Composition for the manufacture of sheet and linked starch sheet (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a process of manufacturing molded sheets having a linked starch matrix, reinforced fiber, and can be used for the manufacture of ordinary paper and cardboard. Composition for the manufacture of sheets produced by mixing water, granules unmodified and nielaminowanych starch, simple ester of cellulose, fibrous material and almost uniformly dispersed in the composition optional inorganic mineral filler. The composition has a yield strength of from about 2 kPa to about 5 MPa. The fibrous material can have a length to thickness of the fiber is greater than about 10:1, and almost uniformly in the composition. The composition is formed into sheets pass between one or more sets of heated rollers to obtain the raw leaves. The cellulose ether when heated forms a membrane on the outer surface of the sheet, while the starch granules do not stick to the rolls upon further gilotinirovaniya starch. Starch and cellulose ether to form a binder matrix sheet, in which the dispersed fibers and optional inorganic nepolnocenna leaves have properties, not inferior to sheets of cardboard, plastic or metal. The production of such sheets is an economical and environmentally friendly. 3 S. and 73 C.p. f-crystals, 25 tab., 8 Il.

The scope of the invention

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for producing molded sheets and products made from them. Specifically, the present invention relates to sheets, associated with the starch matrix, reinforced fiber, and optionally comprising an inorganic mineral filler. Molded sheets can be used instead of ordinary paper and cardboard.

2. Appropriate technology

A. Sheets, containers and other products

Thin flexible sheets made of materials such as paper, cardboard, plastic, polystyrene, and even metals, present in large quantities are used in the form of materials, bearing the printed image, as labels, overlays, as well as in the production of other products, such as containers, separators, razgraniciti, envelopes, covers, tops, cans, and other packaging materials. High-tech methods of processing and packaging currently allow you to store, package and transport the forging material protects the goods from environmental impacts and damages in the distribution process, in particular the chemical and physical effects. Packaging helps to protect a huge number of goods from gases, moisture, light, microorganisms, parasites, physical shocks, destructive impact, vibration, leaks or spills. Some packaging materials also provide a medium for distributing information to consumers, namely information about the origin, content, advertising information, instructions, identify, brand and price.

Usually most of the containers and tanks (including disposable containers made from paper, cardboard, plastic, polystyrene, glass and metal materials. Each year more than 100 billion aluminum cans, billions of glass bottles and thousands of tons of paper and plastic are used for storage and sale of soft drinks, juices, prepared foods, grains, beer, etc., Outside food and beverage packaging containers (and especially disposable containers made of such materials, also used very widely. Every year in large quantities is made of paper for printed materials, letters, photocopies, as well as magazines, Newspapers, books, packaging oil packaging, that represents only about 15% of the total annual domestic production of paper.

B. Impact of paper, plastic, glass and metal on the environment

In recent times there are disputes about which of these materials (i.e. paper, cardboard, plastic, polystyrene, glass or metal) causes the greatest damage to the environment. Public organizations have convinced many to replace one material to the other, to provide "environmentally correct behavior". All such disputes do not take into account the fact that each of these materials has its own weaknesses from the point of view of ecology. One material is superior from the point of view of some environmental problems, and at the same time causes the other, often more serious problems, in fact, paper, cardboard, plastic, polystyrene, glass and metals, everyone has their weaknesses from the point of view of ecology.

Products made of polystyrene in recent years has aroused the IRE of environmental groups, particularly containers and packaging materials. Although by itself, the polystyrene is relatively inert material, its production is associated with the use of a variety of harmful chemicals and raw materials. Unpolymerized the diamonds with him. Because styrene is produced from benzene (a known mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic substances), residual amounts of benzene can be found in styrene. And finally, as polymerized styrene is relatively stable under normal conditions, containers, packing and other products made from it, are not destroyed and therefore persist for long periods of time when their waste.

Potentially more dangerous was the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the production of "foamed" or "expanded" polystyrene products. This is because with CFC linked the destruction of the ozone layer. In the manufacture of foams, including polystyrene foam, CFC (which are highly volatile liquid) was used for the "swelling" or "foaming" of polystyrene and obtain a foam, which is then formed, giving it the appearance of cups, plates, trays, cartons, containers in the form of the valves of the shell, dividers or other packaging materials. Even when replacing less environmentally harmful blowing agents (e.g., HCFC, CO2and pentane), these substances still largely are harmful and highly desirable condition is I have to stop using products made of polystyrene and replace them with more environmentally friendly materials. Some environmentalists welcomed the temporary return to more "natural" products, such as paper or other products made from wood pulp, which are considered to be biodegradable. However, other groups of ecologists hold the opposite point of view and strive to reduce the felling of trees and destruction of forests.

Although paper products, allegedly, are biodegradable and are not associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, recent studies have shown that the production of paper has a much stronger impact on the environment than the production of polystyrene. In fact, pulp and paper industry is one of the five industries, which are the largest polluters in the United States. For example, products made of paper, require ten times as much steam, 14-20 times more power and 2x more water for cooling compared to equivalent products from polystyrene. Various studies have shown that the waste water from the manufacture of paper contain 10-100 times more pollutants than the waste water from the manufacture of polystyrene.

Another disadvantage of pulp and paper production is one is. This includes the energy required for processing of wood pulp to such an extent that the fibers have undergone sufficient delignification and to sampletree fibers to form a fabric. In addition, a large amount of energy required to remove water from a normal paper pulp, which contains water in amounts up to about 99,5 about. %. Due to the fact that it is necessary to remove such quantities of water from the pulp, it is necessary to literally drain the water from the pulp even before you can use hot rollers for drying the sheet. In addition, most of the water that is sucked off from the sheets in the dehydration process typically released into the environment.

Manufacturing processes forming metal sheets up to get containers (especially cans made of aluminum and tin), blown glass bottles and molding ceramic containers require large amounts of energy, because you have to melt, and then separately to process raw materials and to mould it to produce an intermediate or finished product. Such energy-intensive and labor-intensive processes are used not only valuable energy resources, but also lead to significant Zagra the Torno, the part of him that gets dumped, practically does not undergo biodegradation. Shards of broken glass are very dangerous and can remain dangerous for many years.

Even paper or cardboard, which are biodegradable, can not decompose for years or even decades, if in the conditions of landfill, they do not have access to air, light and water, which are necessary for normal biodegradation. There are reports of phone books and Newspapers picked up from the landfills, which had lain there for decades. Such a long period of decomposition of the paper is further increased due to the fact that often the paper process, provide coated or impregnated with various protective materials that slow down or prevent degradation.

Another problem with paper, cardboard, polystyrene and plastic is that each of these materials requires a relatively expensive organic source materials, some of which are not renewable, such as the use of oil for the production of polystyrene and plastic. Despite the fact that the trees used for the production of paper and cardboard are renewable in the strict sense of the word, needs, pain follows, the use of huge quantities practically non-renewable raw materials in the production of sheets and products made of them cannot be maintained at this level and in the long term is not reasonable. Next, the processes used for the manufacture of packaging materials (such as pulp, styrene or metal sheets) are very energy-intensive, pollution caused by huge amounts of water and air and require substantial investment.

In light of the foregoing should be addressed to the debate is not to discuss which of these materials are more harmful or less harmful to the environment, but to answer the question - is it possible to develop an alternative material that will help you to solve most environmental problems associated with each of these materials, or all of these problems.

C. Starch-containing binder

In recent years, many tried to use the starch and derivatives of starch as a binder or a single component pressings. One way of pressing starch moulding known as "fibrous starch". In the production of destructured starch natural crossgate "glue", which utverjdayut cooling of the hot-melt adhesive to a temperature below the glass transition temperature". Thus the starch is processed as a thermoplastic. Although restructurirovanie starch and receiving hot melt looks easy in theory, in practice technologies such proceedings are expensive and the finished product is typically poor or low quality.

Another way of pressing mixtures based on starch and receiving of products includes compressing the water-starch mixture between the heated forms. Starch binder preferably is initially being formed in the aqueous mixture in an unmodified regulatoryreform. Otherwise, to keep the same characteristics in terms of formemost, the mixture would have to include much more water because of gilotinirovaniya starch and a very strong increase of viscosity gelatinizing starch in water. Water-starch mixture is heated between forms to a sufficiently high temperature to gelatinising starch, as well as to remove most of the water from the moldable mixture. The obtained molded product can be removed from the form, but initially they are very fragile until they are subjected to "air the">

It turned out that just take out products that have a residual moisture from the form, it is not because of foamed porous starch matrix tends to deteriorate if it is not dried and overiden. However, obtaining porous starch matrix with sufficient strength to avoid collapse, usually leads to the dryness of the starch. Such processing requires a subsequent molding. Although this formation is sometimes applied, it does not allow for continuous production of continuous sheets, such as are produced in the conventional process of manufacturing paper.

Derivatives of starch are also widely used in the pulp and paper industry as sizing tool and as coatings and apply in order to close the pores of the paper and make the surface smoother and less porous. However, conventional processes for the manufacture of paper rely on the principle of physics canvas, under which is a complex of hydrogen bonds between the fibers, through which is formed of a binder matrix of the sheet. The starch binder is added to the paper slurry or used together with the water will be abstracted from the paper manufacturing process. Thus a large part of the starch, is added to the composition of the paper goes to waste. Therefore, it is extremely impractical from an economic standpoint to use starch as the sole or primary binder in plain paper.

Known composition for the manufacture associated with thin-walled starch products, which include, in particular, sheets, comprising starch, water, simple cellulose ether (e.g., carboxymethylcellulose), inorganic mineral filler, and a fibrous material (see U.S. patent N 5376320, 27.12.94 year).

In addition, one of the problems with the starch binder is that after dissolution or gilotinirovaniya in water such binders become very sticky. Although this property makes them good binder, however, it complicates the manufacturing process, because the sheets or articles manufactured with the use of large quantities of dissolved or starch gel binder, tend to stick to the form or devices, forming sheets. On the other hand, granules unmodified starch is usually insoluble in water and simply act as passive particles of filler in wet systems, poomala. However, after gilotinirovaniya granules unmodified starch, of course, become very sticky and have a tendency to stick to the molding equipment, particularly to a heated molding equipment.

From the above it follows that there is a need for improved compositions and methods for cost-effective and environmentally friendly production of sheets, which would have properties similar to the properties of sheets made of paper, cardboard, polystyrene, plastic, or metal.

A significant improvement of the known technical solutions can be considered even the fact, if such sheets can be formed a variety of containers or other products using existing manufacturing equipment and techniques presently used for moulding articles in sheets of paper, cardboard, polystyrene, plastic, or metal.

Can be considered an improvement over prior methods of preparing the leaves, if you can create an environmentally friendly sheets are formed from compositions that contain only some of the water and/or fibers, which are typically present in the suspensions used for manufacturing the considerable improvement of the known technical solutions can be considered even the fact that if such sheets, and containers or other articles made from them, will have good biological decomposability and/or will decompose into substances that are normally present in the soil.

From a practical point of view, significant improvements will also create compositions and methods that will allow the sheets, containers and other products from them at a cost that is comparable or even lower than the costs arising from the use of existing methods of making paper, plastic or metal products. Specifically, it is desirable to reduce the energy intensity and the initial investment required to manufacture products with the desired characteristics of paper, plastic or metal.

Further improvement in comparison with the known solutions is to create compositions and methods that would enable a relatively high amount of starch in the leaves and thus to overcome the problems associated with adhesion of starch, especially starch, praterinsel gelation, equipment used for forming sheets or the manufacture of products from them.

Next, the most important improvement to match the sustained fashion number of natural inorganic mineral fillers in these sheets. In particular, the most important improvement in comparison with the known solutions will be the fact, if such sheets with inorganic fillers will have greater flexibility, tensile strength, toughness, formability and will be better suited for mass production as compared with the known materials having a high content of inorganic fillers.

Such compositions and methods of obtaining the above sheets are disclosed in the present invention and in the accompanying claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention discloses a composition and methods of eco-receiving sheet, which have relatively high concentrations of starch and optional inorganic mineral fillers. Because the starch component has a primary binder, the sheets of the present invention will hereinafter be called "linked starch sheets. These leaves have the strength and other performance characteristics that make them comparable to conventional wood paper or even surpass it.

Moldable compositions used to obtain suasage dispersed fibers, water, and optional inorganic mineral fillers and other optional components. Suitable ethers of cellulose include such esters which undergo "Tervasaari" that is a phenomenon in which the cellulose ether in an aqueous system releases water and turns into a solid when heated water system to a temperature above the temperature of thermohaline particular cellulose ether. Similarly, cellulose ether forms a non-stick film on the surface of the sheet that wraps contained within the sheet moisture and thereby prevents the starch granules within the moldable composition to stick to the rolls for forming a sheet in the process of gilotinirovaniya in subsequent stages of manufacture of the sheet.

Mouldable composition is preferably molded into a sheet by passing it between rollers, which are heated at least to the temperature of thermohaline simple cellulose ether or above this temperature, but below the temperature of gilotinirovaniya starch. The forming rollers give a blank sheet having a non-adhesive film thermosetting cellulose ether. At this point, the blank sheet has a relatively dry powerrate to the temperature sufficient to gilotinirovaniya granules of starch. Gilotinirovaniya starch granules are fused together into a sheet, forming a very strong binder matrix, but the sheet does not stick to the rolls, because gelatinising starch is inside a non-stick surface film thermosetting cellulose ether. Then the sheet is heated to evaporation to remove significant amounts of water and get almost the dried sheet. Sheets, molded in accordance with the preferred method, contain linked starch matrix, fortified almost uniformly dispergirovannykh fibers. The sheets can optionally include inorganic mineral filler, and other impurities.

A preferred composition for forming sheet includes a binder of nielaminowanych starch in a concentration in the range from about 5% to about 90 wt.% from the total solids content of the composition; a simple cellulose ether in a concentration in the range from about 0.5% to about 10 wt.% from the total solids content of the composition; fibrous material in a concentration in the range from about 3% to about 40 wt.% from the total solids content of the composition; optional nedich particles in the composition; water in a quantity sufficient to obtain a moldable composition. Simple cellulose ether in the composition for molding acts as a thickener, which increases the yield of liquid fraction and allows to achieve a homogeneous dispersion of the fibers in the composition.

Sheets, molded using the compositions and methods of the present invention, can have a thickness from about 0.01 mm to 10 cm or more. However, the leaves had properties similar to those of paper or cardboard, they usually have a thickness of less than about 1 cm, preferably less than about 5 mm, better still less than about 3 mm, and preferably less than about 1 mm. in Addition, linked starch structural matrix of the sheet will deteriorate after long-term treatment with water.

Before the authors of the invention have opened the possibility to use a relatively high amount of starch in connection with thermosignal ethers of cellulose, the preferred primary binder for forming sheets with inorganic fillers were actually themselves ethers of cellulose. However ethers of cellulose have a drawback - they are much more expensive than other components used for the manufacture of sheets. Granules namedef the solid inner and outer rings of the binder, because after gilotinirovaniya such starch has a serious drawback - it becomes too sticky. Attempts to use starch as the main binder in forming sheets gave unsatisfactory results because of the adhesion of the starch to the equipment for extrusion or molding sheets.

The present invention proposes to replace large amounts of starch binder of simple cellulose ether, which was previously used in compositions for the manufacture of sheets. The combination of using a small number of relatively expensive simple cellulose ether with a much higher quantities of relatively inexpensive unmodified starch granules eliminates the above disadvantages associated with the use of each of these binder separately. The decrease in the amount of cellulose ether in the moldable composition used for forming sheets, can significantly reduce the costs associated with the manufacture of sheets. In addition, starch is not only much cheaper but also has the best properties as a binder in comparison with simple cellulose ethers and allows you to get a much better quality sheets and g is

When mixing the components being formed of a composition it is important that the starch had not been so high effort shift, what happens rupture or destruction of the starch granules. It is also important to maintain the temperature of the mixture below the temperature of gilotinirovaniya starch to avoid premature gilotinirovaniya starch binder to begin the process of forming sheets. Otherwise the starch on the surface of the sheet may stick to the device for forming sheet before the cellulose ether settles and forms a non-stick film on the surface of the sheet.

Accordingly, the preferred method of forming moldable composition used for forming sheets of the present invention, involves mixing together water, fibers and simple cellulose ether when using mixing with high shearing force to obtain a homogenous dispersion of the fibers and formation of fibrous mixture. The pellets unmodified starch, inorganic mineral filler and other optional additives are mixed, obtaining a mixture of fibers to the formation of the moldable composition. At this time, may be added an additional amount of water. Moldable compositionality to temperature thermohaline simple cellulose ether. Moldable composition may directly be fed between the forming rollers by means of the extruder preferably the system "back". Alternatively, the extruder may have a head for forming sheet. Simple cellulose ether prevents the adhesion of the starch binder in the sheet to the rolls, as mentioned above.

After this, the workpiece sheet is passed between the rollers to gilotinirovaniya starch, which is heated to the gelation temperature of the starch or above it. Some starches such as potato starch, gelatinised at about 65oC, while others, such as corn starch, gilotinirovaniya occurs at about 95oC. Gilotinirovaniya starch from waxy maize occurs at a temperature of approximately 70oC. Then, the sheet utverjdayut largely in accelerated mode, removing significant amounts of water by evaporation. The removal of water can be produced, at least in part, by means of rolls for gilotinirovaniya, although there may be a slight difference between the rollers used to gilotinirovaniya starch, and rollers used to remove the water. Rolls, hot enough to remove the water, also the but being a reinforcing structure throughout the starch matrix.

The surface of the sheet can be improved by passing the sheet between one or more pairs of finishing rollers, including hard and soft roll. A soft swath has enough friction to grab the sheet so that the speed along the tangent of the sheet is almost equal to the velocity of the sheet. "Hard roll" is very smooth and the rotation speed at a tangent is substantially higher than the speed of the sheet so that it polishes the surface of the sheet. Other finishing rolls include textured rolls or gavriloaie rolls, which give the leaves a texture image, or corrugation, respectively.

