Wide masking coating and method of its manufacture

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to disguise, in particular to camouflage coatings to reduce the visibility of terrestrial objects in different wavelength ranges. The coating improves the efficiency of the masking surface facilities, to provide the required stability of the decline in power of the reflected signal in the range = 0.2 to 0.5 cm, to improve operational performance camouflage cover and reduce the complexity of its manufacture. The invention: the basis in the form of a network of interwoven individual elements of electrically conductive material. Each element contains a base layer in the form of a radiation transparent polymer film, an additional surface layer of metal deposited on a polymer film on one side by vacuum deposition, and two at the protective enamel layer comprising pigment fillers and flame retardant additives. These elements made in the form of a flexible garlands spiral shape, with radially diverging relative to the center of the circle in the form of "cilia" strips of rectangular shape with a width of 1 to 2 mm, the Diameter of the inner circle garlands along the axis of twist along the length ale and can be used alone or in combination with bearing frame elements (as masks overlap) to reduce the visibility of weapons and military equipment (AME), other terrestrial objects in different wavelength ranges.

Known single-layer camouflage coating, for example, from the composition of the personnel of camouflage kits MKT L MKT-T, ISS-2, etc. that reduce the visibility of objects in the optical wavelength range (see "instructions for use of personnel of camouflage kit MKT"): the USSR, 1962, 52 S. ; KALIBEROV E. S., Kornev Century. And., Nipple A. A. Handbook of officer engineering troops M: Voenizdat, 1989, SS. 233. 234).

These covers are generally made of cotton mesh fabric or have a basis in the form of a network of cotton (nylon) filaments with a filling of polyvinylchloride film with rents, or tissue spots and strips of calico. These camouflage coatings have a relatively small specific mass (mbeats0,35... 0,65 kg/m2), but currently have limited application, as it does not provide the disguise of military equipment and ground objects in radar and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges. In addition, they have low mechanical and operational characteristics. In particular, cotton fabrics have high water absorption, Flammability and little time there, that also limits the actual service life of coatings.

Known masking coating with radioreceiving properties that reduce the level of the signal reflected from the masked object not only by radioreceiver properties of the coating mask-overlapping), but also due to the distortion of the geometric shape of the object, as well as shielding angular formations of object fragments.

Such radioreceiver coatings (RRP) include, for example, "Camouflage material for protection from radar observations" for U.S. patent N 4528229, IPC F 41 H 3/0, 1985.

Specified camouflage material contains layered base with the pile of natural or synthetic fiber, made in the form of loops of various lengths attached to the base and protruding in different directions, and the threads or spiral sections in the base, which provide additional scattering effect of electromagnetic radiation falling on unshielded upper surface of the base coating material.

These coatings, with the appropriate protective coloring of the fibers under the background area may be used for masking objects in optical and effective ness of their application only in a narrow working range of wavelengths due to the strong dependence of the level of self-reflection and effective specific surface radar cross section (RCS) of the coatings from the angle and wavelength, a significant share of the covering mass (mbeats0,8...1,2 kg/m2), due to their design features, and low performance.

Known radioparadise coating (PSC) of the gradient or interfering with specific EPR 1...2 orders of magnitude lower than radioreceiver coatings (see, for example. Paly A. I. Electronic warfare M: Voenizdat, 1989, SS. 103. . .109, U.S. patent N 4688040, IPC H 01 Q 17/00, 1987, patent of Russia No. 203/931, IPC H 01 Q (17/00, 1992 and others).

The disadvantages of such coatings should also include a significant share of the covering mass (mbeats1,0. .. 2,0 kg/m3), relatively low operating range, as well as the instability of radio engineering and physical-mechanical indicators for different types of impacts (environmental, mechanical, operational) in the field. For example, the dispersion values of the reflection coefficient at PSC interference Tina may take up to 7... 12 dB in the wavelength range = 0,3... 4,0 see

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is radioparadise device (patent of Russia No. 2084060, IPC H 01 Q 17/00, 1997, prototype).

