The method for implementing a thermodynamic cycles with phase transitions

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to power engineering, transport engineering, engine building. In the steam cycle of a steam power installation part extending in a thermal machine, the pair were taken to the superheater where it down warmth in a loop and served in the jet device, which increases its pressure to start before the heat of the machine when mixing this part of the steam and coming from the pump condensate of the working fluid, converted into the active threads acceleration nozzles. The resulting compressed mixed stream of vapor expands in the heat machine, and warmth in the loop away from the remaining part of the waste heat steam machine. In combined-cycle combined-cycle plant combustion products obtained by burning fuel in the combustion chamber, served in a jet apparatus, which increases their pressure to start before the heat of the machine when the mixture of combustion products and from the pump liquid flow-component working fluid, converted into the active flow acceleration nozzle, and forming a compressed gas-vapor mixture expands in the heat machine. The invention allows taking into account the measures of small losses (Mus) is 8 C.p. f-crystals, 19 ill.

The invention relates to power engineering, engine and is intended for use in steam power plants (PSA), combined-cycle power plants (CCPP), power units of vehicles.

There is a method of implementation of the steam cycle to the dog in which to water in the steam generator down the heat in the cycle before the formation of superheated steam, which expands in the turbine, with a portion of the steam after expansion in it to intermediate values are passed through the regenerative feedwater heating, condenses at the same time, the rest of the steam developed in the turbine, served in the condenser where it drains the warmth in the loop with the condensation of steam, and the resulting condensed water both parts together are served at the pump, which increases its pressure and fed into the steam generator (see Krutov Century. And. , Isaev S. I. Kozhinov I. A. and other Technical thermodynamics.- M.: Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1991, S. 313).

The disadvantage of this method is sufficiently large, the complexity of the implementation cycle, when to obtain a relatively high coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle is used cumbersome and complicated system of regenerative heating Pete the large amount of steps.

There is a method of implementation of combined cycle PSU, when compressed by the compressor, the air supplied to the combustion chamber, from which after combustion resulting combustion products expand in the turbine driving the compressor, and serves dorogaya additional combustion chamber, then served in the steam-gas ejector, in which when mixed with superheated steam generated in the steam generator supplying the water to heat and convert it into an active flow acceleration in the steam nozzle of the ejector to achieve high speed expiration increases the speed of combustion products through the transfer of kinetic energy of the pair, with the consequent increase of pressure of the combustion products in the composition of the gas mixture, which extend in the power turbine and through the regenerative heat the water ejector is removed from the unit (see RF patent N 2076929, CL F 01 To 21/04, 1997).

The disadvantage of this method are the high cost of heat for receiving superheated steam, the use of cumbersome system of regenerative heating water ejector and together with a significant loss of mixing in the ejector high enough efficiency of the entire cycle.

The technical result is to increase the, what in the steam cycle of the PSA portion of the steam from the heat of the machine is taken off to the superheater where it down warmth in a loop and served in the jet device, which increases its pressure to start before the heat of the machine when mixing this part of the steam and coming from the pump condensate of the working fluid, converted into the active threads acceleration nozzles, compressed and formed a mixed stream of vapor expands in the heat machine, from the remaining part of the steam, waste heat machine, condenser dissipate heat in the cycle, increase the pressure of the condensate of the working fluid in the pump, and that part of the flow of steam from the heat of the machine served in auxiliary input inkjet apparatus, and also that the steam from his selection in the superheater served in successively alternating the superheaters and jet devices, and then to the input of a heat engine, and that the remaining portion of the steam, waste heat machine, served in the jet device, which increases its pressure, by mixing this part of the pair and from the circulation pump fluid, converted into the active threads acceleration nozzles, and from the resulting liquid phase of the mixed flow in the heat exchanger dissipate heat VK working body down warmth in a loop the combustion products are served in the jet apparatus, which increases their pressure to start before the heat of the machine when the mixture of combustion products and from the pump liquid flow-component working fluid, converted into the active flow acceleration nozzle, and forming a compressed gas-vapor mixture expands in the heat machine, increase the pressure of the liquid flow component of the working fluid in the pump, and also that part of the gas-vapor mixture from the heat of the machine served in auxiliary input inkjet apparatus, and also that the gaseous medium is delivered in sequential combustion chamber and ink jet apparatus and then to the input of a heat engine, as well as the fact that waste heat machine, the gas-vapor mixture is fed to jet apparatus, which increases its pressure by mixing the mixture from the circulation pump fluid, converted into the active flow acceleration nozzle, and from the resulting gas-liquid mixture in the separator separates the liquid from which the heat exchanger dissipate heat, and the cycles of the dog and PSU fact that in the case of using the turbine as a heat engine in its stages is supplied with part of the flow of the working fluid output from the/QACCin a loop, where Qrespthe heat removed in the cycle; QACCis the heat input in a loop, making it easier for the dog with the exception of the system of regenerative heating of the working fluid, and PSU - with the exception of the compressor which provides the initial pressure of the gas mixture before thermal machine, to reduce the incidence of plant efficiency AC mode.

