Hydroelectric

 

(57) Abstract:

Hydroelectric power plant is designed to convert the energy of the river and can be installed on any river and work around the clock. Hydroelectric has established instream structure consisting of a base plate, side walls and floors with room for gear with the electric over the installation gidrokolesa. Construction in front of the water intake has lazaretou support and Bonne network, and the side walls of the entrance and exit of water have extensions forming respectively confused, work and diffuser channel. One of the side walls has a working channel of the sector semicircular notch at gidrokoleso, which is mounted in bearing assemblies above the river bottom and lower edge of the possible ice cover, respectively, lower in the base plate and the top is closed. Gidrokoleso made hollow, consisting of rigidly mounted on the shaft two parallel horizontal disk, the periphery of which and between them evenly set of blades with a length of not more than 2/3 of its radius at an angle from 0 to 180o. Gidrokoles with their gearboxes and generators in length hydroelectric Osney installation. The device is designed to increase the reliability and year-round use. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to non-traditional power plants, not to interrupt the normal flow of the river, do not raise the level and not afraid of ice conditions, i.e. working in the same summer and winter conditions. The power plant can be installed on any river and to have sufficient electrical capacity to supply electricity to nearby consumers.

Known hydraulic turbine [1], which contains the set of in-stream structure with hydrocream with a horizontal axis of rotation, and comprising rigidly fixed on the axis of the supporting disks, between which symmetrically around the circumference of the set of blades to rotate on their axes parallel to the axis gidrokolesa dividing the blade into two unequal parts. Hydraulic turbine is provided with barriers placed in front of and behind gidrokolesa and shipped across the flow of water to the level of the axis gidrokolesa.

A disadvantage of the known devices [1], is the complexity gidrokolesa with rotary blades, which, when receiving a mechanical shock of their stops. Mean m the high cost of operation and maintenance. This device will not be able to work in the winter when the ice cover.

Hydroelectric known [2], which contains the set of river-bed facility located on the horizontal axis of hydrocoles, kinematically connected to a generator. Gidrokoleso equipped with rotary blades and a system of rotation in the form of mobile and fixed relative to the axes of the gear c gear ratio 2/1, on the periphery of interconnected chain transmission.

A disadvantage of the known device [2] is based on complexity gidrokolesa with rotary blades, numerous turning nodes and gear wheels with chain transmission, which, ultimately, leads to lower reliability and lifetime of the device as a whole and to increase its value, as well as the cost and complexity of maintenance of the unit working in the water-air environment. Such a device may not work in the winter, when the river ice cover.

Known coastal river hydroelectric [3], containing the construction made in the form of betonirovannaa shore, and half placed in the building (its semicircular cutout) gidrokoleso with a fixed lastoperation.

A disadvantage of the known device [3] is the low efficiency of hydroelectric power due to the relatively slow flow of the river at the coast, and also not the ability to work in winter conditions, when the river is covered with ice.

The prototype of the present invention is a hydroelectric power plant [4], which contains the set of in-stream structure with the generator, gearbox, located above the water surface, and hydraulic wheel with a vertical axis of rotation located under water and kinematically linked through a gearbox to a generator, and gidrokoleso has fixed blades made in such a way that one edge of the blades lying on its inner generatrix, and the other on the external and the length of the blade does not exceed the radius gidrokolesa, hydroelectric power is provided from the front guiding device in the form of a cut-off shield for water flow.

The disadvantage of the prototype [4] are:

- the lack of a rigid base at the lower bearing Assembly (bearing) is under the influence of hydraulic disturbances from working gidrokolesa erosion by streams of water of the river bottom and the cleaning bearing his gidrokoles and base;

- low efficiency of the gidrokolesa having a large hydraulic resistance as gidrokoleso with blades is a projection perpendicular to the flow of water plane of a solid rectangle that does not pass through the water flow;

- insecurity gidrokolesa from floating in water objects, which significantly reduces its reliability;

- hydraulic disturbance of water flow in the river behind the wheel hydraulic cause adverse environmental impacts, and erosion of the river bed;

- the difficulties in regulation and the repair of bottom bearing units gidrokoles.

These drawbacks are aiming to simplify the design and increase its reliability and robustness, but also ensure its continuous year-round operation.

This task is achieved by the fact that in the construction of hydroelectric power station, which contains the set of in-stream structure with a guiding device of the flow of water, generator, gearbox, located above the water surface, and gidrokoleso with fixed blades and a vertical axis of rotation located under water and kinematically connected through rstout of the base plate, the side walls and floors with room for gear with the electric over the installation gidrokolesa, construction in front of the water intake has lazaretou support and Bonne network, and the walls from the entrance and exit of water have extensions forming, respectively, confused, work and diffuser channel, one of the side walls has a working channel of the sector, a semicircular notch at gidrokoleso, which is installed above the bottom of the river and below the lower edge of the possible ice cover in bearing assemblies, respectively, lower in the base plate and the top is closed, and gidrokoleso hollow consisting of rigidly mounted on a vertical shaft, two parallel horizontal disk, the periphery of which and between them evenly installed blades of length not more than 2/3 of its radius at an angle from 0 to 180o, blades gidrokolesa installed using plug connections, and gidrokolesa with their gearboxes and generators along the length of hydroelectric power in its working channel may be several, and the generator can be made in the form of a multipolar Dynamo operating at low speed rotor, and provided with necessary gear, and from the inlet and outlet water flow valves and pumps.

