The combustion chamber with the optimum number of nozzles
(57) Abstract:The combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine with an optimum number of nozzles includes a housing, a heating pipe and the front of the device with the air swirler and nozzle supply of liquid or gaseous fuel. Front camera device made with the optimum number of nozzles - three pieces 100 cm2square transverse (middle) section of the flame tube. The invention allows to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides with minimal underburning of fuel. 3 Il. The invention relates to gas turbine engines and installations for various purposes and can be used in the aviation, transport, marine, locomotive and stationary power plants.Known combustion chamber, comprising a housing, a heating pipe and the front of the device with the air swirler and nozzle supply of liquid or gaseous fuels, such as combustion chamber of aircraft gas turbine engine TV7-117 and others (see, booklet TV7-117S Turboprop Engine, Moscow, Aviation Publishing Hourse, 1993;  USSR Author's certificate N 308653, CL P 23 K 3/00, 1983).Known also adopted for the prototype combustor, based on the principle of micro is kami supply of liquid or gaseous fuel, moreover, the number of nozzles is determined by the formula (see RF patent N 2094705 from 27.10.97).For example, for engine TV7-117 recommended to install the nozzle 72, which leads to lower emissions of NOxin 2 times.However, the number of nozzles is selected by patent N 2094705, does not take into account the change of the completeness of fuel combustion from the number of nozzles per unit cross-sectional area of the flame tube.The present invention is to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides at a minimum level of underburning of fuel, because the main requirement to heat the car is in need of fuel economy.This task is achieved by the fact that "microfamilies" combustion chamber, comprising a housing, a heating pipe and the front of the device with the air swirler and nozzle supply of liquid or gaseous fuel, front camera device made with the optimum number of nozzles per unit cross-sectional area of the flame tube three nozzles 100 cm2square transverse (middle) section of the flame tube.The proposed combustion chamber is different from the known, accepted as a prototype, the signs above, therefore, predlozheniy combustion is the sharp reduction of the number of nozzles in comparison with recommendations on patent N 2094705. For example, for engine TV7 - 117 optimum number of nozzles is 30 pieces instead of 72 pieces under the patent 2094705.In Fig. 1, for example, presents the structural layout of the combustion chamber. It includes a housing 1, a heating pipe 2, the swirler air 3 and the nozzle supply of liquid or gaseous fuels 4. Transverse (middle) section of the flame tube is determined by the diameter of the heating pipe DWand the height of the flame tube HW.In Fig. 2 shows variations of the form A location of the optimum number of nozzles: 3 pieces 100 cm2fuselage mid-section of the flame tube.The combustion chamber is as follows.Compressed in the compressor, the air enters into the cavity of the housing 1, from which it enters the flame tube 2 through the many cracks and holes and through the swirler air 3. Through a nozzle 4 into the combustion chamber is fed under the pressure of a liquid or gaseous fuel.The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in the combustion chamber to provide a high gas temperature at the exit is accompanied by the emission of nitrogen oxides.In Fig. 3, the solid curve shows the ratio of emissions of NOx(NOx)optand with a dotted line relationship underburning knogo section of the flame tube,
where is the combustion fuel Nf- the number of the nozzles;
FWsectional (middle) section of the flame tube, cm2;
(NOx)opt- emissions of NOxwhen the optimum number of nozzles.Curves constructed on the basis of processing and generalization of experimental data on more than 300 tests of the combustion chambers of different engines.The least value of the incomplete burning of fuel and almost minimal emissions of NOxcorresponds to the number of nozzles of the calculation: three pieces 100 cm2square transverse (middle) section of the flame tube.When reducing the (optimal) number of nozzles increases and underburning of fuel and emissions of NOx.When zooming in (optimal) number of nozzles emissions of NOxdecreases almost imperceptibly (solid curve asymptotically approaches the horizontal), and underburning of fuel increases dramatically.The course of the left part of the curves is explained by the processes of poor distribution and mixing of the fuel in the combustion chamber throughout the mass of air that is accompanied by incomplete burning of fuel and emissions of NOx.Course right side crooked is the circulation of the combustion chambers with the optimum number of nozzles (3 pieces 100 cm2cross-sectional area of the flame tube) allows to provide minimum levels of underburning of fuel and emissions of NOxto reduce weight, complexity and cost of manufacture of the engine to increase its efficiency and environmental cleanliness. The combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine with an optimum number of nozzles, comprising a housing, a heating pipe and the front of the device with the air swirler and nozzle supply of liquid or gaseous fuel, characterized in that the front camera device made with the optimum number of nozzles - three pieces 100 cm2square transverse (middle) section of the flame tube.
