The way the leather from the skins of fish

 

(57) Abstract:

The method refers to the leather industry and can be used for the production of leather from the skins of fish for various, mainly haberdashery products. The way the leather from the skins of fish includes: soaking off-degreasing, liming with calcium hydroxide (25-30 g/DM3), sodium sulfite (2-3 g/DM3), obessolivanie - degreasing, abating, pickling, tanning, chrome tanning agent, enzymatic processing, combined with degreasing, neutralizing, dying-greasing, the fixing of the dye and greasing materials on the fibers of the dermis. The liming and tanning is carried out in two stages. In the first stage of the ashing fish skin is treated with a solution of sodium sulfite for 5-6 h, and the second stage is a suspension of calcium hydroxide for 19-20 hours In the second stage of the tanning use a mixture of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent with a ratio of 3-3,2:7, and the total concentration of 45-55 g/DM3considering tanney and tanning. The technical result is the sustainable use of the components of the ash fluid and accelerate its clarification while maintaining the quality of the finished leather. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab.

The invention relates to coevolutionary leather goods.

The use of the skins of fish as raw material for the leather industry is fraught with difficulty. This is due to their specific properties. Collagen and elastin of the skin of the fish is slightly different from the collagen and elastin of the skin terrestrial warm-blooded animals. The temperature of the welding collagen skins of fish significantly lower than in mammals; it is lighter exposed to acids, alkalis, enzymes. Therefore, the modes of technological processes of manufacture of the leather from the skins of fish should be more gentle - low temperature, low concentration of reagents, shorter duration of treatment.

Along with this, the conditions of preparation of raw material for tanning and tanning in combination with posibbility machining and finishing operations must ensure the finished leathers necessary functionally useful properties that determine their quality.

There are various ways of making leather from the skins of fish. The first one involves the processing of semi-finished product by namazu consisting of 1 teaspoon of sodium sulfide, 2 hours of calcium hydroxide and 4 o'clock water [German Patent N 694488, CL 14 With 13/00, 1940.], second - liming mixture of calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride, abating for 16-18 h drugs, manufactured by Garrett, Borg is th processing [Patent Poland N 37821, CL 14 With 3/00, 1955.], third - liming mixture of calcium hydroxide and sodium carbonate with a treatment duration of 36 h followed pregabalina-tanning, dyeing and greasing and finishing processes [Denisenko N. And., Efremov C. A., Andreev, O. A. Optimization of the ashing process in the production of leather from the skins of sharks. - Izvestiya Vuzov. The technology of light industry, 1986, No. 6, S. 42-45.], fourth -: soaking off in cold water, degreasing, then after removal of the scales treated with a solution of salt and aluminum alum, tanning, dyeing, greasing and finish [Chursin Century. And. Decorative skin from fish skins. - Leather and footwear industry, 1992, N 4, S. 24.].

These methods are characterized by a high consumption of reagents in the process of ashing. Liming toxic substances are used, which leads to additional pollution. Also, these methods do not ensure the quality of the finished leather.

There is a method of developing skin from fish skins, including partial degreasing of raw materials in the solution of surface-active substances during their flow rate of 0.5 to 1.2% by weight of the raw materials, liming when liquid ratio (LCD) 1 -3 in the solution containing calcium hydroxide (6-14 g/l) and the sulfide or alkali hydrosulfide is acii them washing and degreasing surfactants or organic solvents, or enzyme preparations, or mixtures of these substances. Followed by pre-tanning of the hide aromatic synthetic tanning agent concentration of 5-15 g/l when the LCD 1,0, a temperature of 20oC and pH 5 to 8, the processing when the LCD of 2.0 in the acid-salt solution containing sodium chloride (70 g/l) and organic or inorganic acids, preliminary chrome tanning in the previous solution with a flow rate of the tanning agent to 0.6 - 1.0% by weight of the hide, counting on the chromium oxide, and the final chrome tanning with chromium compounds with a basicity of 33% and a flow rate of 2.25% by weight of the hide, counting on the chromium oxide. After aging and retanning of leather with a mixture of synthetic tannins their color, it is greased and finish by known methods [Patent Germany N 3534353, CL 14 With 13/00, 1987.].