The sheets are made in accordance with the present invention have properties similar to the properties of paper, plastic, tin metal, and can be used directly for forming a variety of products, such as containers or other packaging materials. Alternatively, such sheets can be wound on a large spool or cut into sheets and stacked on pallets almost the same as paper or cardboard, and to store up until they are needed. After that, stabilizovany the present invention may, if desired, re-hydrate, to give them more flexibility and/or adhesive properties of the material. Increased flexibility reduces the likelihood that the leaves will delaminate or crack when molding to obtain products. In addition, the starch may behave as a thermoplastic. If the sheets of the present invention is heated to above the glass transition temperature of starch, they can be pressed into molds to make the desired shape. After cooling to a temperature below the glass transition temperature of the leaves will retain whatever form they gave. If you melt the starch inside the sheet by means of a temperature increase, the starch itself will become adhesive, thereby bonding and sealing sheets made container, such as container in the form of a spiral. The combination of re-wetting and thermoforming sheets can be successfully applied in order to increase the variety of sheets and to expand the range of technological processes that can be applied to these sheets.

The sheets of the present invention have high tensile strength up to 100 MPa in some cases, depending on the content of starch and fiber. These sheets can be printed by those who use them, to fold, collapse, collapse, collapse into a spiral, press, fold, crimp and glue in much the same way as paper or cardboard, to obtain a variety of products. In some cases it is desirable in the process to make the cuts, markings, corrugate or perforated sheet, to facilitate bending or hinge on a given area of the sheet.

As a result of implementation of the present invention have the opportunity to carry out mass production of a wide range of diverse products, which previously were made of paper, cardboard, plastic, polystyrene, or metal, at a cost that is usually not higher, and in most cases even below the cost of producing these products from previously known materials. Cost reduction is achieved not only by reducing the cost of raw materials, but also due to the cheapening of the production process, which requires less energy and less capital. In particular, the compositions used for the production of sheets according to the invention require much less hydrated than the production of paper, as well as much lower costs of raw materials compared with the production of plastics or metals.

Components such as starch and simple cellulose ether, dissolve easily in water, making them easier recycling or biodegradation. Used sheets or other products, you can easily grind in water and reused in the manufacture of similar products. If these leaves are thrown into the environment, starch and cellulose ether absorb water and dissolve quickly, then there is only a small number of individual fibers and different amounts of natural mineral fillers, which have a composition similar to or identical to the soil. The starch and cellulose ether and dispersed fibers are easily decomposed by microbes present in the soil.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

To understand how to achieve vicepres links to specific variations in its implementation, are illustrated by the attached drawings. Taking into account that these drawings depict only typical embodiments of the invention and therefore do not limit its scope, the invention will be disclosed more specifically and in detail using the drawings, in which:

Fig. 1A is a schematic depiction of a preferred system of production linked starch sheets, which are obtained by extrusion, the sheet is passed between the crimping rolls.

Fig. 1B is a schematic depiction of an alternative preferred system of production linked starch sheets, in which amorphous mixture was directly passed between the rollers, forming sheets.

Fig. 2A is an enlarged perspective with cutaway screw extruder with a vacuum chamber and cylinder, which are used in the system of Fig. 1A.

Fig. 2B, the system of the extruder forward and backward for feeding moldable composition between the forming rolls.

Fig. 3 is a side view of a piston extruder.

Fig. 4 is a side view of a pair of squeeze rolls and the sheet, which compresses the thickness of these rolls.

Fig. 5 is a side view of a pair of seal's rolls, including hard roll and a soft roll.

Fig. 7 is a side view of a pair hariraya rolls, used for receiving the corrugated sheets.

Fig. 8 is a perspective, showing a continuous sheet that is cut and stack in the form of individual sheets.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to compositions and methods of making linked starch sheets, which, if desired, include a significant amount of inorganic mineral fillers. Linked starch sheets can be manufactured in such a way that they will have similar properties of paper, cardboard or other sheet materials. These sheets have high strength due to the introduction of large quantities of starch as a binder, which also reduces the cost of the leaves and makes them much safer from the point of view of the environment compared to conventional paper products. Starch is added to the leaves in the wet state as part of a moldable composition used for the manufacture of sheets, and not as a sizing agent, as was done previously. The sheets also include almost uniformly dispersed fibers for the UE is obreteniyu usually can be described as multi-component, layered, reinforced with fiber microcomposite. Carefully including different materials, can give a discrete and at the same time Energetichesky related properties, you can create a unique class or range of microcomposites, possesses remarkable properties in terms of strength, toughness, environmental, safety, opportunities to use them in mass production and economy.

The term "multi-component" indicates that the composition used to obtain sheets usually include three or more chemically or physically distinct materials or phases, such as water, water-soluble ethers of cellulose, initially insoluble starch granules, which later gelatinous in the process of forming sheet, fiber, inorganic mineral fillers and other impurities. Each of these categories of materials adds one or more properties of the finished sheet, and compositions used to obtain a sheet. Within these categories you can use the various components, such as two or more types of inorganic fillers or fibers, which may give different additional properties sheet. This helps to give konichiwa various properties) nature linked starch sheets of the present invention distinguishes these sheets from conventional materials, such as plastic, polystyrene, paper or metal, which are mostly one-component systems. Thin sheets made from single component materials, usually limited to those properties that have the materials from which they are made. For example, the leaves are fragile, usually do not bend or fold so that the leaves did not break, at that time, as a flexible sheets often can't even stand my own weight. On the contrary, the multicomponent nature of the materials of the present invention allows to give different properties made from their leaves.

The term "multi-level" suggests that the compositions and materials of the present invention determines at different levels or at different scales. In particular, the sheets of the present invention usually has a macrocomponent composition with particles in the range from about 10 nm to about 10 mm, microcomponent composition with particles of from about 1 μm to about 100 μm, and the component, the particle size less than microns. Despite the fact that these levels cannot be fractional, they are usually very similar to each other and within each level there is uniformity and monotony.

The term "the thou of the present invention from conventional paper or paper products. Plain paper relies on "the physics of cloth or interlocking of fibers, creating a structural matrix and mass, and which is the binding agent in the paper. However, the binder matrix in the sheets of the present invention involves the interaction between components such as starch binder, fibers, and optional inorganic filler (and to some extent simple cellulose ether). Fibers act primarily as a hardening component, which imparts tensile strength and flexibility, but the fibers are not connected together according to the laws of physics canvas.

Finally, the term "gas" suggests that the composition of the leaves is not just a combination or mixture, but the desired matrix, consisting at the micro level of the individual materials, which vary in size, shape and chemical composition. Materials sufficiently well connected and interactive, so that the unique properties of each fully present in the final composition (e.g., the tensile strength of the matrix is directly related to the tensile strength of the fibers and starch binder).

In light of the above definitions and principles of materials that include to Italy, you can mix and mould, receiving a variety of products, including sheets having properties similar to the properties of plain paper or paperboard. Linked starch sheets of the present invention can replace the sheets, made of plastic, polystyrene and even metal. Sheets can be cut and formed (for example, bending, folding or collapsing) of them a variety of containers and other products. Compositions and methods of the present invention, including sheets made from these compositions, it is better suited for mass production of disposable containers and packaging that are used in eateries (the so-called eateries type of "fast food")

1. General provisions

A. Products of plain paper

"Paper" is a General term that encompasses a wide range of woven or felted seteobraznyh materials from vegetable fibers (mainly wood), which were obtained from aqueous suspensions while pouring them into a grid. Sheet products, which most people call "paper", or "cardboard" is usually a "wood paper", because they are made from wood pulp derived from wood. Although wood bumah quantities it usually contains a relatively high amount of wood fibers, usually from about 80 to 98% by volume of a sheet of paper. This is because fiber should always be present in sufficiently high concentrations, so that they can communicate with each other through the physics of the canvas.

To achieve well-known properties, typical for paper instead of wood fibers were added to other fibers. Among these different fibers vegetable fibers (known as "secondary fiber"), such as straw, flax, Abak, hemp, and bagasse sugar beet or cane. The resulting paper is often called "vegetable paper. A broad category of paper pulp based mostly vegetable or wood paper, this text will be called "plain paper".

In the manufacture of conventional paper is normally used or the sulphate process cooking or sulfite to receive sheets from the pulp. During sulphate pulping fiber pulp "cooked" in NaOH to split fiber. In the sulphite process in the decomposition process of the fibers used acid. In both these methods, the fiber is first processed to release the lignins, Tosti. Due to the fact that the sulfite process is even tougher, the strength of the paper, the resulting sulfite process is normally around 70% of the strength of the paper produced according to the method of sulfate pulping (Kraft paper).

After wood got wood pulp or sulphate cooking, or sulfite, it is processed in the grinding machine, so that the fibers even more freed lignins and hemicellulose, as well as to put fiber. The resulting suspension, which usually contains about 99.5% of water and only about 0.5% of wood pulp is subjected to strong breaking in the grinding machine, to release enough hemicelluloses and to put fiber to such an extent to make fiber mixture, which is largely associated itself through the weave of the fibers, including the formation of hydrogen bonds. However, the price of this rough treatment is that there is a decomposition of the fiber along its length, which leads to the loss of a significant part of the tensile strength, peel strength and tensile bursting. Because paper production is necessarily based on the physics of cloth,paper, in the paper it is necessary to introduce a relatively high percentage of fibers (usually at least 80% or more).

Then the suspension or composition of paper containing high amounts of water, is subjected to dehydration, which initially put the suspension on a porous screen or wire mesh, and then "squeeze" the water by means of the pressure roll. The first stage of dehydration leads to the formation of a sheet having a water content of about 50-60%. At any stage of the manufacture of plain paper fiber suspension or composition is not "formed" condition, so that it can be formed as in the present invention. After the initial stage of dehydration partially dried sheet of paper is then dried by heating the sheet, often using heated rolls. Because the process of making paper, and physics paintings impose certain restrictions, i.e. upper limit to the amount of inorganic filler that can be entered in the sheet of plain paper by impregnation.

On the contrary, the present invention is not physics-based cloth when linking components of the sheet to each other. Connecting power the starch component, and to NEC sheets. Starch binder interacts with itself, acting as a binder matrix and fibers, and to some extent with other solid components.

As a result, the sheets can contain much less fiber while maintaining the tensile strength, tear and tensile punching and bending, which attach to the fiber. Use less fiber while maintaining good strength characteristics allows more economical to produce sheets, containers, and other products (compared to paper), because (1) fibers are more expensive material compared with inorganic filler and even starch binder, (2) investment in processing equipment will be significantly lower, (3) minimization of the content of fiber also reduces the amount of pollution entering the environment in connection with the manufacture of fiber.

The sheets of the present invention have properties similar to the properties of paper from wood or vegetable cellulose, such as tensile strength, bending and adhesive force, even though the present invention uses only about 1/50 to 1/3 of the fibers used in the paper. This casticin the second treatment compared with the fibers, which is used for the manufacture of paper. This is also due to the inclusion of relatively large amounts of starch as a binder and the structural component.

In addition to the optional introduction of much higher concentrations of inorganic fillers of the present invention differs from the production of conventional paper and in other ways. First, much less water is used in the form of mixtures (typically less than about 50 wt.%) according to the present invention, in comparison with suspensions of plain paper, which usually contains water in an amount of at least 97 wt.%, and even to 99.9 wt. %. More importantly, the sheets according to the invention is formed from a mixture having a high cohesive strength, but at the same time, form, and not from the aqueous suspension, so after purchasing some form mixture will generally save this form, if it is not subjected to the subsequent molding or influences.

B. Sheets, containers and other products

The term "sheet" in the present description and appended claims includes any almost flat, corrugated, curved, bent or textured sheet made using the compositions of the binder matrix must contain starch, obtained by gilotinirovaniya of starch granules during manufacture of the sheet. Linked starch sheets can have an organic coating, printed drawings, other leaves, forming together the laminated material, etc.

The leaves in the framework of the present invention can have very different thickness, depending on what application they are intended. The sheets can have a thickness from about 0.01 mm to 1 cm and above, when the most important strength, durability or volume.

The term "container" in the present description and the claims includes any goods, containers or vessels used for storing, dispensing, packaging, divide into portions or shipment of various types of products or objects (including, without limitation, food and drinks). Specific examples of such containers are described in detail below and include, among others, boxes, cups, bowls, jugs, bottles, plates, bowls, trays, boxes, bags, packing baskets, boxes of Breakfast cereal, drawers for frozen food boxes, milk crates for beverage containers, dishes, boxes eggs, lids, straws, envelopes, or other types of holders. In addition to completely ready containers Temernik, lids, liners, dividers, covers, material, softening the blow, toiletries and any other products used in packaging, storing, shipping, division, portion, serving or dosage of objects inside of the container.

In addition to sheets and containers, any product that can be obtained by formation of the corresponding starch sheets according to the invention, included in the scope of the present invention. Such products include, for example, model airplanes, covers for books, Board games, toys, blinds, tube for pneumatic tube packaging for shirts, napkin-holders, temporary blinds for car Windows.

The phrase "suitable for mass production, or produced on a "commercial" or "industrial" in the description in the formula indicates that the sheets according to the invention can be quickly performed with such intensity that their production will be economically comparable to the production of sheets made of other materials, such as paper, cardboard, polystyrene, or metal. The present invention is directed to new compositions, which allow to solve the problems unsolved by means of known compositions include a high percentage of starch in the leaves, vol the solid substance" or "total solids content" includes all impurities, which before mixing with water are in solid form. This includes fiber, inorganic fillers, starch ethers, cellulose, etc.

The advantage associated with starch sheets of the present invention (as well as containers, printed materials or other products made from them) is that their removal has much less impact on the environment, compared with paper, cardboard, plastic, polystyrene, glass or metal. Sheets and articles of the present invention can be easily recycled, and even without processing they easily decompose and disintegrate when exposed to moisture, pressure, or other environmental factors, forming the components that correspond to components of the soil. Starch and cellulose ether dissolve slowly in water, and then quickly decompose under the action of microbiological factors. Fiber also quickly decompose and are used in much smaller quantities compared to paper. The inorganic filler is inert and in any case is compatible with the soil. On the contrary, a Bank or mug made of polystyrene, plastic or metal thrown into the lake or river, will decompose over the years, vasvija decomposition are not perfect. On the contrary, sheets or containers or other articles from sheets of the present invention will decompose quickly, within hours or days, depending on the number of available moisture.

Century Form of the song

The terms "form of composition," "moldable composition or a mixture of starch-based" are used interchangeably and refer to mixtures with starch, which can be molded into sheets, described in this application. Such mixtures are characterized in that they contain a significant amount of granules nielaminowanych starch, fewer cellulose ether, a different number of fibers and mineral fillers and water prior to the formation of a mixture having similar moldable plastic consistency. In the present descriptions and claims, the term "total solids content" shall include all solids, dispersed or dissolved in the aqueous phase of the mixture. Form the mixture can also contain other impurities, such as plasticizers, lubricants, dispersing agents, water-deposited materials and the pore.

Form the mixture are characterized by a relatively high yield strength, which makes them very HOU directly after molding, or shortly thereafter. The terms "form of composition", "plastic composition or a mixture of starch-based" refers to the mixture, regardless of the extent to which they are dried. Such mixtures include mixtures which have good processability, partially dried mixture, and completely dried mixture (although a certain amount of water usually remains in the leaves in the form of bound water in the starch binder).

After being formed from the composition of the produced sheet was heated to a temperature of gilotinirovaniya granules of starch and at least partially dried, the sheet or the product derived from it, will be "linked starch structural matrix" or "linked starch matrix with inorganic filler".

, Organic polymeric binder

Form of the composition used for manufacturing linked starch of leaves and other products according to the present invention, gain strength in the drying process almost solvated dispersed in water, an organic polymeric binder, mainly starch binder. Form of the song first acquire the properties of workability and those who tion, similar to the properties of the plastic. Thereafter dispersed in water, an organic binder will develop its maximum strength as the removal of water by evaporation. Organic binder affects the rheological properties of the moldable mixture, especially of cellulose ether, which dissolves or gelatinized in the presence of cold water.

Dispersible in water organic polymeric binder, covered by the present invention, can be attributed to the following categories: (1) starches, usually pellets of unmodified starch; (2) ethers of cellulose, which can be precipitated by heat treatment and which can form a film; (3) other organic thickeners and/or binder that is compatible with starches and cellulose ethers, such as polysaccharides, proteins and synthetic organic materials.

1. Starch

The sheets of the present invention to develop most of its strength by gilotinirovaniya binder based on starch in water with subsequent removal of water by evaporation. Starch is a natural hydrocarbon, comprising the polymerized molecules of glucose, which is found in nature in the form of granules. Starch granules vkluchay the amylopectin.

In General, the starch granules are insoluble in cold water; however, if the outer membrane pellets destroyed, e.g., when grinding, the granules can swell in cold water, forming a gel. When intact granules are subjected to the action of warm water, the granules swell and part of soluble starch (amylose) diffuses through the wall of the granules to form a paste. In hot water, the granules swell to such an extent that they burst, and this leads to gelatinising mixture. The exact temperature at which the binder based on the starch swells and gelatinizes depends on the type of starch.

Gilotinirovaniya is a result of the fact that the linear polymer amylose, which is initially compressed within the granules, straightened and intertwined with each other and with amylopectinosis chains. After removal of water resulting network of interconnected polymer chains forms a solid material, which has a limit of tensile strength up to about 40-50 MPa. Enhanced fiber-linked starch sheets may have different tensile strength up to about 100 MPa, depending on the type and concentration of starch and fibre in the leaves.

Although starch is obtained with different, is Seneca, sorghum, rice, and waxy rice, which can be used in the form of flour, and crushed. Other sources of starch include tubers, such as potatoes, roots, such as tapioca (e.g., cassava and manioc), sweet potato, and arrowroot, and sago palm core. Potato starch and starch from waxy maize are the preferred starches.

Various natural starches have very different temperature gelation. For example, potato starch typically has a gelation temperature of about 65oC; corn starch has a gelation temperature of about 95oC; starch from waxy maize has a gelation temperature of about 70oC. Any non-modified starch can be used in the framework of the present invention. In General, however, the adhesion novoformiranih sheets will be much reduced if used, the type of starch has a gelation temperature higher than the temperature thermohaline cellulose ether used in this form of the composition. This allows the use of forming rolls, which have a temperature equal to or higher than the temperature of thermohaline cellulose ether,Ira cellulose on the surface novoformiranog raw sheet, which is obtained as a result of thermohaline cellulose ether and partial drying of the surface of the sheet as it passes between the forming rolls.

