A method of creating ice crossing
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to letterlike and can be used to create ice crossings mainly in waters with ice over. A method of creating ice crossing is installed under the ice dampers made in the form of plates attached to the ice with rods. New is the fact that the use of dampers in the form of having anchors on the rigid support plates, which are mounted on shallow waters with underwater currents can be rotated at an angle relative to the velocity of ice flow under the influence of fluctuations of the ice cover. The technical result achieved by the invention is to increase the bearing capacity of the ice cover when it loads on shallow parts of the reservoir. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used when creating ice crossings mainly in waters with ice over.The prior art method of creating ice crossing, consisting in the installation under the ice dampers made in the form of horizontal plates attached to the ice by means of vertical rods and the submersible is (1. C. M. Kozin, a Method of creating ice crossing. RF patent N 2137877 from 20.09.99).The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of its use to improve the bearing capacity of the ice cover on shallow parts of the reservoir, when waves of water spread throughout the depth of the reservoir (see 2. Sretensky L. N. theory of wave motion of the liquid. OMTI, 1936 ).The task of the invention is to reduce the amplitude of Flexural-gravity waves (VVM), excited in ice cover from moving it loads.Technical result achieved when the task is to improve the bearing capacity of the ice cover when it loads on shallow parts of the reservoir.The essential features characterizing the invention.Restrictive: ice crossing is generated by the installation under ice dampers made in the form of horizontal plates attached to the ice by means of vertical rods and sunk to a depth at which water no waves caused by the movement of goods across frozen.Distinctive: ice crossing to create videowalls at an angle to the vector of velocity of ice flow.It is known (3. I. I. Voitkunskii and other Hydromechanics. Leningrad: Sudostroenie. - 1982. - 455 C.), which is a plate located at an angle to the incident flow, in accordance with theory N. E. Zhukovsky applies a lifting force, the direction of which is determined by the sign of the angle . Using this law, it is possible to reduce the amplitude of the VVM excited by the movement of goods around the ice sheet, if attached to the ice by using vertical bars horizontal plate to rotate in a certain way with respect to the vector of velocity of ice flow.The method is as follows.In ice cover on shallow water with ice flow along the intended axis of the icy crossing, perpendicular to the flow rate, slots, through which the ice lower plate fixed on them rods and anchors on rigid supports. The total length of the rods and supports must be not less than the depth of the reservoir. The plate is connected with the rods and bearings by means of a cylindrical hinge, the axis of rotation is oriented perpendicular to the velocity vector ice flow. To compensate for the hydraulic torque arising during rotation of the plates, the attachment hinge rods management lifting force, opposing vertical movements (oscillations) of the ice cover, anchors are fixed to the plates on the edge, which receives the flow of ice streams. The ratio of the lengths of the rods and poles should be such that in the absence of oscillations of the ice and when installing anchors on the bottom of the reservoir plate is held in the horizontal position, i.e., to =0. After complete freezing of the water received in the slots, and reliable as a result of marajuana rods in ice cover ice crossing is ready for operation. Indeed, if the position of the plate will be the top of the VVM, the rod begins to move up, which will cause the rotation of the plate at an angle and the appearance of the corresponding lifting force directed in the opposite direction, i.e. downwards. When passing over the plate soles VVM rod will start to drop and the plate will turn the corner. The direction of the lifting force will also change its sign, i.e. it is directed upwards. Thus, these twists plate from fluctuations in ice in the presence of ice flow will reduce the amplitude of the VVM, i.e., the level of bending stress, which will increase the carrying capacity of the ice cover.The invention is illustrated in the drawing (Fig. 1 and 2) on kotapola slots 3, through which the lower plate 4 attached to them by the rods 5 and anchors 6 on the rigid support 7. The total length of the rod 5 and the supports 7 L should not be less than the depth of the reservoir N. Plate 4 is connected with the rod 5 of the supports 7 and the anchor 6 by means of a cylindrical hinge 8, the axis of rotation is oriented perpendicular to the velocity vector ice flow . To compensate for the hydrodynamic torque Mg.D. the attachment of the hinge rod 8' is placed on the same line 9 with the center of hydrodynamic pressure 10 plates 4, i.e., the hinges 8' is placed on the line of action of the lifting force R that occur on the plate 4 when turning a corner . Armature 6 is fixed to the plate edge 11, which receives the flow of ice flow speeds . The ratio of the lengths of the rods 5 and the supports 7 should be such that in the absence of oscillations of the ice 1 and anchor handling 6 on the bottom of the reservoir 12 of the plate 4 took a horizontal position, i.e., to =0. After complete freezing of water 13 received in the slots 3 and marajuana rods 5 in ice 1 ice crossing is ready for operation. Indeed, if above the plate 4 will be the top of the VVM 14, the rod 5 will begin to move upward, which will cause the rotation of the plate 4 at an angle and the emergence of pgdit directed upwards. Thus rotation of the plate from the fluctuations of the ice will reduce the amplitude of the VVM, which will increase the carrying capacity of the ice cover. The way to create icy crossing, consisting in the installation under the ice dampers made in the form of plates attached to the ice with rods, characterized in that the use of dampers in the form of having anchors on the rigid support plates, which are mounted on shallow waters with underwater currents can be rotated at an angle relative to the velocity of ice flow under the influence of fluctuations of the ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg