Injector

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for the atomization of liquids, in particular slurries, solutions, suspensions. The injector includes a housing, inner and outer sleeve forming with the housing coaxial channels to create a parallel fluid flows in the Central channel and the threads of the atomizer in the inner and outer channels connected to Solovay apparatus, the middle annular channel at the exit of the nozzle is made in the form of a nozzle having a large number of evenly placed around the circumference of the holes small, angled 45 to the axis of the nozzle and with the angle 30oin the radial direction for creating jet vortex flow of the fuel in a carrying and fitting vortical flows of oxidant, twisted in the opposite direction generated by secretively flows internally through the tangential outer - through screw. The invention provides a high intensity burning fuel. 4 Il.

The invention relates to a technique of spraying fluid with compressed air or steam in the process chambers for various purposes for the combustion of liquid (gaseous) fuel colleag the liquids, in particular, slurries, solutions, suspensions.

The analysis of patent information, scientific-technical literature (see, for example, Segal I. I. Protection of air from fuel combustion. Leningrad, Publishing house "Nedra, Leningrad branch, 1988, mainly 3, S. 108; the Use of gas in industrial furnaces. The reference manual. Leningrad, Publishing house "Nedra", 1967, S. 111-118) showed that one of the main directions in the improvement of the design of modern injectors is to increase the efficiency and quality of spraying, for example, by crushing a liquid (gas) flow on a large number of small jets, increasing the angle between the liquid (gas) and air flow, achieved through constructive execution of the inlet channels and the structural elements of the nozzle, allowing the movement of the liquid (gas) and air flow, leading ultimately to maximize the development of the surface of the liquid phase, what is achieved by the transition to the combustion of fuel in the drip condition, providing the intensification of burning liquid (gaseous) fuel.

In such nozzles increase combustion efficiency and quality of fuel atomization, limit the extension is of elites in independent flow paths at the entrance of the nozzle, when the output of which flows interact, in particular, on the principle of counter-shifted jets. For the first time this principle was used for atomization of liquid media about 23 years ago and described in the Copyright Certificate (A. C.) of the USSR N 568790, M. CL. F 23 D 11/12.

Also known fuel injector (A. C. USSR N 802703, M. CL. F 23 D 11/04), comprising a housing placed in it a swirl, made in the form of discs with tabs on the side surface in the case in which the area of the output disk is made reciprocal projections of the last inclined grooves having a width greater than the width of the protrusions.

In oil-gas ploskorelefnoj burner (A. C. USSR N 802707, M. CL. F 23 D 13/04 was investigated) containing adjacent to the burner tunnel with torroidalnom the recess and connected to the air source housing with a twisting apparatus and coaxial pneumatic fuel oil injector, the output of which is placed a reflector, fuel oil injector is provided with a Central pipe for supplying the atomizer, and the reflector is fixed on the nozzle selected depending on the diameter distance. In the nozzle internal mixing (A. C. USSR N 805006, M. CL. F 23 D 11/10), comprising a housing with a nozzle forming the swirling chamber, equipped with the who from the nozzle rows is connected to a source of oxidant and inclined in opposite directions, and the channels of the third row is in communication with the source of fuel, while the channels of the third row are inclined in the same direction as the channels of the first row, and all the channels are arranged tangentially relative to the generatrix of the camera twisting. In oil-gas burner (A. C. USSR N 826140, M. CL. F 23 D 17/00) containing air supply duct with at least two parallel regulating valves at the entrance, which is installed inside a perforated body with an annular gas manifold outlet, the Central fuel oil nozzle and vane swirler in the input section connected to the air pipe, provided with a flow regulator, the air duct is divided into parallel compartments by transverse partitions installed between the control valves. In the jet (A. C. USSR N 879149, M. CL. F 23 D 11/04), comprising a housing with an Autonomous Central and peripheral fuel channels and the swirling chamber with a Central outlet nozzle and the output of the tangential channels, some of which are made in the side wall of the chamber and connected to one of the fuel channels through axial holes in the distribution of the puck, the other part of the tangential channels camera twist also made her Bo is Erste distribution in the washer connected to the Central fuel channel of the housing.

The above design of the nozzles, having certain disadvantages, not allow to achieve high quality atomization of fuel, especially at low pressure it flow and low flow of the spray agent (steam or compressed air), to ensure uniform concentration drops of fuel in the air stream and be adjusted within wide limits the opening angle of the spray, its length and fuel consumption, which has prevented their widespread adoption, particularly for the economical combustion of liquid fuel in boilers and other combustion devices.