Binder based on unmodified starch are usually preferred in comparison with binders based on modified starch as unmodified starch is much cheaper. More importantly, unmodified starch is not gelatinized until that point in the manufacturing process of the sheet when the sheet is heated to a temperature of gilotinirovaniya starch. Modified starches or starches, which gelatinous to the formation of the non-stick film by drying the cellulose ether can cause the raw sheet will stick to the forming rolls.

Pure starch composition can absorb moisture from the ambient air so that at the equilibrium state, the water is typically present in an amount of about 10-12 wt.% of the composition. When inorganic fillers and fibers are introduced into the starch composition, as in the present invention, the water will be present in an amount of about 3-6 wt.% from the total mass of the composition in the equilibrium state, since the starch is made from about 10% to 15% by weight of starch.

The concentration of binder based on starch in the form of the mixture of the present invention is in the range from about 5% to about 90% of the total mass of solid particles, preferably from about 15% to about 75 wt.%, even better, from about 30% to about 60 wt.%.

2. Ethers of cellulose

The cellulose ethers of the present invention are introduced into the moldable mixture in much smaller quantities than starch binder. Although the cellulose ether used by itself without the starch binder to form sheets with inorganic fillers, the costs of using one ester of cellulose as a binder is much higher than when the primary binder is a starch. So, it makes economic sense to use a high content of starch with a relatively low amount of cellulose ether, to prevent sticking. The result is high-quality sheet with greater flexibility and tensile strength. Can be used any cellulose ether, having the ability to termootdelenii.

Suitable cellulose ethers include, for example, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, methyl is spodnie. The entire range of possible options is very extensive, and here to list them is not necessary, but it should be noted that other cellulose ethers, having the property of thermohaline, can be used in the present invention.

Preferred is a cellulose ether Methocel(manufactured by Dow Chemical), the product of methylcellulose. Methocel is a temperature thermohaline 70oC. Another preferred cellulose ether is Tylose R FL 15002, which has a temperature of thermohaline about 85oC. you can Also use a mixture of cellulose ethers with different properties and temperature thermohaline. Any person skilled in the art will be able to choose the cellulose ether, which has a temperature of thermohaline lower than the gelation temperature of the starch granules to reduce adhesion between the rollers and the raw sheet in the molding process of the sheet.

Some binders on the basis of cellulose also can be subjected to cross-polymerization in solution; an example of this is Cellosizethe product of hydroxyethyl cellulose, manufactured by Union Carbide. Cellosizeyou can put the stitching in the water with dialdehyde, metrologiya the tx2">

The cellulose ethers used in the form of mixtures of the present invention preferably is administered in the range of from about 0.5% to about 10 wt.% from the total mass of solid particles, preferably from about 1% to about 5 wt.%, best from about 2% to about 4 wt.%.

3. Other organic binding

Despite the fact that the starch binder and the binder of cellulose ether are preferred in the compositions of the present invention, other organic binding materials can also be used additionally. For example, other binders on the basis of a polysaccharide that can be used in the invention include alginic acid, phycocolloids, agar, gum Arabic, harowuiu resin, the resin carob, gum karaya and tragakant, and mixtures or derivatives. Suitable binders albumen include, for example, Zein(prolamin derived from corn), collagen (extracted from connective tissue and animal bones), and its derivatives, such as gelatin and glue, casein (the main protein in cow's milk) and their mixtures and derivatives.

You can also use synthetic organic binders, which are dispersed in water, in lacrilube acid, salts of polyacrylic acids, polyvinylacetate acids, salts polyvinylacetate acids, polyacrylamide, ethyleneoxide polymers, lactic acid polymers, latex (a broad term that includes a variety of polymerized substances formed in an aqueous emulsion, an example of which is a copolymer of styrene and butadiene), their mixtures or derivatives.

The total content of the organic binder in the cured sheet preferably will be from about 6% to about 90 wt.% from the total solids content of the cured leaf, more preferably in the range of from about 20% to about 80 wt.%, preferably in the range from about 30% to about 60 wt.%.

4. The characteristics of the organic binder in the process of forming sheet

Although the authors of the present invention recognized that the cellulose ethers (e.g., Methocel) provide optimal performance characteristics in the manufacture of sheets using extrusion and rolling, the cellulose ethers have the disadvantage that they are very expensive compared to other components used for the manufacture of sheets. Starch is a good binder and much cheaper than the cellulose ethers, but it has the user in the process of making sheets, which leaves often stick to the rolls, which complicates the manufacture of the sheets.

The present invention provides the use of starch instead of a large amount of cellulose ether. This combination of a small amount of cellulose ether with a starch binder can significantly reduce the cost of manufacture of the sheets and at the same time prevents the adhesion of starch to the rolls in the process of forming sheets. In addition, the introduction of relatively large amounts of starch leads to the creation of the leaves, which are stronger and less fragile than the sheets that include large amounts of cellulose ether as a binder.

In a preferred method of forming sheet of the present invention granules unmodified nielaminowanych starch added to the moldable mixture prior to heating in the molding process of the sheet, as discussed more fully below. Form the mixture is passed between a set of

heated rolls which are heated to cause Tervasaari cellulose ether (which is about 70oC for Methocel), which causes it to precipitate, forming a non-stick coating on the surface of the molded sheet. Starch granules is reset adhesion of starch binder to the rolls when gilotinirovaniya granules of starch. The cellulose ether thus acts as a binder film formed on the sheet. As the starch inside the sheet becomes gelatinising, and then dries out while removing water by evaporation, it becomes the main binder that binds together other solid components within the structural matrix of the sheet.

When mixing together components to form a mixture, it is important that a binder based on starch are not subjected to shear force that can break or destroy granules unmodified starch. This can cause premature gilotinirovaniya starch and adhesion of the mixture to the rolls. For the same reason it is also important to keep the mixture at a temperature below gilotinirovaniya binder based on starch. The preferred binder based on starch include unmodified starches, which gelatinous at a temperature equal to or higher than the temperature of thermohaline cellulose ether, thus formed the shell of the cellulose ether on the surface of the sheet before gilotinirovaniya granules of starch.

D. Water

Water added to form the mixture in order to dissolve, or at least dispersing organic Cheskie fillers across form the mixture. Feature of water is that thanks to her, get form a mixture having the desired rheological properties, including viscosity and yield stress.

To form the mixture was adequate workability, water must usually be entered in quantities sufficient for wetting the particles of inorganic filler, fibers or other solid particles to solutionat or at least dispersing organic binder, as well as to at least partially fill the gaps or voids between the particles. In some cases, for example, with the addition of dispersant or lubricants, adequate machinability can be saved when using smaller initial amounts of water.

The amount of water added to form a mixture, should be carefully balanced so that the mixture had sufficient machinability, while at the same time, it should be recognized that the reduction of the initial water content reduces the amount of water that needs to be removed, in order to shape the cured sheet. Appropriate rheological properties, which can satisfy these requirements, can be described by the yield strength. Limit ecochemical in the range from about 100 kPa to about 1 MPa, and preferably in the range from about 200 to about 700 kPa. The desired level of yield strength can be adjusted and optimized in accordance with the specific process used for forming the sheet.

In some cases it is advisable to include a relatively high amount of water, since excess water can be removed by evaporation. However, one of the most important features of the present invention in comparison with the production of plain paper is that the amount of water initially present in the form of a mixture, it will be much less than the amount of water normally present in fibrous suspensions used for the manufacture of ordinary paper. The result is a mixture that has a much higher yield strength and dimensional stability compared to the suspensions used for the manufacture of paper. The total amount of water that must be removed from the formed mixture to obtain a self-sustaining and coherent material (i.e., to form a stable material), will be much smaller in the case of the mixtures of the present invention, in comparison with the suspensions used for the production of plain paper. Also, prom is their cohesion and coherence in comparison with the wet fibrous suspensions.

The amount of water that should be added to the mixture will depend largely on the amount of starch or other water absorbent components, fibers, inorganic fillers and the bulk density of the filler particles. It will also depend on the required rheological parameters form a mixture. The amount of water that should be added to obtain the form of the mixtures of the present invention, will be in the range of from about 5% to about 80% by weight of form a mixture, it is preferable that it was in the range of from about 10% to about 70 wt.%, and best of all from about 20% to about 50 wt.%. The person skilled in the art will be able to choose the level of water content, which is needed to obtain adequate workability in any particular production process.

In most cases it is preferable to include a minimum amount of water necessary to obtain the form of a mixture with the desired level of workability, whereby it is possible to reduce the amount of water that must be removed from the sheet. Reducing the amount of water that must be removed, in General, reduces proizvodstvennaya

Inorganic materials commonly used in the pulp and paper industry, as well as powdered materials aggregates used in the manufacture of concrete, can optionally be used in the moldable mixtures of the present invention. However, the particle size of the filler or inorganic filler will often be many times larger than the particle size of the inorganic filler used in the paper industry. Although the average diameter of the particles in the inorganic fillers used in the pulp and paper industry, will usually be less than 2 μm, the average particle diameter of the filler used in accordance with the present invention, may in some cases be up to 100 microns or more, depending on the wall thickness of the obtained sheet, and thus may be less expensive overall and have a smaller specific surface area.

The inorganic fillers used in the pulp and paper industry, generally have a more uniform distribution of particle sizes in comparison with the fillers used according to the present invention. Often it is preferable to use a wide range of particle sizes dopolnitelnye particles and particles of different sizes, you can further reduce the costs associated with inorganic filler, in comparison with inorganic fillers used in the pulp and paper industry. Much more expensive to achieve extremely small particle size that is required in the pulp and paper industry, as well as to ensure that the particles were mostly the same size.

Strong expansion of the range of particle sizes allows use in the present invention are more diverse inorganic fillers in comparison with the manufacture of conventional paper. Thus, the fillers of the present invention can be chosen in such a way as to give the finished list a variety of properties. In addition, fillers with a high density of particles allows to obtain a mixture, which is better shaped than the usual suspension used for making paper. Compared with the conventional paper can be entered in the materials according to the invention a much larger number of optional inorganic filler, because the clutch inside the sheet is carried by an organic binder, and not weave the fibers of the canvas.

Examples of fillers, vkluchau gels, mica, clay, synthetic clay, alumina, silica, white carbon, silica glass plate-like alumina, clay, beads, hollow glass beads, porous ceramic spheres, gypsum, dowolny gypsum, calcium carbonate, calcium aluminate, Probio, seeds, lightweight polymers, xonotlite (crystalline gel of calcium silicate), light expanded clay, hydrogenated or digidrirovannye particles of a hydraulic cement, cement waste, pumice, exfoliated rock and other geological materials. Partially and fully hydrated cement, as well as soot, have a large surface area and give excellent results due to the high initial adhesion in novosportivnya sheet.

Various inorganic fillers will give the sheet its surface characteristics and in accordance with this, they need to choose. For example, kaolin gives a smoother, less porous surface, and layered materials, such as mica and clay, give a shiny surface. Typically, the fillers with larger particles, for example calcium carbonate, to give a matte surface, and fillers with smaller particle sizes allow you to get a surface like glass. The advantage to the fillers can be added directly to the matrix.

The preferred filler material for the present invention is calcium carbonate. Ground dry carbonate is preferred because it can be obtained for one third the price of calcium carbonate obtained by wet grinding. The preferred calcium carbonate is R040, which has a particle size from about 10 to 150 μm, and the average particle size is about 42 μm, and a small specific surface area.

And clay, and gypsum are the most suitable fillers because they are readily available, cost very little, have good machinability, easily molded, and also due to the fact that they can provide a high degree of binding, adhesion and durability when added in high enough quantities. Hemihydrate gypsum can be hydrated to obtain the dihydrate of calcium sulfate in the presence of water, and this class hydraulically deposited binder. After hydrating plaster hardens into a rigid structure, depending on its concentration, which gives the final product extra strength.

Hydraulic cement such as Portland cement, can be added as inorganic inexpensive and available in sufficient quantities, if you write them in high enough quantities, they give an additional degree of binding matrix, in which the binder is starch. In addition, the hydraulic cement chemically reacts with water, which gives the effect of internal drying inside the form of the mixture, due to what is effectively removed at least part of the water from the mixture, and eliminating the need for evaporation. The same is true for hemihydrate gypsum and calcined clay. Pre-hydrated cement particles can also be added as filler.

Nature formed and mixtures made from these sheets to enable light fillers having a large number of intervals to impart insulating properties of the molded sheets. Examples of fillers that can reduce weight and to impart insulating properties to the sheets include perlite, vermiculite, glass beads, hollow glass beads, synthetic materials (e.g., porous ceramic spheres, tabular alumina, etc.,), tube and light expanded clay, sand, gravel, stone, limestone, Sandstone, pumice, and other geological materials.

In addition to the usual fillers, ispolzuemuyu you can add various other fillers, including hardeners, such as metals and metal alloys (e.g., stainless steel, iron, copper), balls or hollow balls made from materials such as glass, polymers, and metals, fillers, granules and powders (such as microsilica). Even materials such as seeds, gelatin and materials such as agar, you can enter in as fillers. Although these latter fillers are organic and are easily biodegradable, they are included in this description because the act primarily as filler and not binding.

Another class of additives that can be added to form the composition according to the invention includes inorganic gels and microgels, such as silica gel, silica gel, calcium, silica gel aluminum, etc. can be added in solid form or as they may precipitate on the spot. Because gels and microgels have a tendency to absorb water, they can be added to reduce the water content in the form of a mixture, whereby to increase the yield strength of the mixture. In addition, vysokogorskaja nature of silica gels and microgels allows their use as agents that regulate the humidity inside ready utverzhdenii in normal ambient conditions. Of course, the intensity of absorption of moisture from the air will vary depending on relative humidity. Monitoring of moisture content in the leaves will allow more accurate tracking of the elongation, modulus, shibamoto, skladyvaetsia, flexibility and plasticity of leaves.

In accordance with the present invention can also be entered in the form of a mixture of the polymerized inorganic fillers such as polymerized silicates. You can add them to the mixture in the form of conventional silica or silicates, which are then processed to call the polymerization reaction in order to obtain a polymerized silicate filler. Polymerized inorganic fillers are often preferred for certain applications because they are more flexible compared to most other inorganic fillers.

In General, the present invention preferably include a lot of fillers having different particle sizes, is able to more tightly to fill the voids between the particles and the fibers inside the form of a mixture. Optimization of the particle density reduces Coochie would otherwise be filled with water, often referred to as "capillary water."

To optimize the density of the particles, it is possible to use fillers with particles of different size from about 0.05 μm to about 2 mm, depending on the purpose and the thickness of the final product pick fillers with the desired particle size. Any person skilled in the art knows how to determine what size filler should be used to ensure that the raw form of the mixture to obtain the desired rheological properties, as well as to prepare the cured sheet or the product has acquired the necessary strength and weight.

In some preferred embodiments, the implementation of the present invention, it is desirable to maximize the amount of filler in the form of mixtures, in order to maximize the properties and characteristics of the filler (such as strength, low density or high insulating ability). You can also use the method of sealing particles, in order to maximize the number of such fillers.

Detailed description of the seal of the particles is in the article, written by one of the authors of the invention in the co-authorship: Johansen, V.& Andersen, P. J., "Particle Packing and Concrete Properties", Mat is Serratia Anderson P. J. "Control and Monitoring of Concrete Production-A study of Particle Packing and Rheology", The Danish Academy of Technical Sciences. The above article and doctoral thesis are mentioned in the present description for details.

In those embodiments of the invention, when it is desirable to obtain a sheet (or product thereof) having a high insulating ability, preferably in a linked starch matrix light filler, which has a low thermal conductivity or "K-factor" (expressed in V/m). Typically, the fillers with very low K-factor also contain a large number of interstitial voids, air, gas mixtures or partial vacuum, which tends to greatly reduce the strength of such fillers. Therefore, when determining the specific structure of the matrix must carefully balance the insulating properties and durability.

In light of the above, the amount of filler added to form the mixture according to the invention will depend on many factors, including the number and type of other added components, as well as the density of the filler particles. Accordingly, the concentration of filler in the sheet according to the present invention preferably will be in the range from 0% to about 90% of total

J. Fiber

A variety of fiber to give good results in the framework of the present invention. In the present description and claims, the terms "fiber" and "fiber material" include inorganic fibers and organic. Fiber can be added to form the mixture to increase flexibility, plasticity, flexion artificial, adhesion, ability to lengthen, the ability to deflection, stiffness and work of destruction, as well as Flexural strength and tensile strength of the finished sheets and products. Fiber reduces the likelihood that the associated starch sheets or products from them will crack when it is applied transversely directed efforts.

Fiber, which can be entered into the linked starch matrix sheets or products that include natural organic fibers such as cellulose fibers obtained from hemp, cotton, leaves, wood or stems. Any vegetable fiber obtained in agricultural practice, can be used in the present invention. The use of such fibrous materials has the additional advantage that allows you to save the forest. In addition, in the present invention may b the P CLASS="ptx2">

Preferred are such fibers as cotton, wood fiber (as from hardwood and soft wood, examples of which include, respectively, southern hardwoods and pine), linen), hemp and bagasse because they easily decompose under normal conditions. However, other fibers, such as fiberglass, may also be preferable for a particular purpose of products from sheet. Even fibers from recycled waste paper can also be used, but this material is very cheap and available in abundance.

Fibers used for manufacturing of leaves and other products according to the present invention, it is preferable to have a large length in relation to width (ratio length to width"), as more long and thin fibers give more strength associated with the starch matrix and thus does not lead to a significant increase in the mass matrix. Fiber should have a specified ratio of at least about 10:1, preferably at least about 100:1.

The amount of fibers added to form the mixture of the present invention, will be different depending on what properties should have the final product, and strength, added to any mixture according to the invention. Accordingly, the concentration of fibers in the sheets according to the invention be in the range of from about 3% to about 40 wt. % of total solids content, preferably in the range from about 5% to about 30 wt.%, best from about 7% to about 20 wt.%.

As should be expected, the strength of the fiber is a very important factor in determining how much fiber should be used. The higher the tensile strength of the fiber, the smaller the fiber will be required in order to obtain a tensile strength of the finished product. Although some fibers have high tensile strength, other types of fibers with a somewhat lower tensile strength may be more elastic. The introduction of relatively high concentration of fibers is necessary in those cases where the sheet was cut and it is supposed to bend it at a large angle.