The disadvantages of the method are the following:

the use of enzyme preparations liming associated with reduced strength of the finished skin and the possibility of enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen of the dermis;

the use of sulphides of alkali metals liming, surfactants with a low degree of Biodegradability and organic rastvoritelyami to wastewater pollution toxic chemical compounds;

the dressing of skin results in reduced quality due to deterioration of the natural neck and naturalness specific pattern front surface.

Closest to the proposed method of the technical nature and attainable goals is the way to develop skin from fish skins, consisting of: soaking off, degreasing, washing, liming when the LCD 2, the temperature of the 20oC mixture of calcium hydroxide 5-6% (25-30 g/DM3) and sodium sulfite to 0.4 and-0.6% (2.0 - 3.0 g/DM3from the mass of raw material. After twice washing with intermediate mettenheim the hide obezbolivaet - degreasing when the LCD is 1.5, the temperature of the 28oC with a flow rate of ammonium sulfate at 1.5-2.0% (10-13 g/DM3), sodium formiate of 0.4 - 0.6% (2.7 to 4.0 g/DM3, nonionic surfactants of 0.4 - 0.6% (1.5 to 3.5 g/DM3), magchat, washed, pikelot acid-salt solution followed by treatment pikelny fluid and pickling sodium formiate of 0.4 - 0.6% (2.7 to 4.0 g/DM3). Tanning spend chrome tanning agent at a flow rate of 1.3 - 1.5%,counting on the chromium oxide with enhanced binding chromium compounds at the final stage of the process of sequential introduction of sodium formiate of 0.4 - 0.6% of magnesium oxide and 0.2 - 0.4% by weight of the hide. Enzymatic processing of semi-finished product, combined with having degreased is 0,75% (8,3 g/DM3from the mass of the semi-finished product. After washing, neutralization, followed by washing, dyeing and two-stage fatliquoring spend additional fixation on the fiber derma organic dyes and fattening substances by processing the semi-finished product in a separate tub with a mixture of potassium alum, the rate of 2-3% and ftalievogo anhydride and 0.2 - 0.4% by weight of semi-finished [SU N 1839192, CL 14 With 13/00, 1993].

The disadvantages of the method are the following:

single-phase liming in the presence of calcium hydroxide and sodium sulfite in solution in the process of ashing formed sulfite and calcium sulfate, which is soluble substances (solubility product, respectively 1,310-8and 2,3710-5), which greatly complicates the system as a whole. In addition, irrational spent sodium sulfite, because part of it is just going to precipitate in the form of calcium sulfite;

when the joint introduction of sodium sulfite and calcium hydroxide is a strong saturation on sulfite and calcium sulfate, as proven ash liquid is almost not disappear for a long time. Proof that the formed solid phases are finely dispersed, is the ribbon, used according to the methods of wastewater analysis.

The purpose of the invention is the rational use of the ash components of the fluid and the acceleration of its lightening while maintaining the quality of the finished leather.

This object is achieved in that the way we produce leather from the skins of fish, including: soaking off-degreasing, liming with calcium hydroxide (25-30 g/DM3) and sodium sulfite (2-3 g/DM3), obessolivanie-degreasing, abating, pickling, tanning, chrome tanning agent, enzymatic treatment such as degreasing, neutralizing, dying - greasing, the fixing of the dye and greasing materials on the fibers of the dermis, characterized in that the liming is carried out in two stages with the first stage of the solution of sodium sulfite lasting 5-6 h, the second suspension of calcium hydroxide duration 19-20 hours Tanning on the first stage is conducted chrome tanning agent at a flow rate of 1.3-1.5% by weight of the hide, counting on the chromium oxide. In the second stage, a mixture of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent when the total concentration of 45 to 55 g/DM3based on tanney and tanning at a ratio 3-3,2: 7.

