Generator pump with a variable number of steps

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to electronic equipment. The technical result is to provide opportunities for different levels of output voltage for a given direction of the power source at the input of the generator pumping. For this purpose, the generator pump in the first embodiment includes the first and second generators pump, the first and second switches, and the second option is the first generator pumping and n generators pumping, n first and n second switches. A storage device in the first embodiment contains an array of storage elements, the first and second generators pump and the first and second switches, and the second option - an array of storage elements and the generator pump with a variable number of stages. 4 C. and 14 C.p. f-crystals, 2 ill., 3 table.

The present invention relates to generators pumping. More specifically the present invention relates to the proposal of the generator pump, which, in contrast to a constant number of steps, has a variable number of steps, depending on the level of the power generator pump inlet and the desired level of output power of the generator pumping.

Prerequisites to POPs the needs of integrated circuits for energy. In order to reduce energy consumption, are constructed in an integrated circuit operating on the power supply with a lower voltage, for example 3.3 volts instead of 5 Century.

However, for many operations require a voltage greater than that which can provide low voltage power supplies. So, for example, pulsed electrically erasable programmable ROM (pulse EEPROM) requires operations of erasing and programming about the 12th Century

Technology application generator pump allows you to generate a voltage whose magnitude exceeds the voltage of the power source. Application schema generator pump allows you to generate 12 V from a 3.3 V through the use of one or more stages of the generator pumping.

In electronics, it is often necessary in generating multiple voltage levels on the basis of one of the available supply voltage. For example, the storage scheme of the computer may require one voltage for reading, another voltage for recording and the third voltage to erase. On the other hand, the various components of the computer (such as various types of storage devices) can the actor, which should be considered when designing integrated circuits, is that although the existing trends can indicate a generally acceptable transition to another level of the power source, you might have established the basics of the scheme, is not ready to change. For example, if the current trend of moving the supply voltage 3.3 V you might have established the basics of hardware that needs the power supply voltage of 5 Century.

One still used ways of generating some higher voltages based on a voltage of the power source is the use of a number of schemes generators pumping, each of which has a constant number of steps. One disadvantage of this method is that each schema generator pump requires its own dedicated space in the integrated circuit. Another disadvantage is that it may be possible to use an integrated circuit alternately to the power supply voltage of 3.3 V and the power supply voltage of 5 V without additional external schema.

Another still used way to generate some higher voltages based on one naponta steps is used to generate voltage level. Other voltage levels produced by the application together with a single generator pumping scheme of the voltage divider. One of the drawbacks of this method is a waste of energy and the outline of the voltage divider. Another disadvantage is that the method with a constant number of steps is usually forced to sacrifice performance with a single supply voltage in order to adjust to a different voltage.

The nature and the purpose of the present invention

The described generator pump with a variable number of stages. Generator pump with a variable number of stages includes first and second generators pumping. The first switch connects the output of the first generator pump with the input of the second generator pumping. The second switch connects the input of the first generator pump with the input of the second generator pumping. When the first switch is in the first position and the second switch is in the second position, the first and second generators pump are connected with a common output node in series. When the first switch is in the second position and second switches is in the first position, the first and W the I in the sentence generator pump, which can provide different voltage levels at the output at a specified voltage power source at the input of the generator pumping.

Another goal is to offer generator pump, which can provide a given level of output voltage at different voltage power source at the input of the generator pumping.

Other objectives, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent thanks to the accompanying drawings the following detailed description.

Brief description of drawings

The present invention is illustrated as an example and not limiting to the invention of the factors on the accompanying drawings, in which identical positions indicated similar elements and in which:

in Fig. 1 illustrates a generator pump with a variable number of stages;

in Fig. 2 illustrates the circuit including the generator pump with a variable number of stages, designed to power the array of pulse storage device.