Fiber with a smaller width to length ratio is easier to bring in the sheet and to obtain more homogeneous sheet with fewer defects and greater width to length ratio increases the reinforcing effect of the fibers. Some fibers, such as fibers made from pine and Abaca, have high tensile strength, etc is high flexibility. If it is desirable to achieve the best allocation, higher flexibility and peel strength and burst into the mixture, add the combination of fibers having different relationship of the width to the length and strength characteristics. For example, a mixture of hardwoods and pines allows you to provide better dispersion of the fibers throughout the mass form of the mixture and to obtain a sheet having good dispersion of the fibers and excellent durability when folded. In any case, the fibers used in the present invention, preferably should not be exposed to intensive processing, which are fibers in the manufacture of plain paper, and thus, they should keep most of its natural strength. Such fibers require less intensive chemical processing.

Improved water resistance can be obtained by treating the fibers with rosin and alum (Al2(SO4)3or NaAl(SO4)2), which precipitated rosin on the surface of the fibers, making this surface is very hydrophobic. The aluminum flakes are formed when alum create a place of anion adsorption on the surface of the fiber to the positively charged organizes who is here to denote a class of materials, which can be added to form the mixture to reduce the viscosity and yield stress of the mixture. Dispersing agents act in a way that reduces the viscosity of the mixture, dispersive individual particles of inorganic fillers or fibers. This allows you to use less water while maintaining adequate levels of workability. Dispersers have the opposite effect of organic binders, which bind the solid components together, even in wet condition.

The dispersant is usually absorbed on the surface of the filler particles and/or in almost colloid double layer of the particles. This creates a negative charge on the surface of particles or around it, causing them to repel each other, which prevents them from sticking together. The repulsion of particles contributes to the lubrication, reducing friction or force of attraction, which would otherwise cause the particles strongly interact with each other. This increases the density of the material and allows you to add less water while maintaining the machinability form a mixture. The dispersant should be added before the addition of cellulose ether.

In more detail the use of the dispersant described in the work on sorely research laboratory State University of Pennsylvania, 1987. In the present description, this work is referred for details.

The preferred dispersant is sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensate, such as drug WRDA19, manufactured by W. R. Grace, Inc. Other dispersing agents which can be used include from sulphonated melamine-formaldehyde condensate, lignosulfonate and a polymer of acrylic acid.

The amount of added dispersant is typically in the range up to about 5 wt.% water in the form of a mixture, preferably from about 0.5 to about 4 wt. %, preferably from about 1 to about 2 wt.%.

I. Other impurities

In the form of the mixtures according to the invention can be added a variety of other components to make ready sheets and products the desired properties. Flexibility can be increased by the addition of plasticizers. Plasticizers include materials that can be absorbed by the binder based on starch to mitigate the structural matrix of the resulting sheet or article. Such plasticizers, which act as lubricants have a high enough point of vaporization and is not evaporated from the matrix during formation of the sheet, and preferably they should remain Stabi objectives of the invention, are polyethylene glycol (with a molecular weight below 600), glycerin and sorbitol, which tend to hold water and act as plasticizers when the moisture content to 5%. Preferred plasticizers do not evaporate in the molding process and remain in the molded sheets and products, softening associated with the starch matrix.

Glycerin, which is removed with water during the removal of water, can be applied to the sheets during subsequent processing of the molded sheet it will increase the flexibility of the sheets and will act as a humidifier. Treatment with glycerol stabilizes the leaves so that they become more resistant to warping if they are exposed to small amounts of water, for example when applying water-soluble coating on the leaves.

A mixture of causing crosslinking of the polymers, such as dialdehyde, metallocene and melamineformaldehyde resin, can be added to the mixture to obtain a less water-soluble linked starch matrix. Impurities that cause crosslinking of the polymers, are associated with a hydroxyl ion binder is starch-based, but it slows down the re-absorption of water binder based on starch. In the finished product quickly is a long time before as they will be destroyed (e.g., the glass may take longer to hold cold water before you start to leak).

K. Interim emptiness

In cases where isolation is more important than strength (i.e. when you want to isolate hot or cold materials), it is necessary to enter in the structural matrix of tiny intermediate cavities, in addition to light fillers to improve the insulating properties of the sheet or products from it. The introduction of voids carefully calculated to give the desired insulating properties and ease, and it does not lead to unacceptable deterioration of the strength of the sheet. In cases where the insulating properties are optional, it is desirable to reduce the voids to a minimum to maximize strength and reduce the volume.

Air voids can be entered by stirring the form of a mixture with the application of a large shearing forces and high speeds with a blowing agent or a stabilizer that is added to the mixture in order to introduce air into the mixture and keep it there. Suitable blowing agents and agents that promote the retention of air, are widely used surfactants. One of such agents is vinsol.

In the molding process the payroll to form pores, if the sheet is not tamped, and such pores reduce the density of the sheet. Another blowing agent, which can be used in the present invention, is a mixture of citric acid and bicarbonate, or bicarbonate, which took place recycling and is present in the form of small granules or particles and coated with wax, starch or water-soluble coatings. Such agents can be used to obtain cavities in two ways: (1) interact with water to obtain a gaseous CO2to create a cellular foam structure inside the linked starch matrix, or (2) to introduce particles as part of the matrix and after the curing of the matrix to remove particles of blowing agent by heating the product to temperatures above 180oC, which causes the endothermic decomposition of the particles, which remains well-ordered cellular light structure.

And, finally, air voids can be entered in the moldable mixture during the molding process by adding to the mixture of blowing agents, as a result, when the mixture starts to heat up, it will start to foam. Typically, the blowing agent consists of a low-boiling liquid and it is calcium carbonate. They are evenly mixed to form a mixture and propriately then can evaporate during thermal expansion of the expander, which begins as soon as the pressure drops.

II. Manufacture of sheets formed from mixtures

Linked starch sheets of the present invention is produced by molding formed of a mixture containing starch at temperatures that gradually increase, allowing you to first cause the formation of a shell from a simple cellulose ether, then gelatinising starch granules, and then remove the water by evaporation.

A detailed description of the preferred method of forming sheets is located at the joint consideration of the application for U.S. Patent N 08/152,354, entitled "Leaves with an organic polymer matrix with a high content of inorganic filler", filed November 19, 1993 in the name of Per just Andersen, Dr. of Sciences, and Simon K. of Hodgson. In this description, this application is referred for details.

The complete sequence of operations used to produce linked starch sheets of the present invention, which can take the form of containers or other items shown in Fig. 1A, including a device for implementing the following manufacturing steps: (1) prepare and mix form whom is deft; miss extruded mixture through at least one pair of forming rolls to obtain the block of the desired thickness; (4) pass the sheet between another set of rolls so that was gilotinirovaniya starch and to remove at least part of the water from the mixture, then continue to dry the sheet by rolling on one or more heated drying rolls of larger diameter; (5) optional seal sheet in a slightly moist condition in order to eliminate the undesirable voids and increase the strength of the sheet; (6) does not necessarily produce the drying of the sheet after the seal; (7) does not necessarily produce a fine finish sheet, passing it between one or more pairs of finishing rollers; and (8) optional wound almost dried sheet on a bobbin to obtain a roll, which can be stored and used as needed. Each of these manufacturing steps are described in more detail below.

As shown in Fig. 1B, in an alternative form of the mixture can be fed directly between the rollers, the forming sheet. In Fig. 1B depicts an extruder type" forward-backward", which quickly delivers the material back and forth along the length of the rolls, forming sheets.

A. Preparation of form a mixture of

The first stage of manufacture of the sheets includes obtaining the appropriate form of the mixture having the desired properties in respect of workability and strength in raw form, as well as strength, flexibility, rigidity and decomposing end of the cured sheet. Some of the properties that are always necessary to form mixtures include adequate machinability, ductility and toughness in raw form, corresponding to the processes of extrusion, rolling and/or molding. As mentioned above, the levels of water, organic binder, and optionally a dispersant, will be determined in the mixture, such as fillers, fibers, plasticizers, blowing agents, etc., But none of the components will not be fully define the rheology and other properties of the formed mixture. It is more correct to say that each of the components interacts with the others, determining the complex properties of the mixture.

1.The influence of the components on rheological properties of the mixture

The amount of water that must be added to obtain a mixture having adequate machinability and mobility will depend on the concentration and density of the particles of inorganic filler, the amount of fiber, the type and quantity of organic binder and the type and quantity of other impurities (such as dispersing agents, plasticizers or lubricants). In General, however, the addition of more water will reduce the viscosity and yield stress of the mixture, thereby increasing the mobility of the mixture and decrease the stability of the shape of the object, formed from it.

The organic binder may have a strong influence on the rheological properties of the mixture, depending on the type, concentration and degree of gilotinirovaniya or dissolution of the organic binder in the wet mixture. The cellulose ether will usually be dissolved in water or malagnou mixture nielaminowanych.

Cellulose ethers have different solubility or dispersibility, as well as various viscosity and yield stress. For example, a 2% solution of TyloseFL 15002 (methylhydroxyethylcellulose) at 20oC has a viscosity of about 15000 SP, while a similar solution of Tylose4000 has a viscosity of about 4,000 CP. The first solution greatly increases the yield strength and ductility form a mixture, while the latter may act more as a lubricating agent or a plasticizer.

The starch component will move gilotinirovaniya state later in the molding process of the sheet. Despite the fact that many organic polymeric binder, such as starch, is not exposed to any polymerization or depolymerization after adding them in the form of a composition, but rather gelatinous, and then dried to obtain a binder matrix, in the framework of the present invention can be added water-soluble or dispersible in water curable fragments to form a mixture, which then can be subjected to polymerization in the place. The polymerization reaction can be adjusted by changing the temperature of the mixture and/or the addition of a catalyst or monomers, forming latex.

With regard to gelation, most cellulose ethers quickly form gels in water at room temperature. Others, such as many starches, will form gels in water only at elevated temperatures. Individual modified starches can still gelatinous at room temperature. The cellulose ethers generally have a maximum rheological effect almost immediately, while the polymerized binder will thicken over time, and the binder is starch-based usually gather when the temperature of the mixture increases.

Other additives that may be introduced into the mixture in order to influence the rheological properties include dispersing agents, plasticizers and lubricants. Dispersers, such as materials based on sulfonyl, greatly reduce the viscosity and improve the machinability form a mixture, while maintaining a constant amount of water. The use of dispersant allows you to include less water while maintaining the same level of workability.

The number, type and density of the particles of inorganic filler can have a strong influence on the rheological properties and åby specific surface area, will absorb more water than non-porous fillers, which reduces the amount of water required for lubricating particles. The result is thicker, viscous mixture. The density of the particles may also have a very strong influence on the rheological properties of the mixture, determining the amount of gaps that must be filled with water, lubricating agents, organic polymers or other liquids to the mixture was moving.

For example, the system filler having a natural density of particles in 0,65 usually will require about 35 about. % liquids (including water) to almost completely fill the gaps between the particles. On the other hand, the system of the filling with natural particle density of 0.95, usually require only about 5 about. % liquids to almost completely fill the gaps between the particles. Thus, the density of particles is directly regulates rheological properties, including the level of workability of the mixture. The size and morphology of the filler particles is also to some extent can influence the rheological properties and the mobility of the formed mixture.

Hydraulically deposited inorganic fillers such as hydraulic cement, Bologoe interaction with water, whereby a reduction in the level of water in the form of a mixture, and do not apply heat or drying. Such materials can have a strong influence on the rheological properties of the moldable mixtures, which depend on the degree of hydration, which depends on time. In addition, it was found that the hydraulic cement increases the strength of adhesion of the raw mixture and form a raw sheet made of it. The clutch holds the molded material so that the sheet can be smuggled through the rolls while maintaining the shape of the sheet up until it is dry enough to obtain a sufficient tensile strength.

And finally, the other solid components in the mixture, such as fiber, will have an influence on the rheological properties of the mixture as well as inorganic fillers. Certain fiber can absorb water, depending on their porosity and their ability to swell. In addition, certain fibers can be processed so that they acquire the ionic charge, which will allow them to chemically interact with organic plasticizers having an ionic charge. Thus the fibers may to some extent influence the rheological properties of the mixture of the cured product, some properties, which, as is considered, it is desirable to give the structural matrix of the sheet, include high tensile strength (in General or along certain vectors), flexibility, and the ability to lengthen, to deflect or bend. In some cases it is desirable to obtain a sheet, which largely have the properties of plain paper or paperboard. However, in other cases it is desirable to obtain structural matrix having properties that cannot be obtained using conventional wood pulp or other raw materials used for making paper. Such properties include high impact strength, higher modulus of elasticity, resistance or low bulk density.

Unlike conventional paper or paperboard, in which the properties of the sheets are very dependent on properties of the used slurry, property sheets associated with starch, the present invention substantially does not depend on the properties of fibers used in the manufacture of sheets. More precisely, using longer and more flexible fibers, it is usually possible to obtain a more flexible sheets than using shorter and hard fibers. However, those properties that bacneempire by changing the concentrations of fibrous components form a mixture, and processing methods. Properties such as stiffness, hardness, surface finish, porosity, etc. generally do not depend on the type of fibers used in linked starch sheets.

The flexibility, tensile strength or the modulus of elasticity can be changed, getting the right performance sheets, containers or other articles from sheets, by replacing the components and changes in relative concentrations of these components in the form of a mixture. In some cases, more important may be the tensile strength. In others it is less important. Some sheets should preferably be more flexible, while others need to be more stringent. Some will be relatively tight, and the other thicker, lighter and have better insulation properties. It is important to obtain a material having such properties that are suitable for the particular application, taking into account costs and other parameters important for practical production. At that time, as "too much" or "too little" in respect of a particular property may be quite acceptable from the point of view of operational properties, from the point of view of the price it may be wasteful or ineffective.

And the durability strength and deflection of the finished sheet. Different fibers have very different degrees of strength and deflection, flexibility, tensile strength, ability to elongation without rupture and hardness. In order to obtain the desired properties of various types of fibers, in some cases it is desirable to combine two or more types of fibers in the form of a mixture.

You should also be aware that certain processes of forming sheets, such as extrusion and rolling, will tend to the orientation of the fibers in the direction of elongation of the mixture or sheet. This is desirable in order to increase the tensile strength of the sheet in a certain direction. For example, when the sheet will need to bend along the line, it is preferable that the fibers were oriented so as to form a bridge between the two sides of the line, for which they should be oriented perpendicular to the fold line to reinforce the place of a bend in the sheet. In addition, you may need to concentrate a greater number of fibers in the bend area or wherever you need high stiffness and strength of the sheet.

The type of filler may also influence the properties of the cured sheet. Fillers, including generally rigid inflexible mA is thew. Light fillers, such as perlite or hollow glass beads will give a sheet having a lower density, lower brittleness and higher insulating capacity. Such fillers as crushed sand, silica, gypsum or clay, very cheap and can greatly reduce the cost of production of these sheets. Any material with a large specific surface area increases shrinkage during drying and defects associated with shrinkage. Materials with lower specific surface area are preferred because they are less sticky, and it allows for the processing of sheet rolls with a lower temperature so that the sheets do not stick to the rolls.

Hydraulically deposited fillers such as hydraulic cement, hemihydrate gypsum and calcium oxide, can provide any degree of binding - from minor to strong - inside the cured sheet, depending on the amount of added filler. These fillers can give a finished sheet rigidity and compressive strength, and to some extent the tensile strength. Hydraulic cement can also reduce the solubility of the sheet in water, whereby increased resistance of the sheet against ralivia properties of the finished product, such impurities include rosin and alum. These additives interact, forming a linked starch matrix component, with a strong waterproof ability. In the absence of significant quantities of such agents, which impart water repellency, water can be used for secondary leaf wetness and temporal flexibility, flexion artificial and elongation before puncturing of the sheet, in particular, when the sheet it is necessary to make another product, such as a container. Of course, water can also enhance the decomposition of the sheet after it is sent to landfill.

The General rule is that linked starch leaves, which have a lower concentration of the binder in the organic polymer and fiber, can be tougher to have a higher insulating ability, to have a lower adhesion, resistance to destruction by heat, have lower tensile strength and resist decomposition under the action of water (especially if they contain hydraulic cement, the inclusion of which can also increase the compressive strength of the finished product).

The leaves, which have a lower concentration is in, higher impact strength, lower compressive strength and Flexural strength, lower hardness and high flexibility and have a clear resistance to decomposition under the action of water.

The leaves, which have higher concentrations of organic polymer binder and a lower concentration of fiber, will have a higher solubility and is subject to decomposition by water, they are easier to mould (so you can produce more thin sheets), they have a moderately high compressive strength and rupture, high impact strength, moderate flexibility and low rigidity.

And, finally, the leaves, which have higher concentrations of organic polymer binder and fiber, will have properties that are similar to properties of plain paper, they will have a higher tensile strength, impact strength and ability to bend, they have moderately high compressive strength, low resistance to decomposition by water, they will have a lower resistance (especially when the temperature is close to the ignition temperature of the fiber or the decomposition temperature of the binder), and have raised is written here songs preferably should have a tensile strength in the range of from about 0.05 to about 100 MPa, more preferably in the range from about 5 to about 80 MPa. In addition, the sheet should preferably have a bulk density less than about 2 g/cm3better yet - in the range of from about 0.4 to about 1.5 g/cm3. Depending on what the performance properties desired in a particular case, the sheet gives the most low, medium or high density within a specified range. In light of the above it is clear that the associated starch sheets according to the present invention preferably should have regard to the impact strength to bulk density in the range from about 2 to about 500 MPa cm3/g, and more preferably in the range from 5 to about 150 MPa cm3/,

The ability to have different strength in different directions, which have linked starch sheets of the present invention should be contrasted with the properties of paper, which, as you know, has strong and weak areas in relation to the tensile strength. The "strong" direction in the plain paper is the "machine" direction, while the "weak" direction - a direction transverse machine, in the sheets of the present invention can achieve a uniform strength (i.e., the ratio of strength in different directions will be about 1:1), depending on which method of molding to use.