Set forth in the material jet devices, taking into account the essence of the processes, functions as an adder extensive parameters of thermodynamic States of mixed flows, in which in addition to the enforcement of conservation laws (energy, weight, pulse), the condition is equal or close to the speed of the expiration of mixed flows, which are characterized as active, i.e. they are not intended to change the kinetic energy of one thread by another. Due to the lack of classification jet devices names used types of jet devices, the description has adopted the following terminology: jet apparatus in which the resulting mixed stream is in the gas phase, referred to as the jet gas adder (GHS), and ink jet apparatus in which the resulting mixed stream is in the liquid is (PCA).

In the drawings presents:

in Fig. 1 thermodynamic cycle of the dog in the condensation mode in hS-coordinates; Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of the dog in the condensation mode of Fig. 3 - cycle of the dog in the heating mode in hS-coordinates; Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of the dog in the heating mode of Fig. 5 - open cycle PSU in TS-coordinates, and S1, S2- specific entropy components of the working fluid; Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of the PSU with an open ended loop of Fig. 7 - cycle PSU in the heating mode in TS-coordinates; Fig. 8 is a schematic diagram of PSU in the heating mode of Fig. 9 - cycle thermal power plants with reduced initial pressure of the working fluid to the turbine in hS-coordinates; Fig. 10 - cycle thermal power plants with a stepped heat supply loop for hS-coordinates; Fig. 11 schematically shows the PCA; Fig. 12 - section a-a in Fig. 11; Fig. 13, 14, 15, 16 schematically shows variants of the PCA; Fig. 17, 18, 19 - ways-section b-B in Fig. 16.

Thermodynamic cycles with phase transitions, based on the use of PCA can be represented by the example of the cycle of the dog shown in Fig. 3, in the form of a cycle consisting of three components:

1) the top to the QACCin a cycle 1-3 phase at low pressure P1to the temperature value at point 1, the pressure increases with a simultaneous decrease of the temperature at section 1-2 to their values at point 2 when mixed in the GHS with the liquid working medium flow medium circuit, thermal expansion in the car on the plot 2-3 in the composition of the mixed flow of the working fluid to the values of pressure and temperature at point 3;

2) the average path 2-4-8-5-6, which are part of the working fluid with phase transitions in the workflow, is the removal of heat Qrespin the cycle section 4-8-5 with increasing pressure and temperature at the site 4-8 to their values at the point 8 and the phase transition of vapor in the fluid mixture in contact with the liquid flow of the working fluid of the lower circuit and lowering the temperature on the plot 5-8 in the composition of the mixed flow of the working fluid to the value at point 5, the increase in fluid pressure in the pump section 5-6 to the value at point 6, the pressure decrease with a simultaneous increase in temperature at the site of 2-6 to their values at the point 2 and phase transition of a liquid into vapor when mixed in the GHS with gaseous working fluid flow of the upper circuit, thermal expansion in the car on the plot 2-4 to values of the pressure and t 5-7-8, where are the liquid flow of the working fluid, is the removal of heat Qrespin the cycle section 5-8 in the composition of the mixed flow of the working fluid, the pressure increase of the liquid flow of the working fluid circulating pump on the plot 5-7 to values of pressure and temperature at point 7, the temperature increases with a simultaneous decrease in pressure at the site of 7-8 to their values at the point 8 when the mixture in contact with waste heat machine the flow of the working fluid medium circuit 2-4-8-5-6.