Detailed description

In Fig. 1 shows one embodiment of the generator pump with a variable number of stages. Generala are connected with a common input bus 160 and the common output node 150. Each link includes a generator pumping. For example, the link 162 includes a generator pump 110, and the link 164 - generator pump 120. Each generator pump includes one or more constant speed. In Fig. 1 the first generator pump 110 is composed of serially connected stages 112 and 114 of the generator pumping. The second generator pump 120 is composed of serially connected stages 122 and 124 of the generator pumping. The supply voltage, Vpp, provides the supply voltage to the global input bus 160.

The first switch 130 determines whether the output of the first generator pump input of the second generator pumping. The second switch 131 is used to connect the input of the second generator pump to Vpp. Using the switches 130 and 131 generators pump 110 and 120 are linked in series or parallel. Generator pump with a variable number of stages 100 may also be identified by expression generator with speed X/Y". In this case, "X" means the number of links (and therefore the maximum number of generators pump with a constant number of steps) that can be connected in series. "Y" means the maximum amount the this example, there are two links. Each link consists of a generator pump with two stages. Thus, the generator pump with a variable number of steps 100 may be referred to as "generator with step 2/2". Generator pump with step 2/2 able to connect all four stages in series, or two series-connected stages may be connected in parallel with the other two series-connected stages.

There are four possible combinations of the positions of switches 130 and 131 (two positions multiplied by two switches). The word "included" is applied to switches 130 and 131, means that the switches provide the path for current. The word "off" is applied to switches 130 and 131, means that switches unlock the chain. In other words, the switch is not passed through a significant current. In one implementation, the switches 130 and 131 are made of field-effect transistors metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS transistors). In order to ensure passing through the MOS transistors 130 and 131 a wide range of voltages as a control voltage for the gate of the MOS transistor using the VOUTon a shared host 150.

For scheinerstr pumping each other. The following table indicates the results obtained when four combinations.

From table. 1 shows that if both switches are off, the generator pump 110 is the only generator pump, permitting the voltage at node 150. Thus, since the generator pump 110 is a two-stage generator pump, the effective result of this configuration, the positions of switches 130 and 131 will be a two-stage generator pumping. This configuration can be used in power saving mode, if the alternator is pumping 100 otherwise provides sufficient output current and voltage.

If the switch 130 is turned off and the switch 131 is on, the generator pump 120 is connected in such a way that the generators of the pump 110 and 120 are connected to a common output node in parallel. Since and 110, and 120 are two generators of the pump, this means that the generator pump is in fact a four-stage generator pump, comprising connected in parallel two groups of two stages each. In this configuration, the generator, the pump 100 will be given on the node 150 is about the same output voltage. Because 110 and 120 connected to the PA only works generator pump 110.

If the switch 130 is on and the switch 131 is switched off, the generator pump 120 is connected in such a way that the generators of the pump 110 and 120 are connected in series. In other words, the input voltage of the generator pump 120 will flow from the generator output of the pump 110. Since and 110, and 120 are two generators of the pump, this means that the generator pump is in fact a four-stage generator pump, consisting of a connected series of all four stages. In this configuration, the generator, the pump 100 will host 150 output voltage is approximately twice the voltage in the previous two cases. However, the generator, the pump 100 will be able to produce current component only half the current, observed in the case when the generators pump 110 and 120 are connected in parallel.

In the fourth configuration table. 1 indicated "n SV. "H. SV means that this configuration is not applicable, because it should not be used. If both switches are turned on, the first generator pump will be short-circuited, because its output is connected to its input and a voltage source. Operation in this mode can OK the Fig. 1 also shows an n-channel MOS transistors 140 and 142. Transistors 140 and 142 are connected according to the scheme diode between outputs of the generators of the pump 110 and 120, respectively, and the output node 150. This prevents the generator pump short circuit to each other in a serial connection. For example, if the switch 130 is on and the switch 131 is switched off, the generator 120 without connected according to the scheme diode of transistor 140 will be short-circuited. If the transistor 140 is not present, the node 144 is connected to node 150. Node 144 is also connected to the input of the generator pump 120. Since the generator output of the pump 120 is connected to node 150, this will lead to binding of the generator output of the pump 120 to the input of the generator pump 120. This configuration will make the generator pump 120 unhealthy, and therefore the configuration of the serial connection cannot be obtained.

