Way to clarify the parameters of the motion of the center of mass of the spacecraft
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of space navigation, in particular for systems of Autonomous navigation. Measure the altitude above the surface of the planet. Perform cyclic calculation of Zenith distances of two stars on the basis of measurements of the angles of orientation of the SPACECRAFT and orientation of the optical axes Astrovirus device relative to the associated coordinate system. Define the navigation settings AC in static processing measurement information for measuring the plot. In each cycle additionally verify the orientation angles of the SPACECRAFT. Based on the updated values of the angles and the orientation of the optical axes Astrovirus devices specify the values of the Zenith distances of the stars. Use more accurate values when solving the navigation task in the current period. Improved the accuracy of the navigation of SPACECRAFT parameters. 1 Il. The proposed invention relates to the field of space navigation, in particular, to methods for Autonomous navigation of SPACECRAFT.Known methods of Autonomous navigation [1-3], based on measuring Zenith distances of 2 stars and the angular diameter of the planet or on the measurement sopralene a star.Attracting excessive primary navigation information obtained from measurements on one or more measuring stations, a priori data about its statistical characteristics in the subsequent statistical processing this information using on-Board digital computer (computer) allows estimation of the vector defined navigation parameters. The General lack of navigation tasks using the following methods Autonomous navigation is the low accuracy of determination of parameters of the motion of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT, due to instrumental and methodological errors of onboard navigation measurements, under-registration in the navigation algorithms forces actually acting on the SPACECRAFT in flight, the errors of the physical constants that determine the law of motion, errors account on the computer, etc.Closest to the proposed composition of the navigation measurement is a method for determining motion parameters of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT , which consists in measuring Zenith distances of 2 stars and a flying height above the surface of the planet, when aggregated this information to determine the parameters of motion of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT. Ismtii vertical radioterminal-altimeter (RVV). The main stars are determined by two astrovision devices (AVA). The disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy on the basis of parameters of the motion of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT.Found that of the above reasons error solution navigation parameters the most weight are the errors of the onboard measurements, and in particular, to a considerable extent, the accuracy of determining the parameters of motion of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT depends on the accuracy of measuring Zenith distances of the stars. Analysis of existing measurement tools shows that the basic error in their determination makes used to measure the angles of deflection of the vertical axis of the SPACECRAFT from the local geographic vertical RVV . These angles are the angles of orientation of the SPACECRAFT pitch and roll.The aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy of navigation Autonomous navigation of SPACECRAFT.This goal is achieved by the organization (after solving the navigation task in a known manner) in the framework of the 2nd phase of the cyclic solution to the problem of determining the orientation of the SPACECRAFT by the stars using the previously obtained parameters of price movements), and navigation tasks for these specified values.The invention consists in the following. Using the information on the orientation of the optical axes AVA relative to the associated coordinate system, the knowledge of the guides of the cosines vizireanu stars in the geocentric Equatorial coordinate system, and the parameters of motion of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT can solve the problem of determining the angles of deflection of the associated coordinate system, relative to the movable orbital coordinate system, i.e. the problem of determining the orientation.Obviously, using more accurate values of the angles of orientation of the SPACECRAFT for the formation of the adjusted values of Zenith distances of stars and solving them navigation task in the next step, for a certain number of cycles of sequential decision task orientation and navigation, you can improve the accuracy of the navigation parameters.The drawing shows a functional diagram of the proposed method for refining the parameters of the motion of the SPACECRAFT.The algorithm for solving navigation tasks using the proposed method consists in the following. At the 1st stage is solved the navigation problem , the initial data for which ablauts>RVVandRVV(these data are calculated Zenith distance according to the expression = arccos[coscos(-)+sinsin]), and the height H of the flight SPACECRAFT above the Earth's surface, measured at the current time measured interval;
nominal values of the parameters of the motion of the SPACECRAFT in the initial moment of time;