Proportion of the working fluid in the upper and middle loops of the loop is determined by the expression

m/n=(h2-h6)/(h1-h2)

where m is the number of the working fluid in the upper loop of the loop;

n is the number of the working fluid in the secondary circuit loop;

h1is the specific enthalpy of the working fluid before the gas nozzle GHS;

h2is the specific enthalpy of the working fluid at the entrance to thermal machine;

h6is the specific enthalpy of the working fluid before the fluid nozzle GHS,

and in the middle and lower contours of the cycle is determined by the expression, similar to the above.

The application cycle as mixed with gaseous working fluid flow in GHS LM is eat superheated steam, to reduce the amount of working fluid in the secondary circuit, which directly or through the bottom contour is given warmth in the cycle, and thereby to reduce the amount of heat removed in the cycle, and to apply wet steam does not allow low speed ratio at the end of the nozzle.

From the number of cycles with phase transitions, based on the use of the PCA, the following cycles are of practical interest.

When working dog in heat mode, use the upper, middle and lower contours of the cycle, when operating in condensing mode the bottom contour is absent, and the exhaust heat in the cycle is isothermal at the site 4-5, shown in Fig. 1.

Work the dog in the condensation mode cycle, shown in Fig. 1, is shown in Fig. 2 the concept of installation and operation in the heating mode according to the cycle shown in Fig. 3, is shown in Fig. 4 the concept of the installation.

Superheated steam after summing up to him warmth in the superheater (PP) 1 served in the jet gas adder (GHS) 2, where when it is mixed with the condensate of the working fluid coming from the pump (N) 3, achieved early is the group of useful work by the consumer (P) 5. A portion of the steam from the turbine (T) 4, extended it, based on the optimal conditions of the intermediate values or fully served in the superheater (PP) 1 and the other part of the pair is served either in the condenser (K) 6 when working the dog in the condensation mode, where it disperses heat in the cycle, and the condensate of the working fluid fed into the pump (N) 3, or when working dog in the heating mode in jet liquid adder (SGS) 7, which increases the pressure of this part of the pair when it is mixed with liquid, coming from the circulation pump (CN) 8, and the resulting liquid phase mixed stream is fed into the heat exchanger (THE) 9, where it disperses heat in the loop, and then divided into two parts, one of which serves in the pump (N) 3, and the other in the circulation pump (CN) 8.

When working the dog on AC mode part of the steam flow from the outlet of the turbine (T) 4 or the part that runs on AC mode, served in auxiliary input inkjet gas adder (GHS) 2, in which with increasing deflection mode, the dog from the estimated increased flow, thus reducing the flow of steam in the jet gas adder (GHS) 2 from steam superheater (PP) 1 and, accordingly, the supply of heat QACCin the loop.

When working PSU in conditions requiring the preservation component of the working fluid with phase transitions in the cycle, use the upper, middle and lower contours of the cycle shown in Fig. 7, the upper loop is open-circuited, and the bottom provides isolation of the middle path. In the cycle it is the initial pressure before the turbine, which provided a low flue gas temperature and the working fluid can be, for example, a mixture of water vapor and combustion products. Water as a component of the working fluid expands the on shown in Fig. 6 the concept of installation and operation in the heating mode according to the cycle shown in Fig. 7, is shown in Fig. 8 the concept of the installation.

The air compressed by the compressor (K) 1 to a small pressure or without compression enters the combustion chamber (CC) 2, from which after combustion resulting combustion products are served in the jet gas adder (GHS) 3, which when mixed with the liquid flow-component working fluid coming from the pump (N) 4, is formed a gas-vapor mixture that reaches the initial pressure and the temperature before the turbine (T) 5, in which it serves and work with obtaining useful work by the consumer (P) 6 and either removed from the unit when working PSU open-loop, or when working PSU in heating mode serves to jet liquid adder (SGS) 7, which increases the pressure of the gas mixture when mixed with liquid, supplied from the circulating pump (CN) 8, and the resultant gas-liquid mixture is fed into the separator (SP) 9 where the non-condensable components of the combustion products is separated from the liquid and either removed from the installation, or work in a gas turbine (GT) 10, if the pressure of these components more atmospheres is serving in the pump (N) 4, and the other part - in circulating pump (CN) 8.