FIELD: gas-turbine plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes changing of fuel rate depending on power by metering out delivery of fuel into manifolds of coaxially installed pilot and main burners of burner assemblies with preliminary mixing of fuel and air. Burner assemblies are installed in two tiers, and fuel is delivered into burners of both tiers. At starting fuel is fed into manifold of pilot burners of outer tier and before idling, into manifold of pilot, burners of inner tier. At idling amount of fuel fed into pilot burners of outer and inner tiers is maintained equal. Then fuel delivery into pilot burners of outer and inner tiers is increased. Prior to operation under no-load conditions fuel is fed to main burners of outer and inner tiers. In the range from no-load to rated load, fuel delivery into main burners is increased with simultaneously decreasing relative portion of fuel fed through pilot burners. Invention provides reduction of content of nitrogen oxides NOxin exhaust gases of gas-turbine plant.
EFFECT: provision of stable burning of lean mixtures under any operating conditions.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel-air burner has fuel injector in the form of body with fuel feed and spray holes as well as axial- and tangential-flow air swirlers, air flow regulator disposed between rear side of injector body and inlet end of axial-flow swirler that forms slit duct together with its inlet end. Axial- and tangential-flow air swirlers are made in the form of open-end channels accommodating blades and each is provided with converging-diverging nozzle having internal and external channel walls. External channel wall of converging part of axial-flow swirler nozzle has curvature inverse relative to internal channel wall of tangential-flow swirler nozzle. Diverging part of axial-flow swirler is made in the form of cone whose vertex is disposed upstream of nozzle critical section. Angle between burner axis and generating line of cone is 30 to 90 deg. Critical section of axial-flow swirler converging-diverging nozzle is disposed upstream of point of intersection between external channel wall and fuel spray cone generating line.
EFFECT: reduced emission of pollutants in exhaust gases, improved starting characteristics and fuel economic efficiency, enhanced reliability of combustion chamber.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine has central stage arranged in gas duct of engine from its part arranged higher relative to direction of main gas flow to part lower in direction of main gas flow and provided with exhaust gas cone forming device in direction of main gas flow, and guide arrangement. Gas-turbine engine has group of blades, group of fuel nozzles and group of igniters. Guide arrangement is located in zone of edge of exhaust gas cone-forming device arranged higher relative to direction of main gas flow. Group of blades is located in gas duct out of the limits of central stage. Blades are provided with atomizing guides extending through blades. Fuel nozzles are installed on inner ends of corresponding atomizing guides. Each nozzle is provided with input, output and passage between input and output. Passage has part arranged to direct fuel flow to first part of passage surface located across and widening downwards in direction of flow with subsequent deflection fuel flow by first part of surface and its outlet from nozzle. Igniters are arranged in corresponding atomizing guides for igniting fuel from corresponding fuel nozzle.
EFFECT: provision of reliable lighting up in afterburner, improved recirculation of fuel in flow.
13 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: fuel systems.
SUBSTANCE: the fuel-injection nozzle for a turbo-machine combustion chamber outfitted with two fuel-injection nozzle units has the first fuel-supply tube, connected to which is an annular nozzle end for injection of primary fuel into the combustion chamber, the second fuel-supply tube that envelops the mentioned first tube, and connected to which is a cylindrical extension piece for injection of secondary fuel into this combustion chamber. The extension piece has an annular groove, whose diameter exceeds the diameter of the mentioned second fuel supply tube and runs over its entire length. The third tube is provided that envelop the second tube, an connected to which is a tubular separating component introduced in the mentioned annular groove of the cylindrical extension piece in such a way that two annular cavities are formed, in which the cooling agent can circulate up to the end of the fuel-injection nozzle within 360 degrees in the whole cross-section of the mentioned cavities.