In A. S. USSR N 876179, M. CL. F 23 D 11/12 stated nozzle, comprising a housing, sleeve, coaxially installed with the formation of the annular fuel cracks, internal and peripheral channels for supplying the sprayer with the appropriate output nozzles in the form of an annular series of narrow slots that are offset in the circumferential direction in adjacent rows, wherein the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer row are oriented towards the axis of the nozzle, and an internal number from the axis of the nozzle. This nozzle allows you to split sprayed liquid into two separate streams, one of which is directed towards the axis of the nozzle, and the other from her. Such flows provide sh and contact with the environment and lengthening the path of separate flows, to improve mixing with the environment and reduces the concentration of droplets in the flow. The disadvantage of this nozzle is that the two independent flow atomizer have a twist in different directions around the axis of the nozzle, which leads to the collapse of the spray in the axial zone of the flow, the appearance of built-up edge on the end face of the nozzle, reducing the reliability of the injector.

The closest analogue is the prototype of the proposed technical solution is the injector described in the patent of Russian Federation N 069813, M. CL. F 23 D 11/12 from 27.11.96, containing casing and sleeve, coaxially installed with the formation of internal and peripheral channels for supplying the atomizer and the intermediate channel for the fluid connected to Solovay apparatus, made in the form of an annular series of narrow slots that are offset in the circumferential direction in adjacent rows and the slits of the outer series are made with a longitudinal axis intersecting with the axis of the nozzle at its output slice, and the slits of the inner series with a longitudinal axis intersecting with the axis of the nozzle before it is output cut inside in which the longitudinal axis of the slots of the outer and inner rows inclined one to the other across the axis of the nozzle at one point, located at the level of its output slice or behind him.

The shortcoming of known injectors running on the method of supplying liquid fuel based on the principle of counter-shifted jets by atomization two offset staggered circumferentially relative to each other slotted channels, is the following:

the supply of liquid fuel in a continuous coaxial annular channel with a large pass-section, resulting in a jet of fluid flow in the form of a solid cone;

- constructive execution of nozzle apparatus in the form of an annular series of narrow slots that are offset in the circumferential direction in adjacent rows, due to their small cross section leads to clogging of the slots, and does not provide an adequate fit fuel air flow, which reduces the intensity of burning fuel;

- facing the flow of fuel from the prototype when it is constructive implementation does not provide the expiration of the jet with a twist, which leads to an increase of the mixing zone, the length of the flame increases, which poses serious difficulties for its regulation to fit the length of the flame in the combustion space and may lead to Chloe the invention solves the basic problem - ensuring the intensity of combustion. This task in the invention is solved by the combination of three interrelated factors:

- crushing liquid (gas) fuel flow on a large number of small jets;

- increasing the angle between the liquid (gas) and air flow;

- twist in opposite directions of flow of the fuel and sheath his air flow for combustion in the vortex (swirling) flow.

This will improve the efficiency and quality of spraying, to improve the mixing, i.e., to obtain a homogeneous mixture of fuel with air or other gaseous substance, such as hot steam that will ultimately provide a more intense burning fuel, good conditions of stabilization of the flame, reduced the length of the torch, will increase the reliability of the injector.

The core of the solution to the task according to the invention is that the nozzle includes a housing, inner and outer sleeve forming with the housing coaxial channels to create a parallel fluid flows in the Central channel and the threads of the atomizer in the inner and outer channels connected to Solovay apparatus, ru is achieved by the transition to the combustion of fuel in the drip condition. The average annular channel at the exit of the nozzle is made in the form of a nozzle having a large number of evenly placed around the circumference of the holes small, angled 45oto the axis of the nozzle and with the angle 30oin the radial direction for creating jet vortex flow of the fuel in a carrying and fitting vortical flows of oxidant, twisted in the opposite direction generated by secretively flows internally through the tangential outer - through coil secretively.