To reduce the work of compression of the air in the compressor (K) 1 and the temperature of combustion products in the combustion chamber of the fluid from the heat exchanger (THE) 11 or of the circulation pump (CN) 8, if the pressure of the fluid after the heat exchanger (THE) 11 not enough, served with air at the compressor inlet (K) 1.

When working PSU to AC mode part of the vapor-gas mixture from the outlet of the turbine (T) 5 or the part that runs on AC mode, served in auxiliary input inkjet gas adder (GHS) 3, in which with increasing deflection mode PSU from the estimated increased flow, thus reducing the flow of products of combustion in the jet gas adder (GHS) 3 and, accordingly, the supply of heat QACCin the loop.

To reduce the initial pressure of the working fluid before the turbine is shown in Fig. 9 intermediate pressure increase is expanding in the turbine, the gaseous working medium, when used in the first stage (group stages) to an intermediate pressure working fluid serves in the following GHS, where it mixed with the liquid stream (stream-component working fluid coming from n which extend in a subsequent stage (group stages) to the same or very close to the values of the pressure, that and after the first stage (group stages), etc. To increase the average temperature of the heat supply in the cycle dog at the temperature of steam leaving the superheater, not exceeding the maximum allowable, is speed the supply of heat, as shown in Fig. 10, when the steam after summing up the warmth of Qpodin the first superheater to an acceptable temperature at the output and the compression in the first GHS comes in the following superheater, where the couple down the heat Qpodto an acceptable temperature at the exit, and then served in the following GHS and so on, and then to the input of the turbine, and in a cycle PSU alternation of the combustion and jet devices, but to reduce the temperature of combustion products in the combustion chambers to the maximum allowable.

To reduce the dissipation of the kinetic energy of the flow of the working fluid in the turbine when working dog and PSU AC mode in the speed of the turbine is used to supply part of the flow of the working fluid from the output stage (group stages) on its input through a feedback channel number determined by the degree of deviation of thermal power mode of installation from design. For this purpose the most suitable speed level, which is vichka working fluid from the stage and vector directed opposite to the vector of the peripheral speed ratio. The resulting partition when the branch from the output stage of the backward channel plays the role of a regulating element, which allows you to vary the amount of exhaust back flow channel of the working fluid when the angle of the output flow of the working fluid from the degree of difference setting mode from the settlement, when, for example, increasing the inlet flow rate in the step of reducing the peripheral speed of the stage decreases the angle of the thread exits the stage, which entails an increase in the quantity of working fluid flowing in the reverse channel, and through it to the input of the same stage (group stages), that allows to avoid significant losses of kinetic energy coming from the stage turbine working fluid flow and consequently to reduce the incidence of plant efficiency AC mode.

The heat engine volumetric displacement is carried out in cycles dog and PSU, shown in Fig. 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, with the difference that instead of the turbine used engine volumetric displacement, in which a gaseous working medium compressed in GHS, served in the cylinder, where it acts on piston, it RES.

The process of increasing the pressure of the gaseous flow of the working fluid in a thermodynamic cycle with phase transitions is performed in the PCA with equal or close to the speed of discharge from the nozzles mix flows as a result of thermal interaction by mixing the active liquid accelerated by converting liquid nozzle potential energy of the fluid into kinetic energy of the jet and dispersed in the gas nozzle gas flow of the working fluid, between which are the metabolic processes in complex thermohydrodynamics phenomena, in which a phase transition occurs in one of the mixed flow, the exhaust heat from the gaseous stream, which reduces the work of compression, the supply of heat to the liquid flow, in the case of the phase transition of a liquid into vapor leads to employment expansion, which is used to compress gaseous mixed flow, and kinetic energy of the liquid flow of the working fluid is transmitted to the compressible fluid, and accordingly the flow rate is determined by the work required to compress the fluid in the pump and is a means of regulating the quantity of this work, and the adjustment of the speed smashit be noted, what different values of the rate of discharge from the nozzles is mixed flows with equal or close their velocities give different values of the efficiency of the cycle is related to the fact that the maximum degree of recovery of the total pressure of the gaseous stream is reached when the critical speed of expiration, and the cost of operation in the cycle decreases with decreasing speed of the expiration of liquid flow, and given that the loss of impact decreases with a decrease in the slip phase mixed flows, which together with other factors, manifested in the interaction of mixed flows, and determines a compromise speed expiration optimal for each of the mixed flow, the criterion of selecting the speed of expiration is the efficiency of the cycle, which, depending on the purpose thermal power installation, the mode being used and other factors can be determined in an efficient, provides effective thermal and exergy efficiency of the cycle and others. It should also be noted that in cycle mix in GHS streams are streams components of the working fluid.