The term "extend" in the text of this application in respect of linked starch sheets according to the present invention means that the structural matrix of the sheet is able to stretch without breaking, and will continue to have a finished surface. In other words, bound by the starch matrix sheet can move or change shape without breaking, when the application efforts, such as tensile stress. The ability of the structural matrix of the sheet to stretch before rupture is measured by testing for tensile strength on Instone and testing "load-deformation".

Optimizing the mix, you can make a sheet that will have a structural matrix capable of lengthen to about 30% wet before they cause it to break, and from about 0.5% to 12% when the sheet is dry. That is, the sheet is able to be extended within these limits without breaking in two. In addition, the lengthening of the dry sheet can be increased by steaming or leaf wetness so that moisture up to about 20 wt.% suhka it is dry again.

The term "warped" in the text of this application in respect of linked starch sheets according to the present invention means that the sheet has a structural matrix that is able to bend, to fold or collapse without breaks or changes on the surface. The ability of the sheet to bend is measured by measuring the elastic modulus and breaking stress, which are determined by known methods. As with any other material, the ability to bend the sheet made in accordance with the present invention largely depends on the thickness of the sheet.

To obtain a sheet having the desired properties in terms of strength, flexion artificial, insulating ability, toughness, weight, or other operational characteristics, it is possible to change the thickness of the sheet by adjusting the gap between the rollers, as described in more detail below. Depending on thickness and desired performance properties you can change the components and their relative concentrations so that they match the thickness. The sheets of the present invention can have various thickness; however, most products that require thin-walled materials typically have a thickness less than 1 mm CEO However, when the desired insulating capacity or increased strength or rigidity, the thickness of the sheet may be in the range up to about 1 cm of Course, from the composition can be molded sheet with a thickness of 10 cm or more.

In the British system of units leaves are used for making corrugated boxes, preferably should have a thickness of about 0,010", dairy packages of approximately 0.020", cartons of juice about 0,010".

In those cases, when the sheets according to the invention is supposed to be used to print magazines or other printed materials, they will have a thickness comparable to the thickness of ordinary paper, which usually has a thickness of about 0.05 mm Sheets for printed products should be more flexible and less rigid (such as a normal sheet of magazines or brochures) and usually they will have a thickness of about 0,025-0,075 mm Sheets, which should be more durable, rigid and less flexible (such as the covers of magazines or brochures), will have a thickness of about 0.1-2 mm Thickness and flexibility of any particular sheet will depend on the desired operational characteristics of the printed products.

As will be discussed in more detail below, form the mixture typically propulsory in uncured form will have a sufficiently high strength. However, the expert can adjust the water content so that the form of the mixture will have the appropriate rheological properties, so it can easily be ekstradiroval through a cylinder of the extruder, and at the same time she had sufficient stability of shape, so that the integrity of the sheet remained as it passed through a series of rolls in the course of other types of processing.

A preferred variant of the invention, in obtaining the appropriate form of the mixture on an industrial scale includes equipment with which the materials added to form a mixture, continuously and automatically measure, mixed (or blended), dearyou and ekstragiruyut using an extruder. You can pre-mix some of the components in the vessel, if necessary, and submit the pre-mixed components by means of a pump in a device for mixing.

The preferred mixer is dvuhseriynyy S-shaped with screw for extrusion. The mixer can be adjusted so that it had a different number of revolutions per minute, and accordingly gave different shear for different knaut extrusion for a maximum of about 3 minutes

In some conditions it is desirable to mix some ingredients together in a mixer with high shear to get better dispersed homogeneous mixture. For example, some fibers may require mixing to fully occurred the disintegration of the agglomerates or particles are pulled away from each other. Mixing with high shear results in a more uniformly mixed compounds, thereby improving the consistency of the uncured form of the mixture and increases the strength of the cured sheet. This is because mixing with high shearing force allows more uniformly dispersing the fibers, particles of filler and binder in the mixture, whereby a more uniform matrix of the cured sheet.

Different mixers can make various efforts shift form a mixture. For example, a kneader, the camera makes a stronger shearing force compared to a conventional mixer for cement, but lower compared to the "Eirich Intensive Mixer or twin screw food extruder.

Note, however, that at higher shear high-speed mixer does not lecreme can prematurely gelatinous in such conditions. Separate light fillers, such as perlite or hollow glass beads, will have a tendency to shatter or break down under high shearing forces. In addition, the stirring propeller stirrer is usually effective only in cases where the mixture has a relatively low viscosity. In cases where it is desirable to get more like plastic mixture with a high level of adhesion, it is desirable to mix some ingredients, including water, in a mixer with a high shear and then increase the concentration of solid particles, such as fibers or fillers, using a kneader machine with a lower shear. Mixer with high shear is particularly well-suited for those occasions when you need to get a small pair of air by additives in the form of a mixture of the agent that causes the penetration of air.

Mixers high shear to create a more homogeneous mixtures are disclosed in U.S. Patent N 4,225,247 entitled "Device for mixing and stirring"; U.S. Patent N 4,552,463 entitled "Method and apparatus for producing a colloidal mixture"; U.S. Patent N 4,889,428 called "Mill rotary action"; in U.S. Patent N 4,944,565 under nazvaniya obtain cement building materials". In this application the above mentioned patents for information. Mixers, high shear, as described in the above patents are issued by the firm E. Khashoggi Industries, from Santa Barbara, California.

B. Forming sheets of the formed mixture

Once formed, the mixture is properly mixed, it is transported in a machine for forming sheet, which generally includes an extruder and a series of rolls. In some cases, the machine can perform the mixing and extrusion form a mixture that allows you to simplify operation and minimize coordination of the various components within the system. Refer now to Fig. 1A, which illustrates a preferred system for making sheets of the formed mixture. The system includes a mixing unit 10, a screw extruder 20, a pair of rolls 40, forming sheets, the first set of drying rolls 50, a pair of sealing rolls 60 (optional), a second set of drying rolls 70 (optional), a series of finishing rolls 80 (optional), and a coiler roll 90 (optional).

At the first stage of the preferred alternative implementation of the present invention of the form of the mixture is formed into a sheet by extrusion materi least one pair of crimping or forming rolls (Fig. 1A). In an alternative form, the mixture can directly be submitted between the rollers to form a sheet, as shown in Fig. 1B. In Fig. 2B depicts a system of the extruder type "round-trip", which is another preferred variant of the invention, in part submission form composition between the rollers to form a sheet.

Fig. 2A is an enlarged view of the screw of the extruder 20, which includes a feeder 22, form feed mixture into the first internal chamber 24 in the extruder 20. In the inner chamber 24 is first screw 26, which creates the directed forward pressure form and pushes the mixture through the internal chamber 24 to the outlet chamber 28. Typically, in order to remove unwanted air voids, which are formed in the form of the mixture in the discharge chamber 28 creates a negative pressure or vacuum.

Then form the mixture was fed into the second internal chamber 30. The second auger 32 pushes the mixture to the cylinder of the extruder 34 having a transverse slot 36 with a width 38 of the head and the thickness 39 of the head. The shape of the slit 36 in the section can be modified to create a sheet of the desired width and thickness, which usually corresponds to shiinederrty piston extruder 20' instead of the screw. Piston extruder 20' uses a piston 22' instead of the screw, to apply directed forward pressure to form a mixture and push it forward through the internal chamber 24'. The advantage of using a piston extruder is that it is able to expose the formed mixture is much greater pressure. However, due to the fact that in the present invention are typically used in high plasticity of the mixture, it is not always necessary and sometimes desirable to apply a pressure higher than the pressure screw extruder.

Although the preferred width and thickness of the head of the extruder will depend on the width and thickness of the concrete produced sheet, the thickness of the extruded sheet will typically be at least twice, and sometimes many times higher than the thickness of the finished sheet. The amount of compression (and therefore factor the thickness will depend on the properties of this sheet. Since the process of compression helps to control the orientation of the fibers, the amount of compression will correspond to the degree desired orientation. In addition, the more the thickness of the compression, the greater the elongation of the sheet.

When the difference between the gap between the rollers and the thickness of the sheet of fibers, will tend to be localized on the surface of the sheet, or near it, and the inside of the sheet, the orientation of the fibers will not occur. So are the leaves, where a significant orientation of the fibers in one or two directions is performed on the sheet surface or near it, and inside sheet fibre orientation is random. However, reducing the gap relative to the initial thickness of the sheet, it is possible to improve the orientation of the fibers within the sheet, increasing the flow of material with oriented fibers within the sheet.

Apart from the narrow slits of the head of the extruder to obtain flat sheets, you can use the heads of other forms for other objects and shapes, the only criterion is that you need to be able to give an extruded product form sheet. For example, in some cases, you do not need to ekstradiroval very wide sheet. Accordingly, it is possible to ekstradiroval tube and subjecting it to continuous cutting and unrolling, using a knife, situated just behind the head of the extruder.

The pressure force applied to ekstradiroval form of the mixture will depend mainly on the pressure required for PR is, the speed of the extrusion process must be carefully controlled so that the speed of forming sheet correspond to the speed at which the sheet will then pass through the rolls during rolling. If the extrusion speed is too high, the excess material will accumulate over the rollers, causing clogging. On the contrary, if the extrusion speed is too low, then the rolls will have a tendency to stretch the extruded sheet, and this will lead to the destruction of the structural matrix or irregularities in it, or worse, rupture or fracture of the sheet. And this can lead to complete shutdown of the process of continuous manufacture of the sheet.

Because sometimes you cannot control all the variables that can affect the speed of extrusion, it is preferable to have an integrated system of sensors that measure the speed of extrusion or which can detect any accumulation of excess material over the rollers. Then this information can be fed into a computer processor, which sends signals to the extruder to adjust the pressure and speed of extrusion and configure the entire system. As listed below, properly integrated system should also be Vassilieva to form the mixture during the extrusion process, should not be so large that collapse or break light fillers having a lower strength, if used. Grinding or other destruction of the structural integrity of light fillers, containing a large number of voids will reduce the insulating effect of such fillers, destroying these voids. However, because perlite, exfoliated rock or other similar materials are relatively inexpensive, grinding or crushing of the filler particles to some extent, are acceptable. Excessive pressure and shearing force can also cause premature gilotinirovaniya granules of starch.

The properties of the fibers give utverzhdennym sheets, can be enhanced by the orientation of the fibers within the sheet in one or two directions. Depending on the shape of the head of the extruder extrusion form the mixture through a die of the extruder will tend to Orient the individual fibers in the form of the mixture along the axis "Y" or "machine" direction of the extruded sheet. The rolling process, which is discussed in detail below, will continue to Orient the fibers in the direction "Y" as the next sheet is extended into the process which some of the fibers can be oriented in the direction "X", i.e., along the width or transverse to the machine direction of the sheet. Thus, by extrusion in

combined with rolling, you can create a sheet, fibers which are oriented in two directions.

In addition to traditional methods of extrusion, such as the above, in some cases, it is preferable either to ekstradiroval separate mass of the mixture, which on the conveyor serves in the hopper, located just above the two horizontally oriented extrusion rollers, or simply to submit form mixture into the hopper. This avoids the need to ekstradiroval form the mixture into a sheet prior to rolling. One way feed is a feed screw conveyor that allows you to change the pressure under which the form of the mixture is fed through the rolls.

The person skilled in the art it is clear that at the stage of extrusion is not necessarily a device is used, formally called the "extruder". The purpose of stage extrusion process is to ensure continuous well-regulated supply of mouldable composition on the rolls. This can be achieved through other mechanisms that are known in the art and which carry "is activity form of the mixture to flow, for example, may correspond to the force of gravity.

Next, you should make reference to Fig.1B, which illustrates an alternative preferred embodiment of the invention, in which the formed mixture is fed directly from the mixer 10 for a couple of extrusion of squeeze rolls 40, which convert the amorphous moldable mixture directly into the sheet without the use of dies. As in the system shown in Fig. 1A, sheet, molded forming rollers 40, is fed through a first set of drying rolls 50, a pair of sealing rolls 60 (optional), a second set of drying rolls 70 (optional), a series of finishing rolls 80 (optional), and then wound on a bobbin 90 (optional), the forming rollers 40 will be heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the formation of the initial film of cellulose ether, after which gilotinirovaniya granules of starch. Using these rolls, you can remove part of the water by evaporation. Significant amounts of water is not removed from the liquid in the preferred methods of forming sheet according to the invention.

Again referring to Fig. 1A, which shows one variant of the process of forming sheet izobreteniya rolls 40 is given in Fig. 4. Crimping rollers 40 includes two separate roller 42 located next to a predefined gap (or clearance) 44 between them. The distance of the gap 44 between the individual rollers 42 corresponds to the desired thickness 44' compressed sheet 46 passing between the rollers 42.

As the sheet thickness decreases when passing through a pair of rolls, the sheet is increased in the forward direction (or in the direction "Y"), which are also called "machine direction". One consequence of the elongation of the sheet is that the fibers are at least partially oriented or aligned in the "machine" direction. Thus the process of compression in combination with the initial extrusion can create a sheet having fibers oriented in almost the same direction in the machine direction. The speed improvement of squeeze rolls, however, creates the best disordering of the fibers in the sheet.

Another way to support the disordered orientation of the fibers in the sheet is to reduce the differential speed of the forming rollers carried out. That is, when the moldable mixture is fed between the extrusion rollers under low pressure, the sudden increase of speed in the "machine" written fibers in the "machine" direction.

However, by increasing the pressure of the mixture, when it is served between the rollers, it is possible to reduce the shift in the "machine" direction, which results in obtaining a sheet with more disordered orientation of the fibers.

Another consequence of the elongation of the sheet is that the sheet will "accelerate" as it passes between a pair of squeeze rolls. Here again refer to Fig. 4, which shows that the speed v1rolls will correspond to the velocity v1compressed elongated sheet as it exits from the rolls, not the velocity v0sheet, with which it enters into the gap between the rollers. For example, if the thickness of the sheet compresses to 50% and assuming that during compression no expansion of the sheet, the sheet will increase in two times relative to its initial length. This corresponds to double the speed of the sheet compared to the speed with which he comes in rolls. Thus, if the thickness of the sheet compresses to 50%, then v1= 2 x v0.

Sheet "zero" as it passes between a pair of rolls which squeeze or extrude the sheet, causing the sheet thickness decreases. This process of compression or compaction of the sheet, and the difference of the speeds of midellage the shearing forces can violate the integrity of the structural matrix of the sheet and create cracks in the sheet, because of what the strength of the sheet is reduced. However, it was found that in the case of mixtures, which have low adhesion to the rolls and which are flexible, you can compress the extruded sheet to a final thickness in one pass by using a pair of rolls of relatively large diameter.

The diameter of each of the rolls should be adjusted to account for the properties of the formed mixture and the amount that will reduce the thickness of the associated starch sheets. When selecting the diameter of the rolls should take into account two opposite aspects. The first is that the rolls with smaller diameters tend to exert a greater shearing force to the sheet as it passes between the rollers. This is because in this case, the angle directed downward force of the compression ratio is on average higher than in the case of rolls of larger diameter.

However, the use of rolls of larger diameter has the disadvantage that the form of the composition comes in contact with the roller for a longer period of time, causing the sheet to a greater extent dries in the molding process of the sheet, especially if the roller has a high temperature. Although the drying up of ivesti to occurrence of faults and other fractures in the structural matrix.

Optimization of the diameters of the rolls to reduce the maximum reduction of the thickness of the sheet and prevent drying of the molded sheet is preferable, because it allows to reduce the number of stages of rolling in the manufacturing process. In addition to reducing the number of machines, reducing the number of stages of compression also eliminates the need for several sets of rolls, the speed of which you want to synchronize, so that the sheet is not accumulated for the rollers (in the case when the rolls are rotated too slowly, or not stopped (in the case when the rolls rotate too quickly).

It is desirable to treat the surface of the rolls, to prevent sticking or adhesion linked starch sheet to the rolls. One method involves simply heating the rollers, which causes part of the water contained in the formed mixture to evaporate, whereby it creates a barrier of vapor between the sheet and the rollers. Evaporating some of the water also reduces the amount of water to form a mixture, which increases the strength of the uncured sheet. However, the temperature of the rolls should not be so high as to dry or cure the surface of the sheet to such an stephenr CLASS="ptx2">

In General, the rolls, which carry out the initial formation of the sheet, preferably should have a temperature which coincides with the temperature of deposition of the cellulose ether. In the process preferably Methocel use rollers forming a sheet, a temperature of about 70oC; in the process with Tylose FL 15002 use rollers forming a sheet, a temperature of about 85oC. the Temperature of the rolls, forming sheets, may be higher than the deposition temperature of the cellulose ether, but usually it is lower than the temperature gilotinirovaniya granules of starch in the composition, thereby reducing the adhesion of the uncured sheet to the rolls. After the shell of the cellulose ether formed on the surface of the uncured sheet is preferably passed between one or more rollers, heated to a temperature gilotinirovaniya starch, or above this temperature. Depending on the temperature gilotinirovaniya starch and the temperature of the respective rolls, a greater or lesser portion of the starch will gelatinous at any time during the molding of the sheet. It is very convenient in the case when there are two or more different types of starch, which have different temperature gilotinirovaniya. The specialist will be able regularoty and starch, used in the form of a composition.

Usually stickiness moldable mixture increases the amount of water in the mixture. Therefore, the rolls should be heated to a higher temperature than in cases where the mixture contains more water to prevent sticking. This is desirable because of the sheets having a high water content, usually have to remove more water to obtain a sufficient strength of the uncured sheet. In addition, the increase in the speed of the roll usually allows a corresponding increase in the temperature of the rolls, to prevent sticking of the sheet to the rolls.

Another way to reduce the adhesion between the rollers and the associated starch sheet is that the treated surface of the rolls to perform them less prone to sticking. Typically the rolls are made of polished stainless steel and coated with non-stick material, such as polished chrome, Nickel or Teflon.

Finally, it should be understood that due to the fact that the form of the mixture is in the nature of plastic and a relatively high level of machinability, the rolling process usually does not allow much to compress the sheet. In other words, pornostorie compression, especially when the sheet is substantially dried when passing through the crimping rolls. In those cases when it is necessary to increase the density, the sheet can skip between a pair of squeeze rollers 60 (Fig. 1A) with the subsequent stage of drying, as described in more detail below.

Thus, it was found that the important parameters in the rolling process are the diameter, velocity and temperature of the rolls, and the height of the gap (or clearance). The increase in the roll diameter and the height of the gap reduces the shearing forces exerted rollers to form a mixture and the sheet in the molding process of the sheet, while increasing the speed of the rolls causes an increase in effort shift.