the covariance matrix of the measurement errors TOd.The result of statistical processing of all this information by using the method of least squares is determined corrections calculated according to expression
q = (WTKdW)-1WTKdd,
where W is the matrix of partial derivatives of the measured parameters defined by the parameters vector of the navigation parameters
d - vector of deviations of the measured parameters from the calculated values.Adding these corrections to the nominal values of the motion parameters for a certain number of iterations is formed vector navigation parameters qAt the 2nd stage of collaborative problem solving navigation and attitude determination algorithm is divided into cycles of consecutive executions of the modes of orientation and navigation.In each cycle the solution to the problem of determining the orientation occurs when the tasks orientation by the stars is based on the existence of a functional dependence of the angles of orientation of the SPACECRAFT from the orientation angles of the optical axes of AVA in the mobile-orbital system of coordinates and parameters of movement of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT .The essence of collaborative problem solving navigation and attitude determination is that the measured orientation angles of the optical axes of AVA and calculated their true values, which are obtained at the previous step, the coordinates of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT is calculated orientation angles pandp. For more accurate values of the orientation angles are calculated the adjusted values of the Zenith distances of the stars, which are then used when solving the navigation task in the next step. Cyclic solution of the problems of navigation and attitude determination is repeated several times until such time as amendments to the defined vector navigation parameters will be less than the threshold.Thus, the proposed method for Autonomous navigation can improve the accuracy of determining the parameters of motion of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT through the use when solving navigation tasks more precise measurements of primary navigation options - Zenith distances of the stars.The list of used literature
1. A. P. Razygraev. The basics of flight control space flights. - M.: Mechanical Engineering, 1990.2. In. A. Smirnov, A. A., KASKO, Y. P. Makovetsky. Fundamentals of AB is impressive. Analytical assessment of the accuracy of the offline methods of orbit determination. - M.: Mechanical Engineering, 1987.4. Mathematical and software systems Autonomous navigation KA "amber". - M.: the USSR Ministry of defense, 1986.5. C. I. Kochetkov. System of astronomical orientation of the spacecraft. - M.: Mechanical Engineering, 1980. Way to clarify the parameters of the motion of the center of mass of the SPACECRAFT, which consists in measuring the altitude above the surface of the planet, cyclic calculation of Zenith distances of two stars on the basis of measurements of the angles of orientation of the SPACECRAFT and orientation of the optical axes Astrovirus devices (AVA) relative to the associated coordinate system and the definition of the navigation of SPACECRAFT parameters in static processing measurement data for measuring area, characterized in that in each cycle additionally verify, using a sample measurement vector navigation parameters obtained in the previous cycle, the angles of orientation of the SPACECRAFT and on the basis of the adjusted values of these angles and information about a specified orientation of the optical axes AVA specify the values of the Zenith distances of the stars used in the solution of the navigation problem in the current cycle.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has optical spectrum filter, slit mask, multi-element photo-sensitive detector, threshold elements, photo-detector register, counter, output register, clock pulse generator. Multi-element photo-sensitive detector consists of elementary photo-detectors placed behind one another along quadratic curve. Normal lines to sensitive areas of each elementary photo-detector and quadratic curve lie in same plane.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness and efficiency.
FIELD: programmed positioning and orientation of mobile objects; angular orientation or positioning of spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of angles of position of optical axes of astro-visual units tracking the stars relative to body-axis coordinate system. For determination of orientation of mobile object, use is made of coordinates of its center of mass in geocentric coordinate system which are determined by means of high-precision global navigation satellite system.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of orientation of mobile objects.
FIELD: rocketry, spacecraft engineering, possible use for detecting direction of bearing rocket in flight.
SUBSTANCE: satellite navigation equipment and three gyro-integrators simultaneously determine values of projections of speed vector in starting and connected coordinates system respectively and transfer determined values to onboard digital computing machine, which, using received information, determines values of angles of orientation of moving object in space in accordance to algorithm for determining orientation of moving object.
