the radiation induction accelerator is achieved by providing a demagnetization of a closed magnetic circuit (the time interval6-t5) due to the maximum voltage LC circuit, the input energy to compensate for simultaneously de-energizing of the compensation winding immediately after the acceleration of electrons that do not require a pause between the working pulses and allows to increase the frequency of cycles of acceleration.Literature
1. Furman E., Magnetic induction system of the accelerator. - Ed.mon. N 524477, 1975.2. Vasiliev centuries, Moskalev C. A., Furman E., the Betatron bias. - PTE, 1979, No. 4, S. 27-29.3. Vasiliev centuries, Furman E., Magnetic system betatron bias. -P IS N 619071, 1977 (prototype). 1. Induction accelerator containing a closed magnetic circuit with the winding and the compensation laid on the Central core, capacitive drive connected to the windings according to the scheme of the inverter current, the power source, characterized in that in the circuit in series and counter enabled field windings and the compensation included a diode in parallel with the excitation winding through the inductor and the capacitor connected to the power source and the capacitor through the thyristor is connected to the compensating winding and the diode, and the compensation winding with additional diode shunted by a diode.2. Induction accelerator under item 1, characterized in that in the closed magnetic circuit of the accelerator made the air gap size
< / BR>wheremax,cf- maximum, and average values of the relative magnetic permeability of steel per cycle acceleration;
b0- the height of the air gap in the interpolar space on the radius of the equilibrium orbit.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: super-conductive rod is magnetized to field with value within limits of thermal-magnetic non-stability of super-conductive state of rod to produce higher speed of spreading for running magnetic wave with amplitude greater than 1 Tesla. Collinearly to direction of magnetic field rod is placed, in super-conductive state, magnetic field is formed with value, limited by thermo-magnetic non-stability area, and then one of rod portions is switched to normal state. Device for realization of method has primary winding, forming magnetic field and connected to current power source. Inside the primary winding along direction of magnetic field rod is placed in super-conductive state. On one of rod portions additional winding is positioned, connected to pulse current source. Area of thermal-magnetic non-stability is characterized by magnetic field of value B, lower value B1 of which is determined from expression where Tc - critical temperature of super-conductive rod, Tb - coolant boiling temperature, C(T) - heat capacity of ultra-conductive rod material, upper limit B2 of which is reached, when difference of magnetic field inside and outside of ultra-conductive rod becomes less than B1.
EFFECT: spreading of constant magnetic field along spreading axis, with increased values of amplitude and spreading speed of running magnetic wave.
2 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used for making devices with a uniform field, the range of which is comparable or exceeds its transverse size. The uniform solenoid consists of an exciting coil (1) with a rectangular cross-section and an external magnetic core. The external magnetic core consists of a cylindrical cover (2) and two frontal flanges (3), the inner surfaces (5) of which are magnetic poles. Thickness of the external magnetic core is equal to the inner radius of the exciting coil. The external magnetic core reduces magnetic resistance of the external magnetic circuit and increases uniformity of magnetic field between poles.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of magnetic field.
SUBSTANCE: coaxial electromagnetic accelerator includes primary winding represented as super-conductive solenoid coupled with d.c. power supply. Magnet shield is installed inside primary winding in coaxial direction. The magnet shield is represented as a pipe made from super-conductive material. The pipe is connected to cooling unit and additional winding is available on the pipe end. Additional winding is connected to the source of pulse current. A gear from electro-conductive material is installed inside the pipe under additional winding.
EFFECT: invention allows for smooth accelerating body speed to required rate and reducing accelerator weight and dimensions.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: betatron magnet contains two guidance magnets with pole tips and gap in-between, core with gap, primary coil, orbit control coil, voltage pulse scheme and electron accelerator channel. Orbit control coil has section of compression coil slipped on around core gap and section of shifting coil slipped on around pole tips. Section of compression coil and section of shifting coil are connected in series with opposite polarity. The area limited by primary coil and shift coil is divided into core section and guidance magnet section and the boundary between them there is compression coil. Method for X-rays generation contains stages of flow generation by shift coil, formation of the first magnet flow, excitation of clamp coil, excitation of primary coil and injection of electrons at minimum intensity of the first magnet flow. Then the second magnet flow of opposite polarity is generated to compression of injected electron orbit up to optimal orbit, acceleration of electrons, polarity inversion of the second magnet flow when the first magnet flow reaches maximum intensity to expand electron orbit and collision of electrons with target , which leads to X-rays emission.
EFFECT: invention allows improvement in control efficiency of electron flow orbit.
16 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of reducing energy spread of a particle beam in cyclotron involves adding harmonics to the fundamental frequency of the accelerating high-frequency field, where the voltage curve of the resultant accelerating field has such a shape where particles receive equal intake of energy as they pass through accelerating gaps. The harmonic is added to the fundamental frequency such that the region of the voltage curve of the resultant accelerating field on which the beam is located while passing through the accelerating gap becomes linear; during the acceleration process, particles pass through the accelerating gaps being located on the falling and rising parts of the curve of the resultant wave to compensate for difference in intake of energy by particles during successive passage through accelerating gaps during the acceleration process.
EFFECT: invention reduces energy spread of a beam in a cyclotron as a result of constant compensation for difference in intake of energy by particles during successive passage through accelerating gaps.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for turning achromatic beams of charged particles consists of two identical magnetic mirrors lying in the turning plane such that each of them turns the beam by half (compared to the required) angle. The design of the magnetic conductor and the windings of the mirrors enable decrease of the magnetic field (after increase thereof to the maximum at the edge of the mirror), which enables to compensate for the defocusing effect of the input region of the mirror.
EFFECT: invention enables to compensate for angular divergence of strongly non-monochromatic beams in a gap and obtain, after turning, beams with parameters close to those of the input beam.
SUBSTANCE: particle accelerator (100) comprises a feeding device (110), excitation units (120) fitted with solid-state switches, magnetic core sections (130) and switch control device (140). The excitation units (120) are connected to the feeding device (110) to be powered from it, and each excitation unit contains an electrically controlled solid-state switch for turning the power on and off for selective delivery of excitating impulses to the excitation unit output. Magnetic core sections (130) are located symmetrically along the centreline of bundle, and each core in the section is connected to the respective excitation unit (120) through the electrical winding, connected with the excitation unit output. The switch control device (140) is connected to excitation units (120) for generation of signals for turning the solid-state switches on and off, for selective excitation of magnetic cores to create an electric field for acceleration of the beam of charged particles along the mean axis.
EFFECT: improvement of reliability and safety of the accelerator.
10 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of a dipole magnet in which the magnetic field is created by permanent magnets and directed so that the beam describes the loop path and one or more magnetic quadrupoles that are located in front of the dipole magnet and serve to compensate for the difference in the focusing properties of the dipole magnet in different planes. Shielding of the electron gun from the workpiece is carried out by the walls of the vacuum chamber or the installation of protective screens.
EFFECT: ability to rotate the electron beam to a large angle without significant deterioration in quality, which allows you to remove the direct visibility between the cathode of the electron beam and the workpiece and protect the cathode and high-voltage region of the electron gun from vapours and small droplets of metal from the workpiece.