C. the drying Process

Despite the fact that the rolls forming the sheet may be partially or even almost completely dried leaves, it is preferable to subject the sheet additional drying to obtain a sheet with the desired properties in respect of impact strength and tensile strength. Despite the fact that over time the sheet dries by itself, sometimes it is not desirable to wait for this. Forced drying can be done in several ways, each of which involves heating the sheet to remove excess water.

The temperature of the drying rolls will depend on a number of factors, including the moisture content of the sheet as it passes around the roll. In any case, the temperature of the drying rollers should be less than about 300oC. Although the form of the mixture cannot be heated to temperatures above 250oC, to prevent the destruction of organic components (such as organic binder or cellulose fibers), rollers can be heated to a higher temperature until the mixture has sufficient moisture to cool the material as the evaporation of water. However, as the amount of water decreases during the drying process, the temperature of the rolls must be reduced to prevent overheating of the material sheet.

In some cases, PR is th full effect of convection drying, it is often desirable to circulate the heated air, which allows you to speed up the drying process. The temperature in the drying tunnel, as well as the residence time of the sheet in the tunnel will depend on the extent and rate of evaporation of water from the sheet material. The temperature in the drying tunnel should generally not exceed 250oC, to prevent the destruction of the cellulose fibers and an organic binder. Drying tunnel will preferably be heated to a temperature in the range from about 100 to about 250oC.

In some cases, the drying process described above is the final stage before the sheet will either be used for molding of the container or another object, or alternatively, will wound on a bobbin (Fig. 1A and 1B) or put the leaves in a pile up until they are needed (Fig. 8). In other cases, particularly when the sheet has a smoother, more similar to the paper furnish, after the step of drying may be followed by one or more additional steps, described in more detail below, including the step of sealing and/or finishing.

D. Optional finishing stages

In many cases it is desirable to condense linked starch sheet to make sure the desired voids within the structural matrix. In Fig. 5 shows that the sheet can pass between a pair of sealing rolls 60 after it has almost dried during the drying process the first drying rollers 50 (Fig. 1A and 1B). As a result of compaction usually get a sheet with higher density and strength, fewer surface defects and smaller thickness, and compaction helps to fix and align the compacted particles on the surface of the sheet. The amount of force with which the sealing rollers act on the sheet, must comply with the specific properties of the sheet.

Stage seal increases the strength of the cured sheet, creating a more dense and homogeneous structural matrix, and at the same time allows to obtain a sheet with a smoother surface. Stage seal is usually preferred for thinner sheets, when the strength per unit thickness of the need to maximize and when insulation is less important. The seal is usually necessary for thicker sheets, which should have a higher insulating capacity and/or low density. Sometimes it is undesirable to seal the sheets having less solid fillers such as hollow glass beads, which, if the ruin is th significant elongation of the sheet and without breaking or weakening of the structural matrix. In order to achieve compaction without extension leaf and without weakening the structural matrix, it is important to control the drying process so that the sheet contained the appropriate amount of water to maintain a loosely spun the rheology of the sheet. Controlling the water content and the gap between the rollers, it can be ensured that the sealing rolls are first condensed and increased the density of the sheet without causing significant elongation. If the list contains too much water, the sealing rollers will extend the sheet as well as forming or crimping rolls. Actually sealing rolls are almost the same as the forming or crimping rolls, the only difference is that the gasket and no elongation occurs when the sheet is dry enough, and the compression of the sheet thickness is less than the total porosity remaining after evaporation of the water (i.e., if the evaporation of water creates additional porosity of 25%, then the gap between the sealing rollers should be at least 75% of the thickness of the pre-compacted sheet).

Because the compaction process (including one or more stages seals) usually assumes that the sheet is poorly hydrated, then often you will complete the optional drying rolls 70. This optional step of drying can be accomplished when using the drying rolls, drying tunnel, or a combination of these methods. However, in some cases, the sheets can be subjected to further processing without the second stage of drying, for example, if the sheet directly involved in the manufacture of the container or other products, or when for other reasons it is desirable to have a dampened sheet.

In some cases it is desirable to subject the surface of the associated starch sheet further changes, passing the sheet between one or more pairs of finishing rollers 80 (calendarbody rolls), as shown in Fig. 6. For example, to create a sheet with a very smooth surface on one or both sides, the sheet can skip between at least two pairs of "hard" and "soft" rolls 82, 84.

The term "hard roll" is used in relation to the roll 82, having a well polished surface, which makes the surface of the sheet in contact with the roller, very smooth. The term "soft roll" refers to the roll position 84, which has a surface capable of creating sufficient friction between the soft roller and the sheet, so as to stretch the sheet between a pair of rolls consisting of grotesquely dry leaf through a couple of hard rolls. Strong slip roll 82 is preferred in order to align the particles on the surface of the sheet. The use of a rapidly rotating polished solid roller "sverhkachestvennye" paper leads to the receiving sheet, having a very smooth surface. The finishing process can be improved by spraying water on the leaf surface and/or coating on the surface of the clay, calcium carbonate or other materials known to specialists.

In other embodiments the invention, the finishing rolls can apply a desired pattern, thereby gain a porous, cellular or wafer surface. Alternatively, or during another way of finishing the sheets, you can crimp with the help of shirring rolls, as shown in Fig. 7. If desired, the rollers can be used to print on the surface of the sheet logo or another image. Special rolls, able to apply watermarks, can be used alone or in combination with other rolls. Ekstruderede rollers, tube rollers or a pressure rolls may include means for receiving a watermark by making either rising or pikh LINKED STARCH SHEETS

Linked starch sheets obtained by the methods described above, can be subjected to additional processing steps, depending on what properties should have finished the sheet, which in turn depends on the intended uses of the leaves. These optional methods include laminating, embossing, coating, printing, signs, marking, perforation, craigrownie, parametervalue or combinations thereof.

A. Methods of lamination.

Various properties can be given a linked starch sheets by lamination. For tasks of the present description and claims, the terms "laminated sheet" or "laminate" means a sheet having at least two layers, and at least one of the layers is linked starch sheet.

The term "laminar material" or "vinyl" refers to any layer of the laminated sheet, including as a linked starch sheet, and other material. Laminates, having any combination of layers included in the scope of the present invention, if at least one layer of the laminate is a linked starch sheet. The laminate can be obtained by linking together or other connection p is a laminate.

Laminated material in which linked starch sheet is tied, glued or otherwise connected to another linked starch sheet, or material providing the desired properties linked starch sheet, or a material, which is described below and which acts as a coating or adhesive, or any combination. Examples of materials that improve or change the properties of the associated starch sheets include organic polymer sheets, metal foil, sheets of ionomer materials, sheets of elastomers, plastics sheets, the sheets of fibrous material or fabric, sheets of paper, cellophane, nylon, sheets of wax, hydraulically curing the sheets with a high content of inorganic filler and leaves metallized film.

The laminates of the present invention can be obtained by linking the linked starch sheet and the other layer or layers with glue or without him. The relationship between the linked starch sheet and another layer (or between other layers of the laminate may be weak, and may exceed the strength of the sheets or materials that connect with the leaves.

Linked starch sheets can be connected without the use of glue with another layer until ananny starch can act as glue. Layers of a laminate containing a water-soluble materials can be glued to slightly damp or re-hydrated linked starch sheet.

Communication with glue can be achieved in various ways, including wet lamination, dry lamination, thermoluminescence and laminating pressure. Suitable adhesives include water-soluble adhesives (natural and synthetic), adhesives, melting at elevated temperatures, and adhesives solvent.

Lamination with the formation of wet connection linked starch sheet with another layer includes the use of any liquid adhesive for bonding together two layers. Suitable natural water-soluble adhesives such include laminating adhesives based on vegetable starch, adhesives based on proteins, animal glue, casein, and natural rubber. Suitable synthetic adhesives normally include emulsion polymers, such as a stable suspension of polyvinyl acetate particles in the water. Water-soluble adhesives have low odor, taste, almost colorless, have low toxicity, have varying degrees of stickiness and quickly grow old.

Thermoplastics are used as adhesives that melt high temperature, Jaimie high temperature, usually harden faster than other adhesives. Suitable adhesives based solvents include polyurethane adhesives, ethylene-vinyl acetate-based systems solvent and other resin pressure-sensitive. The starch in the associated starch sheets can also act as a thermoplastic. Heating the starch to a temperature above the glass transition temperature of starch allows you to melt and re-shape the leaves. Cooling causes the curing of the sheet or article in a new form. Melted and cooled starch can also act as the glue, ensuring the adhesion and sealing sheets, if they are molded into a product of desired shape, such as, for example, twisting in a spiral to receive a tube or jar.

The present invention also covers the creation of the laminate by pressing with foil. This method involves the use of heat and pressure in order to move the thin metallic or pigmented coating with the film carrier on the associated starch sheet or the surface of the container for receiving a decorative pattern. This method can be used in combination with embossing to obtain a laminate with raised shiny surface.

Bpts is mu as corrugate cardboard. This can be done by passing the sheet, preferably in semi-moist condition between a pair of hariraya rolls 86, as shown in Fig. 7. The moisture content of the sheet must be adjusted so that the corrugation process did not harm associated with the starch matrix. If the sheet is too dry, then the process of corrugation may damage the matrix, and in some cases there are gaps or the sheet bundle. On the contrary, if the sheet is too wet, the corrugated sheet may not have the initial strength necessary for maintaining the corrugated shape. Preferably, the amount of water bound starch sheet, subject to shirring, ranged from about 1% to about 30 wt.%, better from about 5% to about 20 wt.%, and best of all from about 7% to about 15 wt.%.

Corrugated sheet can be used as a single sheet or in combination with other sheets to obtain laminates, which are described above. Corrugated sheet may be laminated with one flat linked starch sheet or sheet, which is obtained from another material that gives a corrugated sheet with "one face". Placing corrugated sheet between the two plausibility multilayer sheets. Sheets with one face, two face surfaces of multi-layer corrugated sheets are characterized by relatively low density and relatively high rigidity and compressive strength. You can use them in cases where these properties are required for the finished products, such as containers and packaging.

The strength and flexibility of a single corrugated sheet can be changed by changing the number of waves per linear ft. The number of waves per linear foot can be increased to create a more flexible sheet, or the number of waves can be reduced to produce a more durable sheet with a higher ability to soften the blow. Multilayer corrugated sheets can also be obtained by using two or more corrugated sheets having different number of waves per linear ft. As for marks, cuts and perforations (which are described in more detail below), the individual waves of the corrugated sheets to create areas where the sheet is easier to bend or fold. In reality, however, the sheet must be tougher and more durable in the direction perpendicular to the wave. So the product, such as a container or other packaging material must be designed in such a way that FDG is Dimo, for example, where the product will be stacked.

During the process of the corrugation can be applied coatings. Certain materials coatings, especially waxes or polyethylene, can be applied by setting the hot rollers for coating on garyuuou installation. Coatings can be applied also by method of irrigation corrugated blanks before manufacture of its products. Other methods of coating on corrugated sheets include immersion of the finished product in the material of coating, such as wax, or spillage of the coating material through or around wave corrugated products.

C. Coatings and methods of applying them

In the scope of the present invention includes a coating or coating on linked starch sheets, or articles of such sheets. Coatings can be used to modify the surface characteristics linked starch sheet in several aspects, including sealing and protection sheet or products from it. Coatings can provide protection from moisture, bases, acids, grease and organic solvents. They can make the surface more smooth, flexible, shiny or resistant to scratches and help prevent rationae properties. They can also strengthen the linked starch sheet, especially along the line of bending or folding.

Some coverage can mitigate the associated starch matrix, resulting in a more flexible sheet. For example, coatings of materials such as soybean oil or Methocel(manufactured by Dow Chemical), either individually or in combination with polyethylene glycol, can be applied to the surface of the sheet in order to ensure the continued softening of the sheet or the location of the bend. Other materials coatings can be used to make the sheet more rigid. In addition, coverage of elastomers, plastics or paper to help preserve the integrity of the fold regardless of whether a cured structural matrix under this coverage on the fold line. Some coatings can be used to strengthen places where linked starch leaves much to bend, for example, where the markup is applied. In such cases, the preferred collapsible elastomeric coating. Elastomeric or deformable coating is preferred for the manufacture of products, which is produced by folding or sevanam. Some coatings can be used as a laminating material is Yu film with a minimum of defects on the surface of the sheet. Coatings can be applied in the molding process of the sheet of product or after product is made. The choice of the coating process depends on the properties of the sheet and the composition of the coating. Among the properties of the substrate (i.e., sheet) includes strength, wettability, porosity, density, smoothness and uniformity of the sheet. Variables in the composition of the coating include the total solids content, characteristics of the solvent (including vodorastvorimami and volatility), the surface tension and rheological properties.

Coatings can be applied to the sheets when using any known means coatings that are applied in the manufacture of paper, cardboard, plastic, polystyrene, sheet metal or other packaging materials, including knives, the air knife, the printing method Dahlgren, engraving, and application of powder coatings. Coverage from any of the following materials can be applied to the sheet, product or other object by spraying or immersing the sheet, product or other object in a vessel containing an appropriate coating material. Finally, the coatings can be obtained by the method of co-extrusion with the sheet to match% the Ute edible oil, melamine, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyacrylates, polyamides, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, acrylics, polyurethane, polyethylene, polylactic acid, Biopol(copolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate), latex, starch, soy protein, soybean oil, ethers, cellulose (e.g., Methocel), polyethylene, synthetic polymers including biodegradable polymers, waxes (such as beeswax, paraffin waxes, or synthetic waxes, elastomers and mixtures thereof. Biopolproduced by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in the UK. Suitable inorganic coating materials include sodium silicate, calcium carbonate, aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, kaolin, clay, ceramics and mixtures thereof. Inorganic coatings can also be mixed with one or more organic materials coatings listed above. In addition to these coatings of any suitable material coatings can be used depending on the application method.

Waterproof coating preferably apply to articles intended to come in contact with water. If leaves are used for the manufacture of containers or other products, contact the office of quality control of food and pharmaceutical products. The most suitable is a coating of sodium silicate, which is resistant to acids. Resistance to acids important, for example, in cases where the product is a container for food or drinks with high acid content, such as soft drinks or juices. Usually there is no need to protect products from alkaline substances, but increased resistance to alkali can be provided by use of the appropriate polymer or wax coating, which is applied for paper containers.

The polymer coating, such as polyethylene, is used to obtain a generally thin layers having a low density. Low density polyethylene is best suited for the manufacture of containers that are impervious to liquids and even withstand some pressure. Polymer coatings can also be used as adhesives, by heat sealing.

Aluminum oxide and silicon oxide are used as coatings, especially in cases when you need to create impermeability to oxygen and moisture. These coatings can be applied to linked starch sheets by any known method, including the use of techniques such as electric aluminum or silicon includes processing associated with starch sheet with an aqueous solution, having the appropriate pH level, ensuring the formation of aluminum oxide or silicon on the sheet due to the decomposition of a leaf.

Waxes and wax mixtures, especially waxes and synthetic waxes prevent moisture, oxygen and some liquid of organic origin, such as fat or oil. They also allow sealing of the container by means of heat treatment. Hydrocarbon waxes are best suited for packaging food and beverages and include paraffins and microcrystalline waxes.

, Marking and punching

In some cases it is desirable to apply a mark or perforate the sheet to draw the line along which the sheet can be folded or bent. Marks, cuts or perforations can be applied to the sheet by means of known means. Slicing can also be applied using special rolls. Alternatively, the mark (but no perforation) can be applied by extrusion using a rounded punch or line. Stamp or a ruler can be used separately or together with the meter. Line causes the sheet to be deformed, forming grooves. The perforation can be applied using a hole punch.

Task dannemoine easy to bend or fold. This creates a "connection" in the structure of the sheet, which has the best skladyvaetsia and flexibility than can have non-perforated sheet.

In some cases it is desirable to apply multiple incisions or perforations.

Cutting marking lines or the application of a perforation in the sheet improves skladyvaete sheet for a number of reasons. First, it creates a place where the sheet is more natural to fold or bend. Secondly, cutting marking lines makes the sheet along this line is thinner than the rest of the sheet, and this reduces the elongation of the surface bending of the sheet. The decrease in the elongation of the surface leads to the reduction of fractures associated with the starch matrix when folded. And, thirdly, cutting marking lines or perforations allow to obtain controlled cracks in the linked starch matrix in the case when there is a destruction of the matrix.

Sometimes it is preferable to concentrate more fibers in the place where you are going to draw a line or make a perforation. This can be achieved by using co-extrusion of the second layer formed of a material containing higher amounts of fiber at predetermined intervals of time is sciati in the sheet during extrusion or rolling, to get the increased concentration of fibers in the right place.

Linked starch sheet is likely to be almost dry paleocurrent state in the process of drawing lines or perforations. This is desirable in order to prevent the delay lines or perforations in the moving material. Because drawing lines usually (and perforation always) involves cutting part of the linked starch matrix, the sheet may even be completely dry, and the cutting lines and perforation will not harm sheet. However, if the drawing of lines is rather pressing, and not cutting, the sheet must be sufficiently moist to prevent the destruction of the sheet due to the bias associated with the starch matrix.

The depth of the cut line will depend mainly on the type of markup, the thickness of the associated starch sheet and the desired angle of flexion along the line. Mechanism drawing a line must be adjusted so as to obtain a line of the desired depth. Of course, the cutter must not be so large that it will penetrate the sheet through or cut him so deeply that the sheet will not be able to resist ozhidaemoe deep, in order to properly serve the goal. The combination of marking lines on opposite sides of the sheet may be preferred in some cases, when you need to expand the range of flexion.

D. Craigrownie and parametervalue

Linked starch sheets can optionally be craioveanu as plain paper to get a well-tensile sheet, which can absorb energy when unexpected loads. Craigrownie sheets are particularly suitable for the production of bags. Normal craigrownie carried out either in the car for wet pressing of paper (wet craigrownie) or American dryer (dry craigrownie). Although the exact parameters of either wet or dry craigrownie for linked starch sheets according to the invention and for conventional paper will be different, specialist himself know how to adjust the process craigrownie to get craigrownie linked starch sheets. Craigrownie you can use to make better bend the sheets and get a break.