To implement the process of increasing the pressure of gaseous flow (flux component) working threads are active with a large temperature gradient, therefore, its construction is used as such has a number of features associated with the adoption of measures to ensure low dissipation of the kinetic energy of the mixed flow, the small drop in efficiency of thermal power installation on AC mode. These measures include, given the large difference in the densities rosnafisah threads that receive the greatest possible relationship of the perimeter of the outlet cross section of the liquid nozzle to the cross-sectional area of the gas nozzle on the cutting liquid nozzle, it is possible to more evenly distribute the output section of the liquid nozzle in cross-sectional area of the gas nozzle, the small opening angle of the jet of liquid flow, that is a small transverse component of the velocity vector of liquid flow during extension in the mixing chamber under the influence of high pressure gradient within the liquid flow in the transition to steam due to the large temperature gradient between the mixed flow in the case of formation of gaseous mixed flow of the working fluid by performing the outlet cross section of the liquid nozzle slot, and for small flow - perforated, when part of the slit is closed by transverse bulkheads and measures for TEPLOS provide the desired amount of gaseous working fluid, coming in thermal machine, and adjustment of speed mixed flow, and the use of additional gas nozzle with variable area of the outlet cross section for filing in the mixing chamber varying quantities of gaseous working fluid from the heat of the machine.

Inkjet parametric adder shown in Fig. 11, contains the mixing chamber 1, tapering active external gas nozzle 2, coaxially located in the nozzle tapering active liquid inner nozzle 3, the output section 4 which, as shown in Fig. 12 section a-a in Fig. 11-level slice of the inner nozzle 3 made slot, and varieties of the output section of the inner nozzle 3 of the PCA shown in Fig. 13, 14, 15, 16, made multislot, gap outlet cross section of the inner nozzle 3, for example, the PCA shown in Fig. 16, can be located radially relative to the longitudinal axis of the PCA shown in Fig. 17 section b-B in Fig. 16-level slice of the inner nozzle 3 in a straight line and is shown in Fig. 18 of the same section, in the form of curved lines shown in Fig. 19 of the same section. In the PCA shown in Fig. 14, on the inner surface of the outer nozzle 2 is peripheral extremity vyhodnotenie nozzle 3, as shown in Fig. 16 - inside the outer nozzle 2 and the mixing chamber 1 coaxially with them is profiled body 5, the cross section of which depending on the configuration of the output section of the inner nozzle 3 shown in Fig. 17, 18, 19 section b-B in Fig. 16-level slice of the inner nozzle 3. In the PCA shown in Fig. 11, 13, 14, between the outer nozzle 2 and the inner nozzle 3, as shown in Fig. 16 - between the outer nozzle 2 and the profiled body 5 coaxially with them can be installed average gas nozzle 6. The outer nozzle 2 and the mixing chamber 1 shown in Fig. 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, made for optimal mixing efficiency, profiled, and the output section 4 of the inner nozzle 3 can also be perforated.

Works PCA as follows.

Liquid flow serves under high pressure into the nozzle 3, and the gas in the nozzle 2, and then flows, dripping from the nozzles, are mixed in the mixing chamber 1 of the PCA, where the mixed stream enters the appropriate nodes of thermal power installation. When working thermal power installation on AC mode longitudinal movement of the liquid nozzle 3 shown in Fig. 11, 13, or profiled body 5 shown in Fig. 16, provided in the PCA, and the change of the quantity of liquid flow by varying the speed of the expiration of liquid flow from the nozzle 3 by changing the inlet pressure to the nozzle, and the adjustment speed of the gaseous stream with the liquid produced by appropriate profiling of the gas nozzle 2 and the body 5. To change the quantitative ratio between the gaseous stream, which bring warmth and a gaseous stream, which is served in the PCA of the heat engine, is the average gas nozzle 6, which for longitudinal movement changes its output section and output section of the outer gas nozzle 2, and moving together with the inner liquid nozzle 3 either in passing or in opposite directions, possible to obtain different total cross-section of the gas nozzles 2 and 6.