In the presence of the transistor 140, if the voltage at node 150 exceeds the voltage at node 144 through the transistor 140 current to pass will not be able. Is a series connection of generators pumping. A series connection of generators pump 110 and 120, the voltage at node 146 will exceed the voltage at node 144. If nab is p 142 is conductive, to pass the voltage available at node 146, at site 150 (minus the threshold voltage of the transistor 142). While the voltage at node 144 minus the threshold voltage of the transistor 140 does not exceed the current voltage at node 150, transistor 140 will not be conductive, and thus ensures the stability of the configuration of the serial connection of the generators pumping.

The use of MOS-transistors with low threshold voltage helps to reduce the voltage drop across the transistors 140 and 142, allowing a large proportion of the voltage generated by the speed of the generator, the pump will reach the output node 150. The normal threshold voltage for the MOS-transistors with low threshold voltage is less than 1, and typically range from 0.4-0.7 Century

In one alternative implementation, the generator pump 100 is the negative generator pumping issuing from Vppvoltage below zero. In this case, the speed of the generator 112, 114, 122 and 124 are negative generators pumping. Vppcan be a working ground. For correct operation in this implementation, the transistors 140 and 142 are p-channel MOS transistors.

In another and the n with n links generators pumping, each generator pump is y degrees. Thus, according to the definition given above, the generator pump with a variable number of stages is a generator with "n/y" stages. By choosing the appropriate subgroups of the first and second switches are n generators pumping can be divided into m groups of p generators pumping. Each group is now a generator pump with a variable number of stages "p/y". Now you can get a variety of combinations, because groups can be connected in series or in parallel. In addition, in series or in parallel can be connected to the links in each group. For example, assume that the generator pump with a variable number of stages consists of 12 units. Each link includes one generator pump with a constant number of steps. Each generator pump with a constant number of steps contains 2 stages connected in series. This generator 12/2 steps. Thus, 12 generators pump with two stages can be connected in parallel, or all 24 stages can be connected in series.

12 Links, however, may be grouped in 4 groups of three segments. This is tsya two possible combinations. Or all six stages can be connected in series, or three groups of two stages can be connected in parallel. In addition, four groups can be connected in parallel or sequentially. Various combinations easier to imagine using a number of conventional images. Icons "S" and "P" indicate whether connected links in each group sequentially or in parallel. Icons and "-" indicate a serial or parallel connection, respectively.

Thus seven other possible combinations using these groups are S-S-S-S and P-P-P-P, S-P-P-P, S-S-P-P, S-S-S-P. Two combinations (i.e. S-S-S-S) excessive when the combinations that can be obtained without the split operation units into groups. This example, however, illustrates how due to separate control subgroups links you can get at least five additional configurations provide energy.

In addition to these different configurations, you can choose to supply power to a subset of all links. In other words, by deselecting the links using the corresponding second switches (i.e., shutdown) generator pump with a variable number of stepmania in under load scheme (e.g. diagram of the storage device) at all levels and voltage divider or current. The voltage dividers and current tend to energy consumption and should be excluded in order to save energy.

Now the wording specified name "X/Y" is a little different. Previously "X" meant the total number of links, and each link is considered as a generator pump with a constant number of steps. Now, however, it is obvious that the rebuild of the groups of links in each group essentially becomes a generator pump with a constant number of steps. So now the "X/Y" means X connected in parallel groups of generators pumping, and each generator pump connected in parallel to the group Y contains serially connected stages.

