Method of sealing nozzle nozzle

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used in hydraulic machines, high pressure to obtain a high-pressure cutting jets of fluid with a small opening angle of their external borders in the open air space. Method of sealing is installed in the housing holder which is aligned in contact with each other successively place the nozzle seal and liner with subsequent deformation of the seal by the application of the axial load through the liner. The seal is made of a precipitation hardening alloy. Nozzle set flush into the end face of the seal. Before deformation, the seal is heated to form a homogeneous solid solution, the reform carried out in phase solid solution of the seal material. The method provides a seal nozzle nozzle when the fluid pressure up to 600 MPa, and when the diameter of the outlet nozzle 100 μm and a pressure of 300 MPa is provided by the opening angle of the external borders of the jet in the free air space of not more than 6oif the length of the cylindrical part of the flowing stream of not less than 8 mm 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of machine tools, OK gidroliznyh devices to obtain Morashtite thin cutting supersonic jets of high-pressure fluid.

Known method of sealing a nozzle for receiving the fluid cutting jet (see AC N 942806, publ. 15.07.82, bull. N 26, IPC605 In 1/02), consisting in the installation into the sleeve, the seal liner of wear-resistant material is made with the outer conical surface 40o. Tapered bushing-gasket of soft metal mounted in coaxial end-hole of the holder of the same taper. After this holder screw on fitting. The upper end of the bushing-seal assasino pressed against the spherical end fitting and sleeve-seal - conical surface of the holder. High-pressure jet of fluid supplied through the Central channel of the nozzle, overcoming the gap between the spherical face of the nozzle and the conical face of the center hole of the insert, tightly and securely seals the liner sleeve-seal.

The disadvantages of this method of sealing the nozzle for receiving the fluid cutting jet are:

the low stability of the jet at the exit of the nozzle holes, forming a supersonic jet cutting fluids with enhanced properties (high specific pressure on the workpiece surface with minimum energy consumption);

expensive the nom sleeve opening, because otherwise, the value of the maximum working fluid pressure is determined by the strength of the material of the liner to the gap, and not in compression.

Jet with improved cutting properties is a jet leaving the nozzle with a minimum angle of its exposure in free air space, and the parameters that affect the opening angle of the jet, multiple, and the main ones are the following: the level of initial turbulations flow of liquid supplied to the nozzle (the smaller, the better the stream output), geometry and workmanship of the Central channel of the nozzle (providing a minimum turbulization in the fluid flow), the level of the working fluid pressure depends on the flow rate of the jet (more or less than the speed of sound, that significantly affects the external geometry of the flowing stream).

Today there is no consensus on the mechanisms of decay of high pressure jets, and there are no General mathematical relationships for determining the initial length of the cylindrical section of the jet (the larger it is, the more stable the stream), so in each case it is necessary to find it experimentally.

To know pominalnyh diameters of the jet (at least more than one millimeter) and subsonic speeds leakage of the fluid (so that is, for operating pressures of the fluid is less than 60 MPa), when the background of the fluid flow before it appears on the input end face of the nozzle in the inhibition of cross-border part of the flow (in cross section) and turbulization in comparison with the velocity fields of the main axial portion of the stream is not so significant. For supersonic jets of small diameter (35...300 μm) gapless preload spherical end fitting to the end of the bushing-seal catastrophic effect on the stability parameters of the jet, and hence on its cutting ability, because it implements the gaps and stairwells before the inlet of the fluid flow in the nozzle (as a result of his deep indignation at such elements)

Known method of sealing nozzle nozzle of the cutting head (as N 597427, publ. 15.03.78, bull. N 10, IPC605 In 1/02) for receiving high-pressure jet, consisting in the installation in the housing of the holder, which is placed in series and aligned in contact with each other, the nozzle with an outer conical surface, a deformable seal and liner made them a Central channel with subsequent deformation of the seal. Canal sealer perform variable cross-section. In the channel of the seal have ductape wirewool puck. Insert a smaller diameter is placed in the holder, and large - in the housing. Deformation of the gasket is carried out due to an axial load through the liner, with the selection of a certain thickness of the shim seals dock at a nominal operating pressure of the fluid on the one hand, and on the other hand, the appearance of the gap and stepped transitions between the butt of the inlet nozzle and the outlet face of the Central channel of the insert.