Noted the device comprises a flexible Azania elements made in the form of strips of polymeric film material with a surface resistance Rs= 30... 200 Ω and stiffness H= 40. . . 60 kHz. The width of the tapes 1.1 ...1.3 times the size of the cell network, and the thickness of the network with woven tape is 20...50 mm

Despite a more simple design and extended operating range in comparison with other known RPP, this device does not provide the desired stable level, reducing the power of the reflected radar signal in a wide range, primarily millimeter ( = 0,3 to 0,8 cm) and UHF ( > 10 cm) ranges. In addition, this device not structurally has a protective masking properties in the optical ( = 400... 900 nm), and IR ( = 3... 5 µm and 8... 14 µm) or radio thermal ( = 2...8 µm) wavelength ranges.

Known absorber of electromagnetic waves and the manufacturing method according to the patent of Russian Federation N 2119216, IPC H 01 Q 17/00, 1996. The specified device is a multilayer radioparadise floor of the interference type that contains multiple layers of variable thickness, between which are two-dimensional lattice of resonant elements. A method of manufacturing such coverage is in successive layers of dielectric and placing between conductive elements is but a narrow working range of absorption, as well as high specific weight of the coating. Alternatively, the device and method can be used mainly to reduce the visibility of stationary objects, for example, structures, and are not adapted for use in field conditions due to the rigid structure of the coating.

A known method of manufacturing a stealth camouflage device (coating), for example, patent of Russia No. 2037931, IPC H 01 Q 17/00, 1992 (prototype), which consists in the formation of absorbing electromagnetic radiation elements on the flexible beams of the fibers and fixing them on network support (basis). However, this method is characterized by complexity, greater complexity and lack of high manufacturability masking device (coating).

The present invention aims to improve the effectiveness of masking terrestrial objects by expanding ranges to use, ensure the required stability of the reduction power of the reflected signal in the range = 0,2... 15 cm, improvement of operational characteristics of camouflage coatings, as well as reducing the complexity of their manufacture.

The solution of a technical problem dostigaetsya in her separate elements of electrically conductive material protective color, each individual element of electrically conductive material contains a base layer in the form of a radiation transparent polymer film, an additional surface layer of metal deposited on a polymer film on one side by vacuum deposition, and two at the protective enamel layer comprising pigment fillers and flame retardant additives, and is made in the form of a flexible garlands spiral shape, the diameter of the inner circumference of which along the axis of twist along the length of the element is constant and is within 3. . . 5 mm, with radiating relative to the center of the circle in the form of "cilia" strips of rectangular shape with a width of 1. ..2 mm with parallel side edges.

In the claimed design as the main carrier layer can be used polyethylene terephthalate or polyamide film, and a protective layer enamel type XC-5146 P pigment filler khaki color, and width of the polymer film for each element corresponds to the width of the cell network, the same for all items and 50. . . 60 mm, the total thickness of all layers is 40...70 μm, the thickness of the additional metal surface layer is 0.5...1.5 μm, and each satelltie polymer film coated with an additional surface layer of metal is 20...150 Ohms.

Improving the efficiency of masking and reducing the complexity of manufacture of the specified wideband masking coating is ensured by the fact that when forming the individual elements of electrically conductive material and placing them in a mesh pre-cut strips of polymeric film of the desired width and on one of its surfaces by vacuum deposition applied a uniform layer of metal next to it and the raw surface of the polymer film is applied over the layer of protective coatings using enamel containing pigment fillers khaki color and a flame retardant additive, and the layers of the protective coating being dried at a temperature of 60... 120oC for 2 to 3 minutes, then on the bands obtained multilayer material perform converging from two sides toward the center in the form of a "Christmas tree" parallel notches length 40...45 mm, and the strip through the spokes are twisted in a spiral, and record obtained by short-time heating of spokes for 1.5 s, and then formed into a garland elements of electrically conductive material woven into the cell network in two mutually perpendicular directions with the density of their distribution one ele. the structure of the proposed multilayer electrically conductive material, which are formed of separate elements that populate the network based camouflage cover; Fig. 2 - the appearance of the incisions performed on the strips of metallized polymer films with layers of protective coating; Fig. 3 - procedure for the formation of flexible spiral garlands form of separate strips (using needles), and Fig. 4 - the appearance of the element filling the network of Fig. 5 presents a General view of the camouflage coating, the resulting weaving the elements fill in the network.

Wide masking coating includes a base 1 made in the form of a network of filaments dielectric material, for example, synthetic or cotton yarns and the fill material is a separate long items 2 electrically conductive material.

These elements 2 made in the form of a flexible garlands spiral shape with a radially divergent (in the form of "cilia") relative to the center of the inner circumference of the strips 3 of a rectangular shape with parallel side edges.