The technology of the method is as follows: skins pike (seure 18-20oC in the first stage, a solution of sodium sulfite concentration of 2-3 g/DM3for 5-6 h, the second stage of the raw material is placed in a suspension of calcium hydroxide with a concentration of 25-30 g/DM3on 19-20 o'clock the Next machining operation and left lying processes (obessolivanie - degreasing, abating, pickling) are similar to the prototype. Tanning is performed on the first stage of chrome tanning agent at a flow rate of 1.3-1.5% by weight of the hide (counting on the chromium oxide) to a temperature of the joining below 76-78oC. In the second stage tanning spend a mixture of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent with a ratio of 3-3,2:7, and the total concentration of 45-55 g/DM3based on tanney and tanning. As a vegetable tanning agent used willow extract, and synthetic tanning agent - N 1M, which is dispersed in the concentrate sulfite-yeast dregs product deep two-step polycondensation of dioxideemissions and formaldehyde. Enzymatic processing of semi-finished product, combined with the degreasing is carried out at the LCD 5, the temperature 53-55oC, concentration, g/DM3: protocolin G3x - 6-8 and nonionic surfactants - 7-9. As the nonionic surfactants used apamin, but also note the s and esters, etc. When enzymatic treatment was replaced with Pancreatin at it. After washing, neutralization, followed by washing spend dying-greasing acid dye. After 30 min after the beginning of the dyeing was injected fat emulsion and painted another 30 minutes Then injected acetic acid (50% by weight of dye). The total duration of the dyeing process 1 h 15 min [international practical conference "Dye - 94] - SPb., 1994]. Then hold additional anchoring of the fibers of the dermis organic dyes and fattening substances by processing the semi-finished product in a separate tub with a mixture of potassium alum and phthalic anhydride with a flow rate of 2 -3 and 0.2 - 0.4% by weight of the semi-product

The essence of the proposed method produce leather from the skins of fish is illustrated by examples in the table. 1.

Produced by the proposed and the known method of skin from the skins of fish characterized by the indicators shown in the table. 2.

From the data presented in table. 1 and 2, shows that the implementation of the method declared in the interval of these parameters allows to obtain elastic skin with high strength properties, color fastness to dry and wet friction.landeryou skin N 15091-80 physical-mechanical properties.

Developed a way to synthesize skin from fish skins is characterized by the following advantages:

the liming conducted in two stages using the first solution of sodium sulfite, and the second suspension of calcium hydroxide without the use of sodium sulfide, allows to obtain more soft and supple skin with mild processing mode and eliminate pollution of waste water toxic sulfides of alkali metals. Carrying out the ashing in the two stages of deposition of the solid phase after the second phase is faster than in single-stage liming ceteris paribus, for example for 1 h sedimentation at the two-stage liming settles on average 75% of the solid phase compared with 55 percent of single-stage liming. In addition, when the two-stage liming sodium sulfite is used efficiently, because there is no joint in the presence of their solution, and hence a partial precipitation of calcium sulfite, which occurs when single-stage liming.

Carrying out tanning in two stages using the first solution of chrome tanning agent, and the second is a mixture of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent allows you to get the skin more dense and full.

1. The way Widom sodium - 2-3 g/DM3obessolivanie - degreasing, abating, pickling, tanning, chrome tanning agent, enzymatic processing, combined with degreasing, neutralizing, dying - greasing, the fixing of the dye and greasing materials on the fibers of the dermis, characterized in that the liming and tanning is carried out in two stages: the first stage of the ashing fish skin is treated with a solution of sodium sulfite for 5-6 h, and the second stage is a suspension of calcium hydroxide for 19-20 hours

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the second stage of the tanning use a mixture of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent with a ratio of 3-3,2: 7, and the total concentration of 45-55 g/DM2considering tanney and tanning.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to light industry and can be used in chemical processing of sheepskin raw materials and fur raw materials

The invention relates to the processing of hides and skins of cattle and small cattle, which can be used for the production of leather for the uppers, and clothing and haberdashery

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used in making leather for Shoe uppers from raw cattle

The invention relates to the leather industry, in particular to the definition of leather and technological properties of tanning with chromium compounds
The invention relates to the technology for basic chromium sulfate /III/ used as a mineral tanning agent in the leather and fur production

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used in the formulation of the lacquer leather for Shoe upper

The invention relates to light industry, namely the method of manufacturing molded products

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used in the formulation of apparel of leather from the skins of cattle
The invention relates to tanning and fishing industry, and in particular to methods of processing raw material containing collagen skins of fish

The invention relates to light industry and can be used in the processing of hides and skins of fish, such as eel

Method of finishing // 2128232

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used for finishing leather for the production of hats skins of sheep

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used in making leather for Shoe uppers from raw cattle
Up!