The disadvantages of this method of sealing nozzle nozzle of the cutting head for receiving the cutting jet of fluid are:

the expensive process of selective lapping the entire outer conical surface of the wear-resistant nozzle in the planting hole of the holder, as otherwise the value of the maximum working pressure of the fluid will determine the strength of the material of the nozzle gap and not on the compression (which is significantly higher);

inability to obtain highly stable jet at the exit of the nozzle holes of small diameter, forming a supersonic jet cutting fluids with enhanced properties (high specific pressure on the workpiece surface with a minimum energostroiteli end section of the nozzle, provides additional turbulization of the flow of fluid prior to its entrance into the nozzle, which extends the opening angle of the jet in the free air space;

the relatively small magnitude of the possible maximum working fluid pressure in the nozzle the nozzle, which is limited by the elastic-plastic properties of material non-metallic seal (high working pressure, additionally compressing the seal, placed in an open space, implements the terms of the breakthrough of liquid in side liner);

The objective of the invention is to increase the operating fluid pressure in the nozzle, while increasing the cutting properties of the jet by reducing the level of turbulence and cavitation in the flow cross section of the fluid supplied directly to the cross section of the inlet nozzle.

Technical result achieved when using the present invention, is characterized by tightness nozzle nozzle when the working fluid pressure up to 600 MPa, and when the diameter of the outlet nozzle 100 μm and a pressure of 300 MPa is provided by the opening angle of the external borders of the jet in the free air space of not more than six gruesomest nozzle attachment.

The above technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of sealing nozzle nozzle, consisting in the installation in the housing of the holder, which is aligned in contact with each other successively place the nozzle seal and liner with subsequent deformation of the seal by the application of the axial load through the liner, according to the invention the seal is made of a precipitation hardening alloy, nozzle set flush into the end face of the seal, and before the deformation of the seal is heated to form a homogeneous solid solution. The deformation is carried out in phase solid solution of the seal material, and the process of deformation of the seal complete at the time of formation of the local narrowing of the Central canal computational geometry.

The execution of a gasket of the dispersion-hardening alloy leads to such primary technical effect as a substantial increase (in comparison with nonmetals) the strength characteristics of the seal material, whose structure is stabilized by some technological way.

Installation of the nozzle flush with the end face of the seal leads to such primary technical eff the axial deformation, that, moreover, eliminates expensive selective Assembly nozzle with seal.

Heat sealer before deformation until a homogeneous solid solution leads to such primary technical effect of significant temporary increase in ductility of the material of the seal, and hence the possibility of realization of process of deformation of the seal at low specific axial loads before the point in time when the process of natural or artificial aging sealer will decay phase solid solution of a material that, ultimately, will lead to the return of the high strength characteristics of the seal material.

However, only organic combination of the above primary technical effects implements such sverhsummarny technical effect as reliable (at low cost) sealing the nozzle, which allows a higher operating pressures of fluid (up to 600 MPa), as a relatively high level of plasticity of the seal material at the time of its axial deformation in the composition of the Assembly nozzle Assembly nozzle ensures the integrity of the nozzle in PI artificial or natural aging of the seal material in terms when curing the seal material has already happened and realized conditions (due to the sampling of free landing clearances under deformation) uniform triaxial loading nozzle mode the expiration of the high-pressure fluid.

The completion of the deformation of the seal according to the invention, since the establishment of the local narrowing of the Central canal computational geometry implements such sverhsummarny technical effect as the possibility of reducing the level of turbulations flow of liquid supplied to the nozzle receiving complex required the calculated geometry of the Central channel of the seal of the original simple cylindrical form.

The effect of reducing the level of turbulations flow of liquid supplied to the nozzle, is provided by increasing the flow velocity of the liquid in the lowest section of the canal sealer with subsequent reduction before entering the nozzle of a small diameter (the effect of the Laval nozzle), which, ultimately, leads to a decrease in the angle of expansion of the external borders of the jet in the free air space and increase cylindrical part of the flowing stream, and thus to increase the cutting properties of the jet.

Ÿ high-pressure liquid jet, where:

1 - body;

2 - the holder;

3 - nozzle;

4 - deformable gasket;

5 - two-stage liner;

6 - washer adjusting.