The diameter of the inner circumference formed by winding in a spiral bands 4 AET 3...5 mm The width of the strips 3 is equal to 1...2 mm and a length of 40...45 mm These characteristics were defined based on the desired operating range of wavelengths and substantiated experimentally.

Also, mainly on the basis of conditions dictated the choice of the cell size of the bases 1 and the width of the strips of film 4 for the manufacture of items 2 electrically conductive material, which are equal within 50... 60 mm

It should additionally be noted that the vast majority of industrial issued and currently used camouflage cover personnel camouflage kits also have the cell size of the network 50 x 50 60 x 60 mm, This allows the use of already proven technology network fundamentals camouflage coatings and available equipment.

Electrically conductive material, which are made from elements 2 fill fundamentals 1 the network is multi-layered and consists of the main carrier layer 5, a conductive layer 6 of metal and two protective layers (7 and 8) enamel.

As the base layer 5 can be used radiation transparent polymer film, for example, polyethylene terephthalate or polyamide film. These films, judging what eristique, in particular, adequate indicators of stiffness and elasticity of the material, and performance characteristics.

One of surfaces of the base layer 5 is applied a layer 6 of electrically conductive material, in particular metal. As the metal is evenly applied to the surface of the polymer film, for example, by vacuum deposition, can be used stainless steel, aluminum, Nickel, etc. As shown by the test results, the optimum thickness of the surface layer 6 for various metals is 0.5...1.5 mm.

Layers 7 and 8 of the coating of enamel applied to the surface layer 6 of the metal and the raw surface of the base layer 5, provide not only protection against external factors (climatic, mechanical and so on) of filling material basis 1, i.e., items 2, but including the required operating characteristics (durability, temperature and so on) camouflage cover, as well as the necessary spectral indices in the optical wavelength range. As the basis of the protective coating can be selected color enamel with a high coefficient of trudnogoryuchesti, such as enamel XC-R-Century

So, adding in polymeranalogous use masking coating) for example filler of the composition of the enamel XB, provided the required properties to reduce visibility in the optical range, as well as increased resistance to climatic influences. Adding to the enamel of fire proofing additives additionally reduced Flammability of polymeric material.

Physical-mechanical testing of different thickness samples of the coating, followed by Radiotechnical measurements, led to the determination of the optimal characteristics of different layers.

The thickness of each protective layer 7, and 8 is chosen in the range of 5 to 10 μm.

The surface layer of the metal, as noted previously, is selected in the range of 0.5...1.5 mm.

The total thickness of the layers of the element 2 electrically conductive material will be within 40...70 microns.

As a result of tests it is established that the surface resistance of the polymer film coated with an additional surface layer of metal to provide the required physico-mechanical and electronic characteristics should be within 20...150 Ohms. It provides the values of the reflection coefficient of the material at = 0,8...5 cm within minus 20.. .25 dB and = 5...25 the earthly technology, for example, a car, a camouflage coating in the form of a mask-overlay is placed over the masked object on the struts (struts) and stretch marks at a certain distance from the outer surface of the object, for example, not less than 0,5 m from the side surface.

The electromagnetic wave from the radar system exploration in contact with the volume-distributed coating structure with randomly oriented surface reflection strips 3 ("cilia") partially dissipated in space due to multiple reflections, it is partially absorbed. That part of the energy of an electromagnetic wave that enters your mask volume, also repeatedly paratragedy and absorbed. Thus, only a small portion of it is returned in the direction of the radar, thereby reducing the efficiency of the detection object in RL range of wavelengths.

Measurement of reflection coefficients showed that in the wavelength range = 0,3. ..0.8 cm he is average minus 13 dB, range = 0,8... 4.0 cm up to minus 20 dB, and the range = of 4.0...10.0 cm - minus 13 dB. Thus, through the use of camouflage cover the design of the EPR object masking decreases in 5... 20 times.

thermal radiation of the masked object when it is I.

When placing a coating on a heated surface of an object masking (contact method) radiation temperature of the object is reduced by 9...31oC, non-contact method of placing coverage with a clearance of not less than 10...20 cm from the heated surface of the object, the radiation temperature of the object - coverage is reduced by 13... 32oC. When the radiation temperature of the object-coating" is within 24...34oC at an ambient temperature of 21oC and the radiation temperature of the object from the 34oC-62oC.