It was found that linked starch sheets can handle strong acids to parlamentarului ox the cellulose fibers strongly to swell and partially dissolved. In this state, the plasticized fibers close their pores, fill the surrounding voids and achieve closer contact with other fibers, forming a more extensive hydrogen bonds. Wetting with water will cause re-deposition and consolidation of the network, resulting in a gain fiber, which is stronger wet than dry, do not form a fluff, no smell, taste and resistant to fats and oils. Combining the inherent parchment impact strength and elongation, attached with a damp keperawanan, you can get the sheet with high impact strength.

In the framework of the present invention the process parlamentarian should give the best results with increasing fiber content. Increased fiber content increases the closing of the pores and strengthens the hydrogen bonds between the fibers. It should be understood, however, that certain sensitive to acid fillers such as calcium carbonate, should not be used in cases where you intend to parlamentarului sheet.

E. Printing and related processes

Sometimes it is desirable to apply a printed image or other characters, such as trademark, product information, specification container or La for printing or well-known method of printing on paper or cardboard, including flat printing, letterpress, intaglio, non-contact printing. In addition, sheets or products can be embossed or watermarks. In addition, labels or other marks may be affixed or glued to the linked starch sheet using known methods. Printed signs can be applied to the continuous sheet, single sheets, laminated sheets, blanks or finished product, depending on the printing process and the product shape.

IV. PRODUCTS MADE FROM LINKED STARCH SHEETS

Using the above methods, you can produce a wide range of sheets, possessing different properties. These sheets may be of a thickness of only about 0.1 mm or less, in cases where you need a very thin and light sheets. The leaves can reach a thickness of approximately 1 cm in those cases where the need for relatively thick strong and rigid sheets. In addition, the leaves can vary in density from about 0.6 to about 2 g/cm3. Usually leaves with a higher density are more durable, and leaves with lower density have the best insulating properties. The exact thickness or density of a particular sheet can be set in advance to get the Fox is halted.

Cutting mechanisms used for paper and cardboard can also be used for cutting the continuous linked starch sheet into separate sheets. As shown in Fig. 8, the sheet can be cut into separate sheets using a knife cutter, which is mounted on the press. Cuts can be made using rolls with die-cut stamp by pushing the cutting of a stamp in the sheet, or by other known means.

The sheets of the present invention can be used for any purpose for which used conventional paper or cardboard. In addition, due to the unique properties associated with the starch material of the present invention may produce many objects for which currently requires plastic, polystyrene, or even metal.

In particular, the sheets of the present invention can be used for manufacturing the following products, which include: containers, including disposable and reusable containers for food and beverages, such as boxes of cereal, sandwiches, containers of the type "shells" (including, without limitation, opening containers for sandwiches, such as the Gamba packaging for yogurt, drinks (including, without limitation, packaging, similar to the basket, and "hex" packaging), carton for ice cream, glasses (including, among other things, disposable glasses, glasses two parts, folding the glasses and cups in the shape of a cone), French containers used in the food system "fast food", and boxes for food takeaway, used in the "fast-food"; packaging materials such as wrapping paper, separating materials, flexible packaging such as bags for snacks, the bags with the open end, such as bags for groceries, bags, placed inside boxes, such as pouches for cereals, multilayer pouches, bags, crates, pallets for products with sheath (especially plastic casings, which are products such as meat, cosmetics, stationery, toiletries, toys, trays for products (such as biscuits and sweets), banks, tape and wrapper (including wrappers for products in the freezer, wrap for meat products, meat, casings for sausages); a variety of boxes such as corrugated boxes, cigar boxes, boxes for confectionery products, and boxes for cosmetics; rolled or coiled Kootenai, salt, detergents, motor oil), postal tubes, cores for various roll materials (such as wrapping paper, napkins, paper towels and toilet paper and envelopes; printed materials and stationery, such as books, magazines, brochures, envelopes, tape, cards, book covers, folders, pencils, various utensils and storage containers, such as plates, lids, straws, bottles, jars, boxes, baskets, trays, trays for baking, vessels, trays for lunch, heat in a microwave oven, trays for "TV" dinners, boxes of eggs, packaging for meat, disposable plates, plates for sale using machines, plates pies, plates for Breakfast; a variety of other products such as bags for those who gets sick on airplanes, almost spherical objects, toys, medical tubes, ampoules, cages for animals, non-flammable packaging for fireworks, model rockets model rockets, and a myriad of other objects.

V. EXAMPLES of PREFERRED embodiments of the INVENTION

The following examples are intended to more specifically describe compositions and methods for the matrix, as well as the methods for the production of sheets, containers, and other products with different properties and having different sizes.

Example 1

Leaves with high starch content received from the form of the mixtures, which consisted of the following components in the indicated amounts (see table. 1).

The fiber used in this example was a southern pine fiber, and non-modified starch was a corn starch, which was added to the mixture in regulatoryreform. Water, Methocel and the first fiber was stirred for 10 minutes with high shear in the mixer Hobart. After that, the mixture was added to the starch, which was stirred for 4 minutes at low shear.

The mixture was extrudible using a vacuum auger extruder through a die of size 30 cm x 0.6 cm to obtain a continuous sheet that has the appropriate dimensions for width and thickness. Extruded sheet is then passed between a pair of squeeze rolls, the clearance between which corresponds to the thickness of the obtained sheet, and heated to a temperature of about 70oC. After that, the raw sheet was passed between the rollers, the temperature of which was VNIIM. Methocel forming a shell on the surfaces of the sheet, which did not give starch to stick to the rolls during the molding of the sheet. Received linked starch sheets had different thickness from 0.1 to 1 mm

Example 2

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table. 2).

Water, Methocel and fiber southern pines first was stirred for 10 minutes with high shear in the mixer Hobart. Then to the mixture was added calcium carbonate and corn starch and the mixture is stirred for 4 minutes at low shear.

The mixture was extrudible using a vacuum auger extruder through a die size 30 x 0.6 cm to obtain a continuous sheet that has the appropriate dimensions for width and thickness. Extruded sheet is then passed between a pair of forming/squeeze rolls, the clearance between which corresponds to the thickness of the formed sheet.

Because the calcium carbonate had a low specific surface area, mix a little sticking to the rolls. In addition, Methocel prevented adhesion of the starch to the rolls in the forming process of sheet. The temperature of the rolls meet Leaves with inorganic fillers, having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table. 3).

The composition and the sheets were the same as in example 2. Obtained in this example, the sheets had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 4

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table.4).

The composition and the sheets were the same as in example 2. Obtained in this example, the sheets had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 5

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table. 5).

The composition and the sheets were the same as in example 2. Obtained in this example, the sheets had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 6

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table.6).

The composition and the sheets were the same as in example 2. Obtained in this example, the sheets had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 7

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table. 7).

Example 8

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table. 8).

The composition and the sheets were as in example 2. Obtained in this example, the sheets had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 9

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table. 9).

The composition and the sheets were as in example 2. Obtained in this example, the sheets had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 10

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table. 10).

The composition and the sheets were as in example 2. Obtained in this example, the sheets had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 11

Leaves with inorganic fillers having a high starch content, received from the form of the composition (see table. 11).

The composition and the sheets were the same as in example 2. Obtained in this example, the sheets had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 12

Leaves with inorganic fillers having high the La was stirred for 10 minutes with high shear in the mixer Hobart. Then to the mixture was added to the starch and the mixture is stirred for 4 minutes at low shear. The sheets were made as in example 2. The sheets obtained in this example had a thickness of 0.23, 0.3, and 0.38 and 0.5 mm

Example 13

The leaves contain significant quantities of starch, produced from the form of the composition, which consisted of 8000 g of water and the following components (see tab. 13).

The sheets were made as described above. The sheets had a thickness of from 0,010" to 0,050" ( 0,254 to 1.27 mm) and a density of 1.11 g/cm3.

From sheets of a thickness of 0.10" (0,254 mm) produced glasses, resembling glasses of normal wood paper. Regular paper cups cost 1,101 cents per glass without coating and 1,410 cents per glass with a coating of wax paper weight. Compositions used for the production of sheets according to the invention, costing 1,270 cents per glass without coating and 1,455 cents per glass with a coating of wax. The cost of the glasses without coating of the present invention was 115% of the cost of paper cups, while the cost of glasses coated according to the invention was only 103% of the cost of paper cups due to the fact that the glasses according to the invention was much mnnich for the manufacture of sheets, of which were molded cups. The following table summarizes the costs gross expenditure on glass and the percentage of the cost of each ingredient into the dry mixture (the cost of water is not counted).

The data tables show that although the form of the composition used for the manufacture of sheets according to the invention, included only 5.9% Methocel 240 of the mass of the dry form of the composition, this material is demanded 39% of the total material costs for the production of the sheet. On the other hand, at the same time as corn starch amounted to 43.3% of the dry weight form of the composition, it was only 9% of the total material costs. Methocel 240 is 2.75 dollars per ounce, and corn starch is only of $ 0.09 per ounce, which clearly suggests that the replacement of Methocel starch will help a lot to reduce the cost of manufacture of the sheets according to the invention.

Example 14

For comparison, sheets were manufactured from a composition that did not contain starch, but contained increased amounts of methylcellulose. In addition, the composition included a large amount of inorganic filler, which is usually the cheapest of all components. Water was added in the amount of 11 kg (see table. 15).

Despite the material costs, increased the unit cost of each glass without coating to 1,509 cents, and each glass with a coating to 1,694 cents. Inorganic filler increased the density of the sheets to 1.70 g/cm3.

Example 15

Form of the composition used in this example was identical in all respects to the composition of example 13, except that in this example used a 50/50 blend of fibers deciduous and coniferous trees. The sheets were the same sheets in example 14. The cost of materials for the manufacture of glasses from sheets of this example was virtually identical to the cost of manufacture of glasses of sheets in example 13.

Example 16

Form of the composition used in this example was identical in all respects to the composition of example 13, except that in this example used the Abaca fiber. The cost of materials for the manufacture of glasses from sheets of this example was virtually identical to the cost of manufacture of glasses of sheets in example 13.

Example 17

Form of the composition used in this example was identical in all respects to the composition of example 13, except that in this Pref sheets of this example was slightly higher than the cost of glasses of sheets in example 13.

Example 18

The sheets produced by the method according to example 13, except that the used composition comprising 7000 g of water (see table. 16).

The resulting sheets had a density of 1.37 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,970 cents, and a glass cover - 1,155 cents, which is 88 and 82% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 19

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 18, except that the amount of CaCO3increased to 3000 g, and the other components remained unchanged. The resulting sheets had a density 1,49 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,846 cents, and a glass cover - 1,031 cents, representing 77 and 73% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 20

The sheets produced by the method according to example 13, except that he used the following composition, containing 8000 g of water (see table.17).

Received l the th example, was 0,760 cents, and a glass cover - 0,945 cents, representing 69% and 67% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 21

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 20, except that it additionally introduced 300 g of glycerol. The resulting sheets had a density 1,49 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,846 cents, and a glass cover - 1,031 cents, representing 77 and 73% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 22

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 20, except that the concentration of corn starch was increased to 2500 g, and the amount of water was increased to 9500, the resulting sheets had a density of 1.51 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example, was advanced 0.729 cents, and a glass cover - 0,914 cents, which is 66 and 65% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively. Increasing the amount of starch even more reduced cost idealogical the composition of example 22, except that the concentration of Methocel 240 reduced to 100 g, and the amount of water decreased to 9000, the resulting sheets had a density of 1.52 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,620 cents, and a glass cover - 0,850 cents, which is 56, and 57% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively. The reduction in the number of Methocel 240 significantly reduce the cost per unit of output.

Example 24

The sheets produced by the method according to example 13, except that the used composition comprising 9000 g of water (see table. 18).

The resulting sheets had a density of 1.44 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,636 cents, and a glass cover - 0,821 cents, which is 58 and 58% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 25

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 24, except that used a composition comprising 100 g of glycerin. The resulting sheets had a density of 1.43 g/cm3. The cost of one glass without coating, the screens 61 and 60% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 26

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 25, except that used a composition comprising 200 g of glycerin. The resulting sheets had a density of 1.42 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,696 cents, and covered 0,881 cents, which is 63% and 63% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 27

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 26, except that the used composition comprising 300 g of glycerol. The resulting sheets had a density of 1.41 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,725 cents, and a glass cover - 0,910 cent, which amounts to 65, and 65% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 28

The sheets produced by the method according to example 13, except that the used composition comprising 9000 g of water (see table. 19).

The resulting sheets had a density of 1.55 g/cm3. The cost of one glass without coating the hat 63 and 62% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 29

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 28, except that the used composition comprising 400 g of glycerin. The resulting sheets had a density of 1.54 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,723 cents, and a glass cover - 0,908 cents, which is 66 and 64% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 30

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 28, except that eliminated the glycerol. The resulting sheets had a density of 1.59 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,605 cents, and a glass cover - 0,790 cents, 55, and 56% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 31

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 30, except that he used the following composition containing Methocel 240 in number, increased to 200 g, and the amount of water increased the CSOs of the sheets in this example, was 0,714 cents, and a glass cover - 0,899 cents, which is 65% and 64% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 32

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 31, except that the amount of water was reduced to 9000, the resulting sheets had a density was 1.58 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,714 cents, and a glass cover - 0,899 cents, which is 65% and 64% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively. The water content was optimal for novopolochan sheet.

Example 33

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 32, except that the used composition, which contained 300 g of glycerol. The resulting sheets had a density of 1.54 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,797 cents, and with floor - 0,982 cents, which is 72 and 70% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 34

Leaves izhota the used composition, which contained 400 g of glycerin. The resulting sheets had a density of 1.53 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,822 cents, and a glass cover - 1,007 cents, representing 75% and 71% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 35

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 32, except that the used composition, which contained 500 g of glycerol. The resulting sheets had a density of 1.52 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,847 cents, and a glass cover - 1,032 cents, representing 77 and 73% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 36

The sheets produced by the method according to example 13, except that he used the song, but it contained 9000 g of water (see table. 20).

The resulting sheets had a density of 1.14 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,762 cents, and a glass cover - 0,947 cents, representing 69% and 67% of the value of bum in example 13, except that he used the following composition, containing 8000 g of water (see table. 21).

The resulting sheets had a density of 1.65 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,644 cents, and a glass cover - 0,829 cents, which is 59 and 59% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 38

The sheets produced by the method according to example 13, except that the used composition comprising 8000 g of water (see table. 22).

The resulting sheets had a density of 1.12 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,827 cents, and a glass cover - 1,012 cents, or 75 and 72% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 39

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 38, except that he used the following composition, where the amount of glycerin was increased to 400 g of the resulting sheets had a density of 1.11 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from the leaves on this pakana with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 40

The sheets produced by the method according to example 38, except that the used composition, where the amount of water was 8500 g (see tab. 23).

The resulting sheets had a density of 1.22 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,711 cents, and a glass cover - 0,896 cents that is 65 and 64% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 41

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 40, except that the amount of CaCO3was increased to 1500 g, and the amount of water increased up to 8750, the resulting sheets had a density of 1.26 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,688 cents, and a glass cover - 0,873 cents, representing 62 and 62% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 42

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 40, except that the amount of CaCO3was increased to 2000, the resulting sheets had a density of 1.29 g/cm3

Example 43

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 40, except that the amount of CaCO3was increased to 3000 g Methocel 240 to 150 g, and the amount of water to 9500, the resulting sheets had a density of 1.36 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,680 cents, and a glass cover - 0,866 cents, representing 62% and 61% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 44

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 43, except that the amount of water was increased to 10 kg, and this number proved to be optimal for the process of forming sheet.

Example 45

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 40, except that the amount of CaCO3was increased to 3000 g Methocel 240 to 200 g, and the amount of water to 10.5 kg of the resulting sheets had a density of 1.35 g/cm3. The cost of one with whom - 0,917 cents, which is 66 and 65% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 46

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 43, except that the amount of glycerin was 200 g, and the amount of water was increased to 10 kg of the resulting sheets had a density of 1.34 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,735 cents, and a glass cover - 0,920 cents, 67 and 65% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 47

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 43, except that the amount of glycerin was 400 g, and the amount of water was increased to 10 kg of the resulting sheets had a density of 1.32 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,787 cents, and a glass cover - 0,927 cents, which is 71 and 69% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 48

The leaves were made using kompozizii g, and the amount of water was increased to 10 kg of the resulting sheets had a density of 1.30 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,835 cents, and a glass cover - 1,020 cents, which is 76 and 72% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 49

The sheets produced by the method according to example 13, except that the used composition, where the amount of water was 11 kg (see table. 24).

The resulting sheets had a density of 1.35 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,832 cents, and the glass coating is 1,017 cents, which is 76 and 72% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 50

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 49, except that the amount of Methocel 240 reduced to 250 g, and the amount of water was reduced to 10 kg of the resulting sheets had a density of 1.35 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,782 cents, and a glass cover - 0,967 cents, which is zagotavlivali using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 36, except that the concentration of Methocel 240 increased to 150 g, and the amount of water reduced to 8500, the resulting sheets had a density of 1.14 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,825 cents, and covered 1,010 cents, or 75 and 72% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

Example 52

The leaves were made using the composition, which was similar to the composition of example 36, except that the concentration of Methocel 240 was increased to 200 g of the resulting sheets had a density of 1.14 g/cm3. The cost of one glass, uncoated, made from sheets of this example was 0,888 cents, and a glass cover - 1,073 cents, which is 81 and 76% of the cost of paper cups with coating and without it, respectively.

In the examples below was received very thin sheets, which had many of the characteristics and properties that allow you to use them as paper, cardboard, plastic, polystyrene, or metal sheets of the same thickness and weight. The sheets with the required properties were obtained by changing microstructure to get through the mass production of sheet products currently made from conventional materials.

Examples 53-58

The sheets from which it is possible to produce various products (including containers for food and beverages), produced using the methods described in the examples 1-52. Cured sheets were trimmed, if desired, covered with a coating, and then was formed from a number of different containers for food and beverages.