Allow attachments contains located in the housing 1 holder 2, and installed sequentially and coaxially in contact with each other, the nozzle 3, for example, sapphire (diamond), a deformable seal 4, for example, from aluminum alloys, such as alloy D16T, and two cylindrical liner 5 is made in the Central channels, and the channel of the seal 4 is made variable cross-section.

The length of the surface area of the Central channel of the seal 4, made from the nozzle 3, for example, in the form of a Laval nozzle, is much greater than the diameter of the inlet channel of the nozzle 3 in its end section (the larger the diameter of the inlet channel of the nozzle 3, the more the above-mentioned relation). The diameters of the inlet hole of the nozzle 3 and the outlet seal 4 in their end sections are equal, and the diameter of the outlet of the liner 5 is not smaller than the diameter of the inlet section of the Central channel of the seal 4, the surface of which is made in the form of a Laval nozzle.

Two cylindricus with the input conical face of the seal 4, and the shim 6 installed between the ends of the holder 2 and the liner 5 and the liner 5 smaller diameter is located in the holder 2, and large - in the housing 1.

The method of sealing the nozzle, the nozzle is installed in the body 1 of the holder 2, which is aligned in contact with each other successively place the nozzle 3, the seal 4 and the liner 5 with subsequent deformation of the seal 4 by an axial load through the liner 5. The gasket 4 made of a precipitation hardening alloy, and the nozzle 3 set flush into the end seal 4 on a sliding fit (exception selectivity Assembly). Before deformation, the seal 4 is heated to form a homogeneous solid solution, in this case, the deformation process is carried out in phase solid solution of the seal material 4. The process of deformation of the seal 4 complete at the time of formation of the local narrowing of the Central canal computational geometry, for example, in the form of a Laval nozzle.

Allow attachments works as follows.

When applying it working fluid under pressure from the liner 5 by performing the outlet of the liner 5 is not less than the diameter of the input OA fluid regardless of the history of its formation additionally turbulizers, as a maximum, only the end section of the outlet of the liner 5 and the cross section of the inlet fluid flow in the channel of the seal, the surface of which is made in the form of a Laval nozzle.

The possible appearance of influx metal seal 4 at the sharp edge of the tapered end of the liner 5 in the preliminary axial deformation of the seal 4 on the calculated value due to selection of the thickness of the shim 6 can cause further turbulence in the fluid flow.

The length of the Central channel of the gasket 4 made in the form of a Laval nozzle), the value of which is much greater than the diameter of the inlet nozzle 3 in its front section, a flow of high-pressure fluid maximum calms down, that is laminaribioside to the highest possible status as due to optimally matched experimentally length of the Central channel of the seal 4 and, additionally, by increasing the flow rate of a fluid in a local narrowing of the Central canal, formed in the process of axial deformation of the seal 4 in the Assembly nozzle Assembly nozzle.

This, eventually, and provides reliable sealing nozzle nozzle at high pressure is presented a method of sealing nozzle nozzle allows you to get the cutting supersonic jet of fluid with the angle of the disclosure in a free air space of not more than six degrees and the length of the cylindrical part of the flowing stream of not less than 8 mm when the fluid pressure at the entrance to 300 MPa and the diameter of the outlet nozzle 100 μm, thus to allow the nozzles does not lose integrity when the value of the working fluid pressure up to 600 MPa.

The invention can be effectively used in admixture in liquid diamond dust a certain fractional composition, for example, to separate the different gemstones with a nozzle diameter of the outlet (30... 60) microns (by minimizing the thickness of the cut provided by the reduced angles of divergence of the boundaries of the jet of fluid in a free air space and high speed jets, sold due to the high working fluid pressure).

1. Method of sealing nozzle nozzle, consisting in the installation in the housing of the holder, which is aligned in contact with each other successively place the nozzle seal and liner with subsequent deformation of the seal by the application of the axial load through the liner, wherein the seal is made of a precipitation hardening alloy, nozzle set flush into the end face of the seal, and before the deformation of the seal is heated to form a homogeneous solid solution, while the deformation is carried out in phase solid solution of the seal material.

2. Method ger the NT education local narrowing of the Central canal computational geometry.

 

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