Thus, the proposed floor also provides a significant reduction in thermal signature of the materiel.

In the optical range measuring spectral diffuse reflection coefficients painted enamel coating material showed compliance with the requirements.

The proposed coating has higher mechanical and operational characteristics in comparison with analogues. The specific gravity of the coating is to 0.41 kg/m2, water absorption, close to 0%, the characteristic of burning on average to 10.28%cm, provided with self-extinguishing properties of the coating. Thus the range of RA is AI from 2 to 2.5...3 years.

Implementation of the proposed method of manufacture of this wide-band masking coating involves the sequential execution of a number of operations.

Initially in the manufacture of camouflage coating is cut into strips of the polymer film of the desired width (in this case 50...60 mm) and on one of its surfaces (sides) by vacuum deposition, for example, by using a magnetron installation applied a uniform layer of metal.

Then, on the metal surface and the raw surface of the polymer film is applied over the layer of protective coatings using enamel containing pigment fillers protective color coating and flame retardant additives. Then the layers of the protective coating being dried at a temperature of 60... 120oC for 2...3 min, for example, in a heating Cabinet.

Next on the bands obtained multilayer material perform converging from two sides toward the center in the form of a "Christmas tree" parallel notches of length 40.. .45 mm, and the strip through the spokes are twisted in a spiral. The resulting form is fixed at the expense of short-term heating of the spokes 9 for 1.5 sec.

After performing the above operations is formed in view of what ravlenija, with the density of their distribution one element per cell in a given direction.

The proposed method of manufacturing currently implemented using existing hardware at release prototypes (modules) camouflage cover.

While primarily used used technology similar camouflage coatings on the basis of the grid, thereby reducing the complexity of manufacture of the device in comparison with analogues.

The results of physico-mechanical, electronic and other types of testing prototypes of the proposed coverage presented in the test protocols (protocols NN 35-41). In these protocols different ways camouflage coating is indicated by reference number "Thorns" and "Tinsel" and the film of which is formed by the filling material Sich, under the code of PATM.

1. Wide masking coating having a basis in the form of a network made of dielectric threads woven into her individual elements of electrically conductive material protective color, wherein each individual element of electrically conductive material contains the primary carrier sloaney film on one side by vacuum deposition, and two extreme protective enamel layer comprising pigment fillers and flame retardant additives, and is made in the form of a flexible garlands spiral shape, the diameter of the inner circumference of which along the axis of twist along the length of the element is constant and amounts to 3-5 mm, with radiating relative to the center of the circle in the form of "cilia" strips of rectangular shape with a width of 1-2 mm with parallel side edges.

2. Multi-range camouflage floor under item 1, characterized in that as the main carrier layer used polyethylene terephthalate or polyamide film, and a protective layer enamel type XC-5146 R pigment filler khaki color, and width of the polymer film for each element corresponds to the width of the cell network, the same for all elements and is equal to 50-60 mm, the total thickness of all layers of 40-70 μm, the thickness of the additional metal surface layer is 0.5 to 1.5 μm, and each of the protective layer of enamel 5-10 microns.

3. Multi-range camouflage floor under item 1, characterized in that the surface resistance of the polymer film coated with an additional surface layer of metal is 20-150 Ohms.

4. Semenov electrically conductive material and placing them in cells of the network, wherein the pre-cut strip of polymer film of the desired width and on one of its surfaces by vacuum deposition applied a uniform layer of metal next to it and the raw surface of the polymer film is applied over the layer of protective coatings using enamel containing pigment fillers protective color coating and flame retardant additives, is subjected to layers of protective coating dried at 60-120°C for 2-3 min, then on the bands obtained multilayer material perform converging from two sides toward the center in the form of a "Christmas tree" parallel notch length of 40-45 mm, and the strip through the spokes are twisted in a spiral, moreover, the record obtained by short-time heating of spokes for 1.5 s, and then formed into a garland elements of electrically conductive material woven into the cell network in two mutually perpendicular directions with the density of their distribution one element per cell in a given direction.

 

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SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that colored or uncolored foam is continuously or periodically applied onto the water surface upstream the water section or onto the water basin section having no stream. The starting foaming solution, foam ratio, as well as the device for realization of the method are described. The device includes a reservoir connected through a liquid channel to a pump and unspotters located across or in the area of the water basin.

EFFECT: improved camouflage properties of the water surface.

13 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex, 1 tbl

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