EFFECT: decreased dimensions of device for realization of proposed method down to 40x40x40 millimeters (without consideration for size of onboard digital computing machine) while maintaining precision for determining angles of direction of moving object to 4 angular minutes.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: instrument industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises autonomous determination of the position of the instrument with respect to the horizontal plane coordinate system from the signals from the accelerometers and vector conforming of the coordinate systems for determining the position of the instrument coordinate system in azimuth.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the vector of velocity of the object in a Cartesian coordinate system, determining integral characteristics of the variation of the velocity vector as a function of the direction of motion of the object in the space, and stabilizing the trajectory of motion of the movable object on the basis of the estimations depending on the direction chosen from the stars sky.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: instrument industry.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises two spheres mounted with a spaced relation one to the other. The outer sphere is made of a superconducting material, and the inner sphere is made of a magnetic material. The outer sphere is secured to the spacecraft, and the inner sphere is shifted with respect to the center of gravity and has the radiation source. The output of the radiation receiving unit is connected with the information input of the recording unit whose control input is connected with the output of the board control unit.
EFFECT: simplified structure.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used in moving objects' spatial orientation systems. Before beginning of movement of object, the coordinate system is chosen being comfortable for observer. Three stars are selected, along directions of which stars the speeds have to be measured and their angular coordinates are measured. After movement starts, current values of linear velocity are measured on the base of directions of navigating stars. Changes in linear velocity are calculated from directions of navigating stars, which are changes are caused by rotation of object, and basic components of angular speed vector are determined from directions of navigating stars.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable for determination of the Sun angular coordinates in the spacecraft coordinate system.
SUBSTANCE: the Sun attitude pickup has an optical system made in the form of a wide-angle lens including an inlet and outlet plano-convex lenses with a diaphragm placed between them, an optical element is positioned in its holes, matrix photodetector, and a unit for processing of information and computation of coordinates. The refractive indices of the optical components are selected proceeding from the relation: n1≥n2<n3, where n1 - the refractive index of the inlet plano-convex lens; n2 - the refractive index of the optical element; n3 - the refractive index of the outlet plano-convex lens.
EFFECT: obtained information in a wide angular field with a high precision.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: onboard system for controlling spacecrafts for autonomous estimation of orbit and orientation of spacecraft body.
SUBSTANCE: method for autonomous navigation and orientation of spacecrafts includes computer calculation of position in three-dimensional space of ort of radius-vector of support (calculated, a priori assumed) orbit, rigid attachment of optical-electronic device on the body of spacecraft and measurement of coordinates and brightness of stars, which are in the field of view during navigational sessions, in it.
EFFECT: increased number of performed tasks, expanded capabilities of method application environment for any orbits, reduced number of measuring devices and mass and size characteristics of onboard system for controlling a spacecraft.
FIELD: invention refers to the field of astronomical and astrophysical explorations.
SUBSTANCE: coherent transponder of phase synchronization has a radio receiving set, a radio transmitting set, an airborne standard of frequency (H-maser) and also a logic and commutation block. The radio transmitting so as the radio receiving set consists of two half-sets. The radio receiving set has a radio receiver module of the amplifier of a very high frequency, a preliminary amplifier of intermediate frequencies, a block of phase automatic adjustment of the frequency, the amplifier of the reference signal 2▾ and the secondary source of feeding.▾- nominal frequency. The coherent transponder of the phase synchronization provides transformation of the input signal in diapason 961▾ into an answer signal in the diapason 1120▾ used for synchronization of the airborne thermostating controlled generator. For reducing the drift of the phase of the answer signal the system of transformations of frequencies is built on the principle of complete matching of tracts of multiplying of the radio transmitting set and the heterodynes of the radio receiving set.
EFFECT: phase synchronization of the airborne scientific cosmic apparatus on a weak signal on the whole extension of the high-apogeal orbit of the flight.