All-season hydroelectric dam
(57) Abstract:Hydroelectric power plant is designed to convert the flow energy of water into electrical energy at any time of the year. The device contains embedded into the flow of the vertical body of the rotor divided by the drums with offset around the circumference of the blades for smooth operation. Blades there are three types: internal wing, rotary speed and directional. The latter rotate in the opposite direction of the reels, as work on the oncoming flow branch. Transmitting rotation in one direction is accomplished by a device linked to the Central shaft of the rotor and the multiplier. All parts and mechanisms are fixed in the cage, which is the basis of attachment structures in the flow. Hydroelectric allows you to increase the power and can be installed in the water flow at different depths. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The invention relates to hydropower, in particular, to hydroelectric plants, which can be installed in a gravity flow of water at different depths and to work at any time of the year.You have a group of hydropower plants, where the principle of converting the free flow of water in the pressure on the blade in the working part of the thread and lifting her from the water, or folding counter, or by using devices off the oncoming flow from another part of the blade, or by using curved blades of different profile, or shape of the blades of the propeller type. Improved performance, increased efficiency is due to the optimization of the design of the blade, the mechanisms of energy transfer, the location relative to the stream, the use of modern materials and. etc., But major efforts of designers come down to the fact that increasing the blade under the influence of the flow, and in some units the part of the blade, to achieve to the maximum worked, and the other blade or the part of the blade does not interfere with work. This task is carried out by means known:
- water wheels, cleaning the blade with a counter-flow by lifting it from the water;
water wheel (application of UK N 2048391, 1979), buried in the water, which has V-shaped blades that are located inside the wheels, the rotation is moved along the guide rails, increasing or decreasing the flow resistance, resulting in its rotation;
- "reduced" water wheel-conveyor belt cleaning blade by lifting them from the water or folding on straaten USA N 3867817, 1975);
there are a number of devices, where the cable attached to it shaped blade is lowered into the water along a stream or across and due to its spin energy is removed on the shore or on the floating tool (especially a large group here gave inventor C. C. pancakes);
- there are various run-of-river hydroelectric units, where concentrated flow through the chamber and put it on the working part figured blades, for the other part of the counter-flow is cut off due to the overlap of the camera special devices;
there are a number of generating units with a vertical axis of rotation vane rotor Daria, or use the simple design of the cylinder, as in the Savonius rotor.The General disadvantages of the known devices is that they are at their relatively large overall dimensions do not take all the energy of flowing water, which adjoin (act), have low efficiency. The increase in same square shovel is not proportional increases the overall size of the structure, its weight, consumption of materials, strength calculations. Some advantages show "reduced" water wheels on soft base, able to work and in the water column, and some improvements in the flow does not increase significantly the capacity of the HPP, as to each blade has received the highest possible energy, it is necessary to increase the distance between them to eliminate the mutual influence, and with increasing distance between the blades not only grow the total length of the soft "water wheel", material consumption, but also increases the total resistance to motion, decreases efficiency. Also, the longer such a relatively soft light "water wheel" or wire with a garland of curved blades, so they are more afraid of the perturbation flow, the occurrence of undesirable vibrations, the more they are like a belt transmission pulley - impeller unit. Soft base requires relatively complex blade attachment points to it. They may not be durable, require constant monitoring, maintenance and adjustment, therefore, cannot be the basis for stable energy for industrial purposes. Water wheels have the same rigid structure reliable, sturdy blade, but by raising the blade out can't work constantly freezing, the ice on most of the rivers will stop them.Buried same units with rigid propeller, radial-axial turbines and the like for reinzi work they have laid off the pressure turbines or windmills. They, like, have separated from them. In addition, this group may not be considered for commercial electricity with gravity flow on the rivers due to the small there of depth, and interaction with stream width and length they are missing. Their advantage over other units, especially the type of "traction" on a soft base, having the higher rotational speed of the turbine, to have a lower gear ratio in the multiplier to spin the shaft of the generator becomes less significant. And without reduction in gravity flow and they will usually not do. Their "wind" effect is closely associated with the velocity and weight of the turbine is less than the speed, the fewer requests the weight, therefore less output power. Or, to increase the speed of rotation of the turbine forced