The design of the generator pump with a variable number of stages when the desired number of stages allows you to get the schema generator pump, which can provide the desired voltage for the circuit of the storage device regardless of the voltage of the available power source. For example, if a generator pumping is required to receive the power voltage of 6 and 12, the designer can p is of the stages with the to ensure that the generator output pump with a variable number of stages desired voltage regardless of input voltage. Control switches shall be determined by the voltage of the available power supply, Vppand the required output voltage of the generator pump with a variable number of stages. Typically, the voltage, which gives the generator pump with a variable number of stages must be greater than the voltage required to power the circuit, because the regulation of the generator output pump with a variable number of stages may be some loss.

In one implementation, the generator pump with a variable number of stages can be used to issue various voltage levels required for the array of pulse storage device. An array of pulse storage device comprises storage elements, including field-effect transistors with a floating gate. These transistors can be programmed by changing the charge contained on the floating gate, and the state (programmed or erased) can be determined by survey items. For different modes of operation pulse is changing the number of stages may produce the desired voltage for each operating mode of the pulse array storage device. These modes include reading, programming and erasing.

Typically, the array of pulse storage device is divided into blocks, and when the erase mode erases one or more blocks of storage elements. The erasing pulse storage element is performed by removing from the floating gate of the excess charge. The normal way to clear all the elements in the block pulse storage device requires a supply voltage of 12 V to the findings of all storage elements in the block from the source, while the conclusions from runoff remain floating and the conclusions of the gate shorted to the ground.

Pulse storage elements are programmed by placing on the floating gate of the excess charges with the aim of increasing the threshold voltage of pulse storage element. Typically, the programming is carried out by application of a voltage of approximately 11-12, shutter, 6-7 In to the drain and grounding the output from the source so that electrons enter the floating gate electrode by injection of hot electrons.

The read pulse storage elements is performed by application to the shutter Inaudi element is in a programmed or erased state. It recognizes pulse in the storage element of the current between the drain and source of IDS. The read pulse storage element typically requires the application voltage of 5 V to the gate 1 to the drain and grounding the output side of the source.

Thus, a typical voltage levels required for use with pulse storage device is equal to 5 for read mode and 6 and 12 for programming and erasing. In one embodiment, the implementation of power for pulse storage devices provide two sources. These sources include the line VSSand the line Vpp. Line VSSis the primary power source is a pulsed device. Additional voltage, which ensures the supply line, Vppusually only required in recording or erasing in a memory device, since these operations require higher voltage. In one embodiment, the implementation of the VSSapproximately 5 C. However, Vppmay be equal to 3.3, 5 or 12 Century

Although common standard value Vppis the voltage 5 V, increasingly finds voltage of 3.3 Century. Generators pump with the external circuit. However, to maximize the usefulness of the system impulse storage device, the generator pump with a variable number of stages must be able to generate approximately 5 V, 9 V and 12 V power supply or 3.3 V or 5 Century.

In Fig. 2 shows a diagram of the pulsed power storage devices, including generators pump with a variable number of stages for receiving voltage 5 V, 9 V and 12 V power supply or 3.3 V or 5 Century Generators pump with a variable number of stages are designed to exceed the nominal required voltages because their output is directed to the voltage regulator. In addition, reasonable tolerances on food usually require the scheme to work properly when the input voltage remains within the specified limits of the deviations from the nominal value (e.g. 10%). This means that the voltage at the output of the generators pumping should depend on the input voltage Vppequal to 3.3 V 10%, or 5 To 10%. If the value of Vpplower than the nominal 10%, this means that the pulse power circuit should provide the desired levels of voltage and current for a pulse array when the power source voltage Vused to increase the voltages of the internal nodes to different levels of stress during the reading mode (the generators of the pump 5 In), programming mode (generators pump 12 and 9) and the erase mode (12 V and 9 V). When the reading mode when Vcc= 3.3V, equivalent values should be brought to the 5th Century Configuration generators pumping varies with Vpp(i.e., 3.3V or 5V) and mode of operation of the pulse storage device (e.g. program mode or erase).