Installation of a hydroelectric power in the Central section of the river are necessary: first, to use the maximum speed of water flow in the river; secondly, to bypass past the hydroelectric power of ice, logs in the alloy, etc. and also for navigation.

The introduction of the Foundation slab is necessary to ensure the rigidity and structural strength of hydroelectric power and the formation of a watercourse, and to exclude pidmyvannya its supports and the base under the action of hydraulic disturbances from working gidrokolesa (because of the possibility of erosion by streams of water of the river bottom).

The introduction of the side walls of a hydroelectric power necessary for the formation of a watercourse with confused, workers, diffuser channels and semicircular cutouts and create walls and floors, including to place the gearbox and generator.

Introduction extensions of the side walls of the entrance and exit of water, forming respectively confused, work and diffuser channel, you must:

- expansion of the side walls (river) on the input (confused channel) - for more water collection and increase its rate of occurrence;

- working channel for the set (diffuser channel) - it is necessary to increase the pressure of water in the stream and reduce its speed (for discharge into the river).

Introduction overlap the side walls of a hydroelectric power necessary to stiffen the entire hydroelectric power as a whole, as well as to accommodate the upper bearing Assembly turbine, and generator and if necessary gear.

Introduction to hydroelectric power, before its intake laboratroy support and networking is necessary to ensure the safe operation of hydro power plants during the ice drift, as well as for timber floating on the river (the trees in the flood period, and so on).

The introduction of facilities for gearbox to a generator above the installation gidrokolesa need to protect the latter from external influences, including atmospheric, but also to ensure the normal temperature and humidity conditions.

Introduction the lower bearing Assembly axis turbines, which can be sealed with self-lubricated or lubricated with water, it is necessary to install turbines to rotate and discharge (in case of fixing turbine only the upper plain is.

Introduction the upper bearing Assembly is required to install turbines rotatably and perception of the basic mechanical loads turbines.

Introduction to one of the side walls in the working channel of the sector, a semicircular cutout at gidrokoleso necessary to improve the efficiency of the turbine, i.e., to increase efficiency of energy conversion, passing through the turbine flow of water in its torque.

Installation gidrokolesa above the bottom of the river and below the lower edge of the possible ice cover in bearing assemblies, respectively, lower in the base plate and the top is in the overlap necessary for safe, year-round continuous operation of hydroelectric power as a whole, because it not terrible rolls on the bottom of the river items, as well as floating on the surface of the subject and ice cover in winter.

Execution gidrokolesa hollow, consisting of two parallel horizontal disk, the periphery of which and between them evenly set of blades, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of the turbine, i.e., to increase efficiency of conversion of the energy passing through the turbine flow of water in her Kroto radius in the range from 0 to 180oit is necessary to select the optimum size and angle of the blades, depending on the size of the extensions of the side walls, a sector of a circular neckline and parameters of the water flow in the conduit (working channel).

The implementation of the blades gidrokolesa removable set straight with the help of detachable joints, the need for mobile replace damaged blades without replacement (removal) gidrokolesa, as well as to facilitate the Assembly (editing) gidrokolesa and transportation,

Installing multiple gidrokoles with their gearboxes and generators along the length of hydroelectric power in its working channel it is necessary to increase hydroelectric power withdrawn as a whole.

The implementation of the hydroelectric generator in the form of a multipolar Dynamo operating at low speed rotor equipped with necessary gear, you need to ensure that the electric current of predetermined parameters when the low speed drive - proposed hydrocoles.

Accommodation increases transformer substation on the shore outside zatoplyaemosti necessary to facilitate the construction of a hydroelectric power and increase nedodatko valves and pump installation is necessary for drainage pipeline and ensure repair (maintenance) turbine and its lower bearing Assembly.

Thus, the implementation of hydropower in the form of a set of the above symptoms is new to hydro unconventional arrangement with collinear gidrokoles (vertical axis), which corresponds to the criterion "novelty".

The above set of distinctive features is not currently known from the prior art and does not follow from the well-known rules of constructing hydropower plants, which proves that they meet the criterion of "inventive step".

Construction of hydroelectric power plants with the above set of features not present any constructive technical and technological difficulties, it should meet the criterion "industrial applicability".

In Fig. 1 shows the hydroelectric power plant section (front view).

In Fig. 2 shows the layout of hydroelectric power in the wort into the river section (top view).