to reduce its weight, and through the use of modern materials, though, and find the best option, noticeable power increase.In this series one should dwell on the so-called "geocontrol turbine spiral blades" American inventor A. Gorlova (the Newspaper "Izvestia" 30.04.1998 year). Clearly shows how difficult it is trying to solve these contradictions. In Florida during the weight = 35 kg, N - 2,7 kV) can rotate 2-3 times faster than the speed of the flow (?!). When you consider that they will need 50 thousand generators and conclusions from them on a single console, you can wonder at the high cost of the project when the complexity of its technical maintenance. The project raises doubts about the practicality, although unlike the unsuccessful introduction here of the rotor of Stillman "traction type" (with parachutes) is the creation of antipode-turbines operating on the principle of only aerodynamic effect. Note that the rotor Stillman could work and at Vp= 1.0 m/sec or even less, and Gorlova unlikely - he likes speed as the turbine. That, and the other may not be universal, because each works only on its principle, very different from each other, and are at different poles.Conclusion: the future are buried hydraulic units, with a rigid structure with a rigid curved sliding vane, approximate area to "traction" so the best of strength calculations. The interaction of the flow with the blade (s) and its passage through the device, including a support account forces acting on the principle of "wind" in favor of the blades. That is, the one and the other principle must prisutstvovat the flow of water has the same flow velocity, where "wind" factor can manifest itself in full measure.The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is selected as a prototype device called "all-season hydroelectric Dam, I. Ozerov", (patent N 1836586 registered in the State register of inventions of the USSR 13.10.1992,), in which the vertical casing is divided into drums and mounted on a support for rotation by the engagement of the rollers with all the guide associated with the outer rotary speed of the opening blades, axes of rotation are offset from each other by the same angle. Primary and backup power generators mounted on the support and connected with the casing and the toothed wheel mechanical transmission. The inner housing is fitted with a grating, which is a continuation of the outer rotary blades, and a stationary inner blades, made from loosely attached sash, based on a lattice. The outer blades are fitted to ensure overlap of the inner blades in the off position and their earlier entry into the work.The aim of the invention is to increase the capacity of the Dam and, additional blades, as well as uniform distribution of the bearing load and the rotor due to the application of existing forces on the structure from all sides.This goal is achieved by the fact that the rotor instead of rotating on a vertical support for the inner and outer circular guide rails, as in the prototype, in the inventive device rotates on the bearings of the Central shaft, which is linked to the crate, carrier here the main role is support of the product, which is only external cylindrical guide rollers, if it ask for strength calculations in the other constructions. Due to the Central shaft and the cage are held four or six (in a circle) rotating frame, the ends of which are additional rotating on their axes, the blades running on the oncoming flow branch like a weathercock, and passed from them to force another from the rotational direction through the transfer device and the reverse rotation, is given in a single direction.In the inventive device is stored the sequence and operation of the inner sash and the outer rolling speed of the blades of the prototype, but to the unwinding shaft generator adds additional strength, polychelate and rotating towards spins with those two blades (internal and external). Promotion of the shaft of the generator and the other force in a single direction is provided by the transfer device and the reverse rotation.The axis of the directional vanes placed on the frame at the end of the rolling speed of the blade, where she could freely prowl, like a weather vane, but due to the simple limiters and emphasises forced to take an optimal position on the points of the circle. Consider its operation in Fig. 2. Let us assume that the flow comes to a point a1, the directional vane is configured to produce the work, rotating clockwise, the speed with swing against. Define forces, as determined by the rolling speed in the prototype.Work area feathered blades A1B1C1. The largest projection area of the blades (Slin point of IN1. On the site of A1B1increasing the projection area of the blades as much as she had the other decreases at the site IN1C1. Therefore its strength is obtained as Slfrom the flow resistance, are dened by the formula RL. f= CxSlV2/2, where Cx- dimensionless coefficient, is water density, t/m3. Plot C1D1, A1feathering the blade is held in the directional floor is B>V2/2 (2Sltake because friction occurs on two sides of the blade. Take both sides with the same CTrbecause how curved side is more streamlined than the plate, so less concave). How many times the force feathered blades in the working part of the stream more opposite forces from friction will be determined in the ratiox/2CTr. Knowing that the plate Cx= 1,28 right to expect the curved blades Cxnot less than 1.4, and if aTrfor "steel painted" = 0,013-0,017, we see that for any Sland Vpwill RL. F.more RTrforty times. The force of drag feathered blades on a plot of C1D1, A1will also be minor and can be determined by the same formula, taking the projection of the axis of the blade to the stream for the S.Four or six frames (depending on the size of the structure and Vp) carrying feathered blades, cover the drums of the prototype at the top and bottom and mounted on the same shaft with them through their bearings, clips which allow them to rotate in the other direction. But at the top of the coupler of the bearing frame feathered blades attached via toothed impeller with an internal thread, which are the two who have, the increase in construction BVGES feathered blades, taking effect from the oncoming flow branch will bring the following positive results:
1. Does not give freely be discharged on the other side of the rotor, the so-called counter branch more than 50% of the flow, based on the total area of the structure. (There was no obstacles, because we believe more than 50% left of the stream.2. Will increase the total blade under load at 35-40%, so therefore, efficiency.3. Will provide a uniform load on the cage BVGES and rotor.4. Will not to the detriment of uniform rotation to fulfill the rotor on one drum less.(Full-scale tests BVGES, consisting of three reels (Fig. 6) on "ground Water" tailrace Iriklinskaya GRES at Vp= 1.2 m/sec confirmed these calculations. The design showed efficiency = 0,65).The device action, confirmation of the availability of the invention, called "all-season Hydroelectric Dam" (BVGES), consisting of two drums with internal folding blades and the moving speed running on the same branch of the flow and the directional running on the other, is illustrated by the following drawings, diagrams . - BVGES in axonometrically image. In Fig. 4 illustrates the interaction of the blades with the multiplier and the transfer device and the reverse rotation. In Fig. 5 shows the transfer device and the reverse rotation in the cut. In Fig. 6 given the picture BVGES before descending into the slot "Catamaran" for field trials in the stream.BVGES contains crate 1, through which the Central shaft 2 is fixed to the rotor 3 with the multiplier 4 and the generator 5. The rotor 3 to work with one side of the thread has a blade inner sash 6 and the outer rotary speed of the blade 7, the ends of the steps which are executed pockets 8 for faster raising their flow in a working condition. Axis speed rotary blades 7 form the backbone of the cylinder 9, which emerges particularly if all rotary stage to put on the frame. The cylinder 9 is divided into drums 10, each of which is on a circle can have four or six (depending on the size of the structure and Vp) stepped outer blades 7 and the inner sash 6 (Consider a design with two drums or four blades on the circumference). Structurally, the reel 10 may be manufactured separately from each other and then skrepl 360odivided by the number of axles. The reel 10 can be formed by dividing a single frame of the cylinder 10 by moving it to the axes of the blades on the calculated angle. In this case, the axes of the drums are through the entire height of the cylinder 9, which gives him additional strength. (The option will be determined by the dimensions BVGES and strength calculations). The cylinder 9 is mounted on the Central shaft 2 on the supporting bearings 11.Above and below the cylinder 9, the Central shaft 2, the bearings 12 mounted frame 13, the ends of which are made feathered blade 14. A number of them (around the circumference) may be four or six, depending on the diameter of the rotor 3 and Vp. In some designs, especially under flowing river, the frame 13 with feathering blades 14 may be performed under each drum 10, which would complicate the design, but will give a more uniform rotation of the rotor 3, also through the movement of their axes. For strength all frames 13 are connected at the top and bottom of the hard coating.Feathering the blade 14 through the simplest of tools (diagrams not shown) on the oncoming flow branch to the outer rotary step 7 and the inner sash 6, where they are forced to leave work, rests on the frame 13, the bearing load is from work, taking the directional position (lowest drag is at point D1). To avoid damaging step 7 and feathered 14 of the blades to each other at opposite rotation in a circle is the last 10% of the distance from the skeleton of the cylinder 10 to the directional axis of the blade 14. At the same time, it should be noted that some grazing for each other can be avoided, as it will occur in water in the form of a slip, and not a blow at relatively low speeds, the blades are freely rotatable on their axes, and that the grazing will help each other to take the best position at the moment, moving in a circle. Structurally it is possible by increasing the points of contact of the blades, to increase the Slfeathered 14.To increase the coefficient of Cxthe directional vane 14 is, as the blades in the prototype, the curved radius of the cylinder 10. In products where the frame 13 has increased the diameter of the rotor 3 so that the design asks the gain is a device, as in the prototype: the rotor 3 is suspended at the top and rests on the bottom rollers on the round guide. (Test BVGES (Fig. 6) frame 13 with spaced directional axes of the blades 14 at a distance of 3.4 m is suspended on Kruglaya 4 added by the transfer device and the reverse rotation, which consists of an outer ring of the rolling bearing 12, which not only keeps the frame 13 feathered blades 14 on the