Control speed generators pump 210 and 220 with a variable number of stages is determined by the mode of operation (erase, read or programming) and level Vpp. The level detectors 230, 231 and 232 define levels Vppand Vcc. The detector 230 Vpp5/12 applied to determine is whether the voltage of 5 V or 12 Century Detector 230 shows the Vppapproximately 12 C. Generator pump 220 with a variable number of stages is the generator pump with a variable number of stages in a strong current, used in the operations of reading, programming and erasing. Generator pump 210 with a variable number of stages is the generator pump with a variable number of stages of the weak current that is applied in addition to the generator pump 220 only during operations programs is aramov erase and programming for different levels of Vpp. These algorithms can vary from Vppand Vcc. Circuit 290 controls the corresponding switches (e.g. switch 274) in accordance with the erasing algorithms and programming. These switches are used, for example, to control the power generators pump 210 and 220 and to select a suitable power source for supplying a pulse array storage devices along the lines 260 and 264.

The power pulse array storage device is carried out via lines 260 and 262, and 264. Line 260 passes or Vppfrom the grounds Vpp295, or 12 with generators pump 210 and 220 at the gates of impulse items. Line 264 supplies the necessary voltage at the drains and sources during operations of programming and erasing. Line 262 delivers or 5 V from the generator pump 220, or Vccon impulse storage device. Line 282 is used to enable or disable the detector Vcc232.

Generators, voltage controlled (VCO) 240 and 241 are used to drive interacting with them generators 210 and 220, respectively. VREFused to generate the reference voltage VCO. The reference voltage and the feedback output of the generators nakam at the output of the generators of the pump 210 and 220. VCO 242 serves as a backup GUN when the memory device is in the storage mode. In the storage mode pulse storage device needs a much smaller current.

Generators pumping with changing the number of stages of strong and weak current change their configuration depending on the mode of operation and nominally set of values of Vpp(i.e., 3.3V or 5V). In table. 2 shows the configuration of the generator pump 220 with a variable number of stages with different values of Vppand operation modes.

In table. 3 shows the configuration of the generator pump 210 with a variable number of stages with different values of Vppand operation modes.

Thus, in the implementation illustrated in Fig. 2, if Vpphas a nominal value of 5, the generator pump 210 with a variable number of steps (alternator high amps) configured in such a way as to contain 18 groups of stages connected in parallel, with each group when programming modes, comparisons and erasing contains 3 stages connected in series.

In the reading mode the generator pump 220 with a variable number of stages is not used is if you will need a generator pump 220 strong current, reading it will get food instead of Vppfrom Vcc. If Vccbelow 4,0, (when determining detector 3/5 232), to obtain voltage 5 V to achieve equivalence (i.e., the shutters on the pulse storage elements) on line 262 requires the generator pump 220 in a strong current. In this case, the generator pump 220 in this embodiment, the implementation has the configuration 18/3. Otherwise deemed sufficient Vccand line 262 is activated to supply the equivalent voltage from Vcc instead of the generator pump 220 (which can be disabled as it is not needed anymore).

In respect of the implementation options described above and related to the pulse array storage device, the schema generator pump with a variable number of steps may be made within the same block as the pulse array storage device. On the other hand, the schema generator pump with a variable number of stages may be located outside of the array block pulse storage device.

In the above detailed description, the invention is described with reference to specific examples of its implementation. It is obvious, however, that can vnesennyh century the formula of the invention. The description and drawings should accordingly be considered in the illustrative sense and not restrictive.

1. Generator pump with a variable number of stages, with the first generator pump and the second generator pump, characterized in that it contains a first switch connecting the output of the first generator pump with the input of the second generator pump, and a second switch connecting the input of the first generator pump with the input of the second generator pump, while the first and second generators pump connected in series with a common output node when the first switch in the first position and the second switch in the second position, the first and second generators pump connected in parallel with a common output node when the first switch in the second position and the second switch in the first position.