EFFECT: provided protection of the fuel systems, prevented clogging of the fuel-injection nozzles with coke due to effective cooling without considerable variations of the nozzle overall dimensions.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fuel systems.
SUBSTANCE: the device for supply of fuel to the combustion chamber has at least one main nozzle and one preliminary-injection nozzle, pump, the first actuator valve installed in the first pipe-line connected to the preliminary-injection nozzle, the second actuator valve used for control of fuel consumption in the secondary pipe-line connected to the preliminary-injection nozzle through the first actuator valve rated at a lower consumption rate. The first pipe-line is also connected to the main nozzle for control of consumption of fuel supplied to the nozzle by the first actuator valve, provision is made for a direction- selecting valve installed past the first valve, and an intermediate line connecting the first and second lines that are used for fuel supply to the main nozzle and/or to the preliminary-injection nozzle.
EFFECT: provided stable fuel supply to the combustion chamber.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gas fuel.
SUBSTANCE: fuel nozzle comprises first valve that closes when the pressure of inflowing fuel reaches a given value and second batching valve mounted at the outlet of the first valve, which is opened under the action of the second given value of fuel pressure. The second valve is open when the pressure increases so that to provide the inflow of fuel to the consumers. The batched fuel flow rate is a function of the flowing sections of the openings made at the level of the second valve. The nozzle is additionally provided with means for individual adjusting of the second threshold value of pressure made so that to provided the uniform injection of fuel to the combustion chamber.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: continuous combustion chambers.
SUBSTANCE: combustion chamber comprises hollow cylindrical housing whose wall receive scroll and air radial swirlers with blades that provide swirling in opposite directions, shells, bushings mounted for permitting movement in radial direction, branch pipe, swirling chambers, and nozzle. Each combined nozzle has centrifugal nozzle whose outer side is in a contact with inner side of the bushing and jet nozzle with cylindrical housing mounted coaxially in the inner space of the branch pipe between the outer wall of the housing of the jet nozzle and inner wall of the branch pipe. The outlet section of the housing of the jet nozzle is bent to the passage of the scroll spiral of the radial swirler. The outlet section of the jet nozzle is parallel to the wall of the inlet section of the branch pipe and is at a distance of 0.8-1.2 of the diameter of the jet nozzle housing from it.
EFFECT: reduced hydraulic drag and oxides emission.
FIELD: engine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises filling with solder the radial spaces made in the ring nozzle tip provided with the first nozzle openings for injecting primary fuel and in the cylindrical nozzle that embraces the ring nozzle tip and has second nozzle openings for injecting secondary fuel, setting the ring nozzle tip inside the cylindrical nozzle, mounting both of the members on the first fuel supply pipe for primary fuel and second fuel supply pipe for secondary fuel that embraces the first pipe and on the outer wall of the fuel nozzle, and setting the nozzle spryer assembled into the chamber where it is heated to provide adhesion of the members with solder.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities and eased assembling.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine engine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: ring combustion chamber comprises fire tube and vortex burners arranged over periphery of its face and made of fuel-air scroll and air swirlers with outlet conical branch pipe having cylindrical section. The shell is secured to the face coaxially to each branch pipe defining a ring space. The outer side of the end cylindrical section or inner side of the shell located above it is provided with longitudinal ribs distributed uniformly over periphery and defining insulated passages. The through openings connected with the ring space are made in the face of the fire tube under the shell.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and expanded functional capabilities.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine engine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises separating the fuel supply through small fuel nozzle from that through high-flow rate nozzle, with controllable fuel supply realized directly in the device. The device comprises outer housing, high-flow rate nozzle made of outer housing of the small fuel nozzle and secured to it, piston-slide valve, and spring, interposed between the outer housings of the device and high-flow rate nozzles provided with the passages for fuel supply. The fuel supply is controller by opening passages for supplying fuel to the small nozzle and closing the passages for supplying fuel to the high-flow rate nozzle. When the pressure of fuel increases, the passages for supplying fuel to the high-flow rate nozzle are opened, and the passages for supplying fuel to the small nozzle are simultaneously closed.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 5 dwg