From the prototype of the claimed invention differs in that the expiration of liquid fuel, such as oil, flows of oxidant (air or superheated steam) through a nozzle having a large number of holes of small size, located at an angle to the geometric axis of flow and having a tilt angle in the radial direction for creating jet vortex flow of the fuel, and the expiration of the oxidant from the coaxial channels occurs through secretively threads: internal, via tangential, external - screw through secretively that enables the creation of two vortex flows of oxidant, twisted in one napravlennym and collectively solves the problem, namely, that the interaction of fuel - liquid (residual oil) or gaseous (gas) flow of oxidant is air or superheated steam is improving and is made of three twisted threads. Twist the fuel flow - fuel oil (gas) via a Central nozzle through a number of holes arranged at an angle to the geometric axis of flow and having a tilt angle in the radial direction. Internal to allow the device (secretively) carries out the swirling flow due to the tangential entry of the oxidizer. Outside to allow the device (secretively) performs spin oxidant due to the cut of the screw channels. Supply of fuel oil (gas) in a carrying stream is implemented by a system of small streams. This contributes to the fragmentation of the solid fuel oil (gas) flow on a number of small streams, reduction of energy losses of the opposing jets to interact, increasing the angle between the oil (gas) and air (steam) flows, increase the intensity of the twist of the thread of the spray gun, thereby creating a vortex of flame, reduction of static pressure along the perimeter of the fuel (liquid) holes. This constructive, the injector provides intensive mixing both) and fitted it with two air (steam) flows, which leads to the reduction of the length of the torch. The overall intensity of the twist of the thread dispenser of this increase, which excludes the possibility of a collapse of the spray torch throughout the course, and also provides good conditions for the stabilization of flame.

The main features of the proposed device is not in the devices analogues and their prototype, interconnected with each other and with signs the statement part. Their relationship is sustained.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the nozzle, a longitudinal section; Fig. 2 is a cross - section of the nozzle channels twist air; Fig. 3 is a view of the spray head from above; Fig. 4 - view of the supply channel of the fuel oil (gas).

The nozzle includes a housing 1, which is coaxially aligned with a gap between them, set the outer 2 and inner sleeve 3 forming to allow the device with a number of circular holes 4 for feeding fuel oil (gas) located at an angle alpha to the geometric axis of the nozzle and having a tilt angle in the radial direction, the inner annular channel 5, channel spin air 6, the air supply channel 7, the outer annular channel 8, the outer helical channels 9 twist air, the cover 10 covering the Central part of the nozzle; the building is (gas).

The nozzle operates as follows.

In channels 7 and 12 served under the pressure of the oxidant (air or superheated steam), which enters through the internal and peripheral channels respectively in the inner 5 and outer ring 8 channels. The internal to allow the apparatus carries out the swirling flow due to the tangential entry of the oxidizer. Outside to allow the apparatus performs the spin of oxidant through the cut angle of the helical channel 9. Thus, both the flow of oxidant face twisted in the direction opposite to the output stream of small jets of fuel oil (gas). Supply of fuel oil (gas) in a drifting flow of oxidant through a nozzle having a large number of holes 4 small, angled to the geometric axis of flow and having a tilt angle in the radial direction. The above elements nozzles can intensify the burning of the liquid fuel by the maximum development of the surface of the liquid phase, which is achieved by the transition to the combustion of fuel in the drip condition, and gaseous fuels. When the gas flow creates a vortex flow of the gas mixture, formed by the combustion of turbulent swirling flame. Design is the exits the nozzles fuel oil (gas) with a large number of holes, improves the quality of their dispersion, increases the ejection. Crushing fuel oil (gas) and air (steam) flows, as well as additional twist inside the air nozzle (steam) and fuel oil (gas) flows, contributing to the creation of the vortex of flame, allow to provide a good stabilization of the flame and to prevent collapse of the spray, i.e., tightening of threads to the axis of the nozzle. These factors provide the conditions for formation of the end surface of the nozzle vortex torch small length associated with the free space, thereby providing a high quality spray and combustion gas mixture. At the same time extending from the Central nozzle a number of small jet fuel oil (gas) flows in their interaction with streams of oxidizer allow to obtain a wide torch, which reduces the coagulation liquid droplets and increases the efficiency of mixing with the environment.

Nozzle, comprising a housing, inner and outer sleeve forming with the housing coaxial channels to create a parallel fluid flows in the Central channel and the threads of the atomizer in the inner and outer channels, Podlaskie surface of the liquid phase, what is achieved by the transition to the combustion of fuel in the drip condition, wherein the secondary annular channel at the exit of the nozzle is made in the form of a nozzle having a large number of evenly placed around the circumference of the holes small, angled 45oto the axis of the nozzle and with the angle 30oin the radial direction for creating jet vortex flow of the fuel in a carrying and fitting vortical flows of oxidant, twisted in the opposite direction generated by secretively flows internally through the tangential outer - through screw.

 

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