Hydroelectric (rough version of the proposed hydroelectric scheme) includes (see Fig. 1 and 2) installed in the riverbed 1 structure consisting of a base plate 2, side walls 3 and 4, the overlap of 5 t is ω has lazaretou support 10 and Bonne network 11, and the walls 3 and 4 from the entrance and exit of water have extensions forming, respectively, confused 12, work 13 and the diffuser 14 channels, one of the side walls 3 has a working channel of the sector, a semicircular notch 15 at gidrokoleso 9.

Gidrokoleso 9 is installed above the river bottom 1 and below the lower edge of its possible ice cover 16 in bearing assemblies, respectively, the bottom 17 in the base plate and the top 18 - overlapping 5, and gidrokoleso 9 is made hollow, consisting of rigidly mounted on a vertical shaft 19 two parallel horizontal disks 20 and 21, the periphery of which and between them evenly installed blades 22 in length and more than 2/3 of its radius at an angle from 0 to 180ovanes 22 gidrokolesa 9 is installed using plug connections, and gidrokoles 9 with their gears 7 and generators 8 along the length of hydroelectric power in its working channel 13 may be several. The generator 8 may be made in the form of a multipolar Dynamo operating at low speed rotor equipped with necessary gear 7, and increases transformer substation installed on the shore. Hydroelectric power is provided on the input side and B2">

Hydroelectric works in the following way. The flow moving in the river water 1 (see Fig. 1 and 2) flowing lazaretou support 10 and Bonne network 11, gets confused channel 12 formed by the walls 3 and 4 hydroelectric power plants, while its velocity increases, and then in the working channel 13 hits gidrokoleso 9. On the blades 22 gidrokolesa 9 part of the mechanical translational energy of the flow of water is converted into mechanical energy of rotation gidrokolesa, through which the shaft 19 is transmitted to the gear 7 and from there to the generator 8, which converts the mechanical energy of rotation into electrical energy.

Power is transferred directly to the grid via a bearing located on the beach, or when using the generator, made in the form of a multipolar Dynamo operating at low speed rotor, the electric power is transmitted to boost transformer substation, located on a Bank outside the flood zone. Passing through the first gidrokoleso 9, the flow of water re-enters the working channel 13, where SpryAssets and delivered in subsequent gidrokoleso 9. After exiting the last gidrokolesa the water flow enters the diffuser channel 14, where it Stroiteli. In winter ice cover 16 around the shaft 19 will be permanently destroyed the last that will operate the hydroelectric power plant year-round. In the manufacture of repair and maintenance works down the gates 23 and 24 and the water from the working channel 13 is pumped by means of pump installation. This may change as individual blades 22 and gidrokoles 9 installed through plug connections, and gidrokolesa 9 in General, as well as repair or replacement of the lower bearing Assembly 17.

Thus, the implementation of hydropower in the aggregate presents features will help:

not to raise the level of the river and not interrupt its normal course, as hydro has no dams;

- don't be afraid of the ice conditions, i.e. to work in the same summer and winter conditions;

- to create a simple, reliable, compact and inexpensive construction of hydroelectric power plants (small in terms of size, a relatively small amount of construction materials, ease of construction and installation);

- set on one gidrokoleso generator with a capacity from 10 to 100 to 150 kW.

Sources of information

1. The Patent Of Russian Federation N 2.

3. The patent of Russian Federation N 2020260, CL 6 F 03 B 7/00, 30.09.94,, bull. N 18.

4. The patent of Russian Federation N 2010992, CL 6 F 03 B 13/00, 15.04.94,, bull. N 7

1. Hydroelectric power plant, which contains the set of in-stream structure with a guiding device of the flow of water, a generator, a gearbox, located above the water surface gidrokolesa with fixed blades and a vertical axis of rotation located under water and kinematically linked through a gearbox to a generator, characterized in that hydroelectric power is part of the Central section of the river and consists of a base plate, side walls and floors with room for gear with the electric over the installation gidrokolesa, construction in front of the water intake has lazaretou support and Bonne network, and the walls from the entrance and exit of water have file extensions, forming respectively confused, work and diffuser channels one of the side walls has a working channel of the sector, a semicircular notch at gidrokoleso, which is installed above the bottom of the river and below the lower edge of the possible ice cover in bearing assemblies, respectively, lower in the base plate and the top - in peracre the selected horizontal disks, on the periphery of which and between them evenly set of blades with a length of not more than 2/3 of its radius at an angle from 0 to 180°.

2. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that the blades gidrokolesa installed using plug connections.

3. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that gidrokoles with their gearboxes and generators along the length of hydroelectric power in its working channel may be several.

4. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that the generator is made in the form of a multipolar Dynamo-machine operating at low speed rotor equipped with necessary gear, and increases transformer substation installed on the shore.

5. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that it is provided on the input side and the output water flow valves and pump installation.

 

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FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has metallic hubs of stator and rotor, wherein crowns of stator and rotor are concentrically pressed. Crowns of stator and rotor are made of durable ceramics and are additionally equipped with connections, allowing to exclude non-controlled turning of crowns in hubs and spontaneous axial displacement thereof.

EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.

2 dwg

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