2. Generator pump with a variable number of stages under item 1, characterized in that the said connection of the first and second generators pumping with a common output node is carried out respectively through connected in the circuit of the first diode and the second field-effect transistors with the structure of a metal-oxide-semiconductor.

4. Generator pump with a variable number of stages under item 1, characterized in that at least one of the first and second generators pumping involves many steps, which are connected in series.

5. Generator pump with a variable number of stages, with the first generator pumping and n generators pumping, and n is greater than one, characterized in that it contains n first switches, each of n-1 of the first switch connects the input of one of the n-1 generators of the pump with the output of the preceding generator pumping of the n generators of the pump, and one of the first switch connects the input of one of the n generators of the pump with the output of the first generator pump, n second switches, each of which connects the entrance of one of the n generators of the pump with the input of the first generator pump, these generators pump connected in series with a common output node when all of the first switches in the first position and the second switch in the second position, and the above-mentioned generators pump connected in parallel with a common output node when the first switch in the second position and all of the second switches in the first full links mentioned generators pumping with a common output node performed via the corresponding connected in the circuit of diode field effect transistor metal-oxide-semiconductor.

7. Generator pump with a variable number of stages on p. 5, characterized in that at least one of these switches also includes a transistor metal-oxide-semiconductor with a low threshold voltage.

8. Generator pump with a variable number of stages on p. 5, characterized in that at least one of the n generators pumping involves many steps, which are connected in series.

9. A storage device having an array of storage elements and the generator pump with a variable number of stages, with the first generator pump and the second generator pump, characterized in that the generator pump with a variable number of stages includes a first switch connecting the output of the first generator pump with the input of the second generator pump, and a second switch connecting the input of the first generator pump with the input of the second generator pump, while the first and second generators pump connected in series with the selected storage elements of the array of storage elements when the first switch in the first position and the second switch in the second position, the first and second GE when the first switch in the second position and the second switch in the first position.

10. The memory device under item 9, wherein the array of storage elements includes a non-volatile storage elements, representing the field-effect transistors with a floating gate.

11. The storage device according to p. 10, characterized in that the said connection of the first and second generators pumping with the selected storage elements of the array of storage elements carried respectively through connected in the circuit of the first diode and the second field-effect transistors with the structure of a metal-oxide-semiconductor.

12. The memory device under item 10, wherein the first and second switches comprise transistors with the structure of a metal-oxide-semiconductor with a low threshold voltage.

13. The storage device according to p. 10, characterized in that at least one of the first and second generators pumping involves many steps, which are connected in series.

14. A storage device having an array of storage elements and the generator pump with a variable number of stages, with the first generator pumping and n generators pumping, and n is greater than one, wherein the generator netaccelerator pump, each of n-1 of the first switch connects the input of one of the n-1 generators of the pump with the output of the preceding generator pumping of the n generators of the pump, one of the first switch connects the input of one of the n generators of the pump with the output of the first generator pump, and n second switches, each of which connects the entrance of one of the n generators of the pump with the input of the first generator pump, the first generator pump and generator pumping of n generators pump connected in series with the selected storage elements of the array of storage elements when the corresponding first switch in the first position and the respective second switch in the second position, the first generator pump and generator pumping of the n generators of the pump are connected in parallel with the selected storage elements of the array of storage elements when the corresponding first switch in the second position and the respective second switch in the first position.

15. The storage device according to p. 14, wherein the array of storage elements includes a non-volatile storage elements representing sobti the above mentioned communication generators pumping with the selected storage elements of the array of storage elements implemented through the respective connected in the circuit of diode field effect transistor metal-oxide-semiconductor.

17. The storage device according to p. 15, characterized in that at least one of the n first and second switches also includes a transistor metal-oxide-semiconductor with a low threshold voltage.

18. The storage device according to p. 15, characterized in that at least one of the n+1 generators pumping involves many steps, which are connected in series.

 

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