Central shaft 2 at the bottom and top, and allows it to rotate in the opposite direction from the rotation shaft, which spins the blades of a prototype 6, 7. At the top of the frame 13 is attached to the cage of the rolling bearing 12 through the gear impeller with backward slicing 16, which transmits its rotation main gear 17, the same main gear 17 is transmitted to the rotation in the same direction and from the Central gear shaft 18. On the axis of the main gear 17 fixed idler multiplier 19 which through the gear 20 is unwound shaft of the generator. Varying the speed of rotation of the directional vanes 14 and step 7 because walking in circles with different diameters taken into account when designing the multiplier, according to the known laws of mechanics, in favor of the lowest loss is reduced.Consider the interaction of the parts and mechanisms BVGES. The flow approaching the design from the point A, is split into two branches. On the right branch of the pocket 8 of the first stage blades 7, stepping up to the point A lifting her up, letting the inner sash 6 to occupy a working position. the Lenten course, take an optimal position at point D. Ascended the second step forms with the internal shared the blade equal in length to approximately two radii of the cylinder 9. Its greatest projection on the stream will be at point D. Then the DC area its projection will decrease so as to grow another AD on the site. Overall the blade rotates the Central shaft 2 of the rotor 3 counterclockwise and, through its gear 18 transmits the force on the main gear 17.As analyzed above similarly communicates with the flow and feathered blade 14. Her efforts through the toothed impeller with backward slicing 16 will be added to the rotation of the main gear 17 in a single direction, and it will come to the shaft of the generator through other gear multiplier. Design parts and mechanisms, as all the guides under the rollers, the multiplier generator.Sources of information
1. Plushev A. C., Chekmarev Century A. Hydrography of the USSR. L., 19782. Rivers and lakes of the Soviet Union (reference data). State hydrological Institute. L., 19713. State water cadastre. The Basins Of The Ob. L., 19844. Galakhov Century A. Calculation and analysis odnorazovogo balance of the Central Altai the current of the rivers of the Altai mountains. Abstract. L., 19756. Gubin F. F. Hydroelectric station. M, 19727. A. Ilyin's Cartographic Establishment And. And. Hydroelectric Power. M., 19828. Bershtein L. B. Tidal power station. L., 19619. Techno-economic performance of small hydropower plants with once-through hydraulic unit. TRANS. from English. L., 198410. Design and operation of hydropower plants on the Rhone. Small Girozentrale reuse. TRANS. with rants. L., 198511. Hydraulic mini electrical power stations and prospects of their application. TRANS. using L., 198512. Copyright certificates and patents of the Patent Fund library (Berezhkovskaya embankment, 24) MKI on a 199013. The newspaper "Izvestia" 30.04.1998, 1. All-season hydroelectric dam with vertical body divided by the drums and mounted on a support for rotation by engagement of the rollers with all the guide associated with the outer rotary studentachievement blades, the axis of rotation which is offset relative to each other at the same angle and with the continuation of the inside of the drum through freely fixed shutters, and exterior rotary blade Ustie under load in the working branch flow, primary and backup power generators mounted on the support and connected with the casing and the toothed wheel by means of mechanical transmission, wherein for removal of energy from the oncoming flow branch on the body of the rotor is made freely rotating blades, working on the principle of the vane, which are fixed on the ends of the frame, covering the rotor top and bottom, and rotation in the district), in the opposite direction of the reels is on ball bearings mounted on the Central shaft of the rotor.2. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that the Central shaft of the rotor is fixed by means of bearings in the cage, which is the basis for mounting the entire structure with the parts and mechanisms, as all the guides under the rollers, the multiplier generator.3. Hydroelectric power plant on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the mechanical transmission, through which spins the shaft of the generator, provided with a transfer device and the reverse direction of rotation, which includes the bearings with the clutch on the Central shaft of the rotor, gear impeller rigidly fastened to frames feathered blades, through which the main gear
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is designed for generating electric energy using natural energy enclosed in high pressure formation. Proposed method includes placing of turbine in well to which high-pressure agent is delivered, and electric generator with cable. Turbine is installed in encased well between showing high-pressure formation and intake low-pressure formation. Turbine is connected by pipes with electric energy generator. Flow of agent from high-pressure formation into low-pressure formation and to surface is provided. Regulation of agent flow into annulus and tube space is provided by distributing valve arranged in lower part of assembly of turbogenerator and hole between housing of turbine and pipe connecting tube space with annulus.
EFFECT: provision of effective generation of electric energy using energy contained in high-pressure formations.
2 cl, 1 dwg