For example, to make "cool glasses" (which is served cold non-alcoholic drinks in restaurants "fast food"), cut into the appropriate blank from a sheet, fold the workpiece, giving the shape of the glass, and glue the ends of the collapsed preform using conventional glue is water-based. At the bottom of each glass put the disk and the bottom of the wall of the Cup is bent to the bottom of the glass was held in place. The rim of the glass curve, in order to strengthen the side and create a smoother surface. For the manufacture of glasses use a sheet thickness of 0.3 mm

To make the container shell" (such as currently used in restaurants "fast food" for packing burgers), cut from a sheet blank, put a marking on the workpiece, polochic folded blank, to preserve the integrity of the container. For the manufacture of container shells use a sheet thickness of 0.4 mm

For the manufacture of the container of fried potatoes (the same as used in restaurants "fast food" for packing fried potatoes) cut from a sheet blank, put a marking on the workpiece receiving line bends, bend the workpiece, giving it the shape of a container for fried potatoes and glue the ends of the folded blank to preserve the integrity of the container. For the manufacture of the container of fried potatoes use a sheet thickness of 0.4 mm

For the manufacture of cartons for frozen products (similar to those used in supermarkets for frozen food packaging) are cut from a sheet blank, put a marking on the workpiece receiving line bends, bend the workpiece, giving it the shape of a box for frozen food and glue the ends of the folded blank to preserve the integrity of the container. For the manufacture of cartons for frozen products use sheets of thickness 0.5 mm

To make boxes of cold cereal, a piece cut from a sheet of 0.3 mm thickness, put a marking on the workpiece receiving line SG is gotovac, to preserve the integrity of the container.

To make a straw for drinking, rolled up piece of sheet 0.25 mm in the form of straw and glue the ends. In the manufacture of straw, as in the manufacture of each of the above containers, it is desirable to control the moisture content of the sheet to maintain the highest level of flexibility of the sheet. The higher the level of flexibility of the leaf, the less likelihood of splitting and tearing.

Such methods were made following containers that are received from sheets of appropriate thickness (see table. 25).

Example 59

"Cool glasses" for example 53 was passed through the machine for capping wax, whereby the surface was applied a uniform layer of wax. The layer of wax is completely seals the surface of the glass, preventing the ingress of moisture, and makes the Cup waterproof.

Example 60

"Cool glasses" for example 53 was coated acrylic coated using a thin spray nozzles. As the wax in example 59, the layer of acrylic coating completely seals the surface of the glass, preventing the ingress of moisture, and makes the Cup waterproof. Acrylic coating is additional to freesouth more thin acrylic coating, the glass looks almost the same as the glass without coating. The glossiness of the glass can be controlled by using different types of acrylic coatings.

Examples 61-62

Containers-shells by example 54 may be coated with coatings as well as "cool glasses" examples 59-60. The results are almost identical to the results in glasses with coatings:

Example - Material coating

61 - Wax

62 - Acrylic

Example 63

Sheets of different thickness from 0.25 mm to 0.5 mm was molded by the methods of examples 1-52. The dry leaves of each thickness were cut into circles and formed of them a disposable plate using a press equipped with a stamp, which is used for the manufacture of such plates, of paper. These plates have almost the same shape, strength and appearance, like a plate of plain paper. However, the plates of the associated starch sheets are more rigid than paper, and therefore have better structural integrity, when they put the food.

Example 64

Linked starch leaves with a matrix of any type as described above are used for the production of printed materials such as magazines or brochures. Such magazines and brochures contain more subtle, lo 0,025 - 0.05 mm, while the thicker less flexible sheets have a thickness of about 0.1-0.2 mm

Example 65

Using any of the above compositions, receive corrugated sheets containing wave-like internal structure, placed between two flat sheets. Flat outer sheet is formed by rolling the material on a flat sheet of appropriate thickness. Corrugated or undulating inner sheet (which is analogous to the wave-like or corrugated inner lining of ordinary cardboard boxes) receive, missing or cured, or re-hydrated flat linked starch sheet of appropriate thickness through a pair of rollers with corrugated surfaces or teeth.

On the surface of the corrugated sheet put glue, and then the sheet is put between the two flat sheets and leave to harden. Corrugated sheet with flat outer surfaces has improved properties in terms of strength, toughness and rigidity in comparison with the conventional cardboard sheets.

1. Composition for manufacturing linked starch sheet containing granules nielaminowanych starch having a concentration in depatmental about 0.5 to about 10% of the total mass of solid material in the composition, fibrous material having a concentration of from about 3 to about 40% of the total mass of solid material in the composition and almost uniformly dispersed therein, an optional inorganic mineral filler having a concentration of from about 0 to about 90% of the total mass of solid material in the composition and water in an amount to provide the composition yield strength from about 2 kPa to about 5 MPa.

2. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it contains starch granules of about 15 to about 80% of the total mass of solid material in the composition.

3. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it contains starch granules from about 30 to about 70% of the total mass of solid material in the composition.

4. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that the starch granules contain at least one starch - potato, corn or waxy maize.

5. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it contains a simple cellulose ether is from about 0.5 to about 10% of the total mass of solid material in the composition.

6. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it contains a simple cellulose ether is from about 1 to about 5% of the total mass of the firmness of the RAS group, which includes methylhydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylmethylcellulose and their mixtures or derivatives.

8. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises a binder based protein selected from the group comprising prolamin, collagen, gelatin, glue, casein, and mixtures or derivatives.

9. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises a polysaccharide selected from the group which consists of alginic acid, phycocolloids, agar, gum Arabic, hoerova resin, resin Robinia, gum karaya and tragakant, and mixtures or derivatives.

10. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises a synthetic organic binder selected from the group comprising polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, polivinilbutilovy ether, polyacrylic acids, salts of polyacrylic acids, polyvinylacetate acids, salts polyvinylacetate acids, polyacrylamide, lactic acid polymers, polymers of ethylenoxide, latex, and mixtures or derivatives.

11. The composition according to p. 1, easy solid materials in the composition.

12. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it contains an inorganic mineral filler, from about 30 to about 70% of the total mass of solid material in the composition.

13. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the inorganic mineral filler selected from the group which consists of clay, gypsum, calcium carbonate, mica, silica, alumina, sand, gravel, Sandstone, limestone, and mixtures thereof.

14. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the inorganic mineral filler contains individual particles with optimized dimensions to achieve the desired natural bulk density of the particles.

15. The composition according to p. 14, characterized in that the natural bulk density of the particles of the inorganic mineral filler exceeds approximately 0,65.

16. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the inorganic mineral filler selected from the group comprising perlite, vermiculite, hollow glass beads, porous ceramic beads, pumice, and mixtures thereof.

17. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the fibrous material has a concentration of from about 3 to about 40% of the total mass of solid material in the composition.

18. Komposisi solid materials in the composition.

19. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the fibrous material has a concentration of from about 7 to about 20% of the total mass of solid material in the composition.

20. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the fibrous material contains organic fibers selected from the group consisting of fibers of hemp, cotton, fiber from the husks sugarcane, fibre Abak, flax, southern pine fibers, fibers of southern hardwoods, and mixtures thereof.

21. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the fibrous material contains inorganic fibers selected from the group comprising glass fiber, silica fiber, ceramic fiber, carbon fiber, metal fiber, and mixtures thereof.

22. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the fibrous material includes individual fibers having a length to thickness of at least about 10:1.

23. The composition according to p. 1, wherein the fibrous material includes individual fibers having a length to thickness of at least about 100:1.

24. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it has a yield strength of more than about 100 kPa.

25. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that th is and pulp.

26. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that the concentration of water is in the range from about 5 to about 80% by weight of the composition.

27. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that the concentration of water is in the range from about 10 to about 70% by weight of the composition.

28. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that the concentration of water is in the range from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the composition.

29. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it additionally contains at least one dispersant or plasticizer.

30. Composition for manufacturing linked starch sheet containing granules nielaminowanych starch having a concentration of from about 5 to about 90% of the total mass of solid material in the composition, a simple cellulose ether having a concentration of from about 0.5 to about 10% of the total mass of solid material in the composition and temperature of thermohaline, which is lower than the temperature of gilotinirovaniya granules of starch, optional inorganic mineral filler having a concentration of from about 0 to about 90% of the total mass of solid material in the composition, a fibrous material, in which the ratio of the length to the thickness of the fiber exceeds prakticheski uniformly dispersed therein.

31. Linked starch sheet, comprising: a) a binder matrix containing starch having a concentration of about 5 to about 90% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet, and a simple cellulose ether having a concentration of from about 0.5 to about 10% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet; (b) fiber, almost uniformly dispersed in a binder matrix having a concentration of from about 3 to about 40% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet; and (C) an optional inorganic mineral filler, included in the range of from about 0 to about 90% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet, and linked starch sheet has a thickness of less than about 1 cm and a density exceeding 0.5 g/cm3.

32. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the starch has a concentration of from about 15 to about 75% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet.

33. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the starch has a concentration of from about 30 to about 70% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet.

34. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the starch contains at least one of the following: unmodified potato starch, unmodified corn starch or nemotelus has a concentration of from about 1 to about 5% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet.

36. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that a simple cellulose ether has a concentration of from about 2 to about 4% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet.

37. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that a simple cellulose ether selected from the group comprising methylhydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylmethylcellulose and their mixtures or derivatives.

38. Worksheet under item 31, wherein said binder matrix further comprises a binder on a protein basis, selected from the group consisting of prolamine, collagen, gelatin, glue, casein, and mixtures or derivatives thereof.

39. Worksheet under item 31, wherein said binder matrix further comprises a polysaccharide selected from the group which consists of alginic acid, phycocolloids, agar, gumarabic, hoerova resin, resin Robinia, gum karaya and tragakant, and mixtures or derivatives.

40. Worksheet under item 31, wherein said binder matrix further comprises a synthetic organic binder selected from the group comprising polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylsilane acids, polyacrylimide, lactic acid polymers, polymers of ethylenoxide, latex, and mixtures or derivatives.

41. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the inorganic mineral filler has a concentration of from about 30 to about 70% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet.

42. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the inorganic mineral filler selected from the group which consists of clay, gypsum, calcium carbonate, mica, silica, alumina, sand, gravel, Sandstone, limestone, and mixtures thereof.

43. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the inorganic mineral filler contains individual particles with optimized dimensions to achieve the desired natural bulk density of the particles.

44. Worksheet under item 43, wherein the natural bulk density of the particles of the inorganic mineral filler is equal to at least approximately 0,65.

45. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the inorganic mineral filler contains a light filler selected from the group comprising perlite, vermiculite, hollow glass beads, porous ceramic beads, pumice, and mixtures thereof.

46. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the fibers have tives such as those that the fibers have a concentration of about 7 to about 20% of the total mass of solid material in the composition.

48. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the fibers contain organic fibers selected from the group consisting of fibers of hemp, cotton, fiber from the husks sugarcane, fibre Abak, flax, southern pine fibers, fibers of southern hardwoods, and mixtures thereof.

49. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the fibers include inorganic fibers selected from the group comprising glass fiber, silica fiber, ceramic fiber, carbon fiber, metal fiber, and mixtures thereof.

50. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the fibrous material includes individual fibers having a length to thickness of at least about 10:1.

51. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the fibrous material includes individual fibers having a length to thickness of at least about 100:1.

52. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it has a thickness of less than about 5 mm

53. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it has a thickness of less than about 3 mm

54. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in. he has a thickness less than the example is x different strength and flexibility.

56. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the fibers have almost disordered orientation in the sheet.

57. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the fibers have almost unidirectional orientation in the sheet.

58. Worksheet under item 31, wherein the fibers have virtually orientation in two directions in the sheet.

59. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it has a ratio of tensile strength to density from about 2 to about 500 MPas3/,

60. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it has a tensile strength from about 0.05 to about 100 MPa.

61. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it has a density above about 1 g/cm3.

62. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is made with a length from about 0.5 to about 12% without completely fracturing.

63. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is made decomposable by water.

64. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is made corrugated.

65. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is made keperawanan.

66. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is made parlamentarians.

67. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it further comprises the bath with him.

69. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it made his characters.

70. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it comprises a hinge.

71. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is perforated.

72. Worksheet under item 31, wherein it is given the shape of the container.

73. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is configured to bend at an angle of about 90° with virtually no destruction.

74. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is configured to bend at an angle of about 180°With virtually no destruction.

75. Worksheet under item 31, characterized in that it is made in the form of a continuous sheet wound on a bobbin.

76. Containing the inorganic filler and the associated starch sheet, comprising: a) a binder matrix containing starch having a concentration of from about 5 to about 90% of the total mass of solid material in the sheet, and a simple cellulose ether having a concentration of from about 0.5 to about 10% of the total mass of solid materials in sheet) fiber, almost uniformly dispersed in a binder matrix having a concentration of from about 3 to about 40% of the total mass of solid materials in sheet, and (C) an inorganic mineral n is ragmala sheet has a thickness of less than about 0.5 mm and a density higher than about 0.5 g/cm3.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to methods for manufacturing compositions based on starch with uniformly distributed fibers, which can be used for the manufacture of packaging products and packaging materials

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The invention relates to the production of plastic materials, in particular cellulose acetate plastics (acrolaw), used in production of various thermodormancy products, including consumer packaging, houseware and others, used in contact with food products

The invention relates to the field of printing and dyeing textile materials and can be used for geological research, geological, hydrogeological, specifically construction, printing, food and perfume industry

The invention relates to the textile industry and can be used in the processes of printing textile materials

The invention relates to polymeric compositions containing starch and a synthetic thermoplastic polymers and suitable for receiving essentially biodegradable products with satisfactory physical and mechanical properties of conventional processing technology of thermoplastic materials

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Layered material // 2169081
The invention relates to layered materials and can find wide application in various engineering fields and in everyday life

The invention relates to the production of products and coatings designed to have a pre-selected thermal conductivity and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), consistent with the same characteristics of those materials to which these products and treatment objectives are attached

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The invention relates to a thread made, filled with filler profiles obtained by the manufacturing process vodnoozdorovitelnogo composite material, and device for manufacturing such profiles

FIELD: coatings for products from gypsocard and their manufacture.

SUBSTANCE: the gypsocard with a coating applied onto it has: a gypsum core having the first side, second side and an outer sheet positioned on the first side, and a coating applied at least onto part of the external sheet, at least part of the coating penetrates at least through part of the external sheet to the gypsum core. The method for production of gypsocard with a coating includes: application of a gypsum suspension with production of damp gypsocard, having a gypsum core, application of coating onto the outer sheet of damp gypsocard and subsequent drying of the damp gypsocard, at least part of the coating penetrates at least through part of the outer sheet to the gypsum core. The method of wall production includes production of gypsocard with a coating in compliance with the mentioned for application of coating onto damp gypsocard, fastening of gypsocard with a coating on a supporting structure with production of a wall and application of adhesive tape and finishing of the joints between the adjoining sheets of gypsocard with coating with the use of a fastening agent, whose composition is essentially similar to the coating composition. The invention is developed in the species claims of the invention.

EFFECT: accelerated mounting and production of more durable finishing coatings, improved finished appearance of the finishing coating and reduced duration of production and reduced cost of it.

23 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: manufacturing multi-layered films.

SUBSTANCE: film comprises base made of bi-axially oriented polypropylene film and polyolefin film. Before laminating, the polyolefin film is colored. The multi-layered film is oriented in transverse direction or longitudinal direction and transverse direction after laminating. The thickness of the multi-layered film ranges from 8 μm to 26 μm. The method of producing the multi-layered film is also presented.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

9 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; motor industry; methods of production of the composite walls of the combustion chambers of the gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the method of manufacture of the composite wall for the gas-turbine engine. The method of manufacture of the composite wall made in the form of the "sandwich" type design containing the inner layer made out of the porous metal with the open pores bound with the inner covering layer and the outer covering layer, provides for manufacture of the base of the preset form inner layer made out of the gas-permeable porous material with the open pores. Then exercise the impregnation of the indicated base with the vapors of the metal and deposition of the porous metal layer on the open inner and outer surfaces of the base with formation by means of the process of the vacuum metallization of the inner layer made out of the porous metal with the open pores. Then they form the inner covering layer and the outer covering layer over the inner layer made out of the porous metal by means of the sputtering of the shell material selected from the group containing the metals and ceramics. The invention allows to diminish the cost of manufacture of the composite wall and to improve the operational characteristics of the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine engine.

EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the cost of manufacture of the composite wall, improvement of the operational characteristics of the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine engine.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the thermoplastic resin particles designed for forming the Styrofoam containers. The foaming thermoplastic resin particles are described, consisting of polymer obtained from the vinyl aromatic monomers, and bearing on their surface the covering composition at approximately 0.005 to 2.0 mass percent at particle mass. At that, the said covering composition includes the components selected from the group consisting of 1) liquid part and 2) solid part; and the said liquid part contains: a) from approximately 0.01 to 0.8 mass percents at a particles mass of polyethylene glycol with the apparent molecular weight from approximately 200 to 800; the said solid part contains the components selected from the group consisting of b) from approximately 0.01 to 1.0 mass percent at a mass of the polyolefin wax particles; c) from approximately 0.01 to 0.6 mass percent at a mass of the particles of the metal-containing salt of the higher fatty acids; d) from approximately 0.01 to 0.8 mass percents at a particles mass of polyethylene glycol with the apparent molecular weight from approximately 900 to 10000; and e) from approximately 0.01 to 0.1 mass percent at a mass of the fatty bisamide particles; and their combinations. Also, the styrofoam container and the formed article produced from the said foaming particles, are described. The covering composition for the said particles and the method for improvement the leakage resistance in the styrofoam container, are described.

EFFECT: prevention of oil and/or fat-containing liquid and food leakage, edge firmness improvement.

31 cl, 10 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: particles containing substrate particles and thermoplastic polymer present in or on the substrate in sufficient quantity to enhance particle dust formation neutralisation in comparison to substrate without thermoplastic polymer. Substrate particles include 0.005 to 4.0 wt % of thermoplastic polymer calculated per particle weight. Particles containing substrate particles and thermoplastic elastomer where particles preserve compression endurance limit by more than approx. 50% according to measurement of UCS test, and turbidity approximately within 10 to 200 NTU range over one hour of spherical mill test, and can be applied in subsurface rock formation processing method, to obtain padding made of wedging filler.

EFFECT: method of obtaining material particles containing thermoplastic elastomer.

95 cl, 19 dwg,14 tbl,15 ex

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