In comparison with the known thermal power plants operating in cycles with phase transitions, organization cycles through the PCA allows the dog to reduce the initial pressure before the turbine, and hence the number of turbine stages, to increase the individual capacity of the dog by reducing the amount of steam passing through the last stage of the turbine, increasing the average temperature of heat supply in the cycle, does not exceed what aulani between the working steam and heating gas, to eliminate a system of regenerative feedwater heating, reheat, the zone of vaporization, when operating in heating mode to dissipate heat in a loop liquid heat exchanger having a small size and at PSU to increase the initial pressure before the turbine and thus reduce the temperature of the exhaust gases, and ultimately to increase, as shown by the calculations performed by the graphic-analytical method, the efficiency of the cycles of the dog and PSU 10-15% and to exceed the value of 0.5 to account for losses.

The use of the proposed cycles allows you to position due to compact thermal power installation directly from the consumers of thermal and electric energy enterprises, boiler providing heating of residential buildings and premises, when fuel combustion is not lost energy value of high-potential status of products of combustion, and used to generate electricity. And a significant simplification of thermal power plants can increase the reliability of power units in vehicles with nuclear reactors as power plants, as well as the possibility of using thermal power plants NGOs cycle steam power installation, in which to a working body down the heat in the cycle, increase the pressure of the gaseous part of the working fluid in the jet device when it is mixed with the active part of the working fluid, the compressed mixed gas flow of the working fluid expands in the heat machine, increase the pressure of the liquid portion of the working fluid in the pump, the working fluid is given heat cycle, characterized in that the gaseous portion of the working fluid away from a heat engine in jet apparatus through the superheater, convert it into an active thread in the jet device, and interacting with it an active part of the working fluid serves in jet apparatus in the liquid phase.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the portion of the mixed gas flow of the working fluid is supplied from a heat engine in auxiliary input inkjet apparatus.

3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the gaseous working fluid flow from his selection in the superheater served in successively alternating the superheaters and jet devices, and then to the input of a heat engine.

4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the remaining portion of the mixed gas flow of the working fluid, waste heat machine, serves in p is anionnogo pump fluid, converted into the active flow acceleration nozzle, and from the resulting liquid phase of the mixed flow in the heat exchanger dissipate heat in the loop.

5. The method according to PP.1 to 4, characterized in that in the case of using the turbine as a heat engine in its stages is supplied with part of the flow of the working fluid from the output stage (group stages) on its input.

6. The method of implementation of combined-cycle combined-cycle plant in which a gaseous medium enters into the combustion chamber, to a working body down in a loop heat obtained by combustion with the formation of products of combustion, increase the pressure of the combustion products in the jet device, when mixed with the active flow-component working fluid, compressed gas-vapor mixture expands in the heat machine, increase the pressure of the liquid flow component of the working fluid in the pump, the working fluid is given heat cycle, characterized in that the products of combustion is converted into an active thread in the jet device, and interacting with them in an active thread-component working fluid is served in the jet apparatus in the liquid phase.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the portion of the vapor-gas mixture is supplied from the heat Masha is I the medium is delivered in sequential combustion chamber and ink jet apparatus and then to the input of a heat engine.

9. The method according to PP. 6 to 8, characterized in that the waste heat machine, the gas-vapor mixture is fed to jet apparatus, which increases its pressure by mixing the mixture from the circulation pump fluid, converted into the active flow acceleration nozzle, and from the resulting gas-liquid mixture in the separator separates the liquid from which the heat exchanger drains the warmth.

10. The method according to PP.6 to 9, characterized in that in the case of using the turbine as a heat engine in its stages is supplied with part of the flow of the working fluid from the output stage (group stages) at its entrance.

 

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