Mixing the homogeneous element type for combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas

 

(57) Abstract:

Mixing the homogeneous element type for combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas (nH2+CO), working mainly on the method of non-equilibrium partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel oxygen-containing oxidant, includes a cylindrical cooling body, inside of which throughout its longitudinal length is a multiple of the mixing chamber, the cooled end plate with through holes, the nodes of a supply of fuel and oxidant supply and exhaust cooler. The proposed design provides reliable homogenization of the flow of the blend components and its delivery into the reaction zone of the combustion chamber at a certain geometrical pattern and speed settings that allow in non-equilibrium conditions high conversion rate (carbon monoxide) and achieve a higher volumetric productivity of the entire aggregate (not less than 10 times) in comparison with the best known analogues. When this is achieved the high efficiency of the mixing element in all modes and at all real thermal and dynamic loads from the side of reactiona, combining scheme ideal mixing (vortex zone at the face of the bottom of the mixing element and displacement (co-current reaction zone). 2 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of organic synthesis, namely, devices and technologies for processing of hydrocarbons into synthesis gas (nH2+ CO) and can be used to obtain a synthesis gas according to the methods of equilibrium, but mostly non-equilibrium partial oxidation pre-mixed gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen-containing oxidant.

The known device (burner) with preliminary mixing of the gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxidant proposed by the companies Texaco (U.S. patent 3945942), Montecatini (U.S. patent 2859103), the French Institute of petroleum (U.S. patent 4582630, French patent 2617577).

In devices of burners Texaco and the French Institute of oil is only a partial homogenization of the mixture of methane and oxidant prior to their entry into the reaction zone by feeding one of the components through tubes placed at the entrance or even in a critical section of one or many nozzles.

In the patent Montecatini gancena only for processes carried out at low (atmospheric) pressure.

Proposed in these patents mixing elements (burner) homogeneous type theoretically the most promising for processes of partial oxidation, but in practice are not widely used in high-speed generators (the reactors) because of their low reliability. When you start a high-speed generator (reactor), as a rule, is the casting pressure in the reaction zone, and therefore the casting flame in the internal volume of the burner, causing it to Podgora and even fire. In addition, as proposed in the above patents, the devices of the mixing elements do not solve problems of organization of effective output parameters of processes of non-equilibrium high-speed partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon gas in the reaction zone of high-performance generators (reactors) synthesis gas at medium and high pressures.

Known solutions in almost all cases used in reactors (converters), created under the scheme the ideal mixing due macroview circulating currents in almost all of the reaction volume.

The purpose of this is military mixtures of oxidizing and combustible components in the cell of minimum volume before submitting them to the reaction zone;

2) enter a homogeneous mixture in a high-speed reaction zone of the combustion chamber medium and high pressure on geometrical pattern and speeds, providing a stable structure and a certain intensity of macro - and microwires in the area of the bottom end of the mixing element in the initial zones of the reaction volume (in the area of the flame front) necessary to achieve the maximum completeness of the oxidation process with a minimum residence time of the stream in the reaction zone;

3) high efficiency design for all modes of operation of the combustion chamber, including the peaks and the pressure fluctuations;

4) creation of reactors (combustion chambers) to produce synthesis gas that combines schema perfect mixing and perfect displacement (parallel).

Proposed in this application, the device of the mixing element of homogeneous type, in comparison with known devices of the same purposes in the above patents Texaco, Montecatini and the French petroleum Institute, has significant differences in design, functional characteristics and has high reliability against ignition of a homogeneous mixture.

Individual mixing elements of 3.75 t/h;

- pressure in the reaction zone is 2.0 to 15.0 MPa.

The characteristic size of the mixing element, the outer diameter of the end plate D (see Fig. 1), for these areas the preferred application is in the range 60-180 mm, it is assumed that the subsequent reaction zone has approximately the same transverse dimension defined by a physical wall, or a conventional border gas tube current in the reactor (the combustion chamber) large transverse size, which uses a lot of similar mixing elements.

The invention consists in that the mixing element having a smooth or stepped cylindrical cooling body (shown only the first option) equipped with a multicell a mixing chamber convertible gases required geometry located inside the casing throughout its length and input device homogenized flow for a given geometry in the reaction zone. The mixing chamber consists of sections preliminary mixing, turbulence, flow equalization and final homogenization. The last section simultaneously performs and functions deploymaster of the flame arrester. The input device is a homogenized mixture of reactions the holes of a given geometry and a given location on the area of the bottom. At the entrance of the mixing element are feeders convertible gases and site inlet and outlet of the cooler. On the outer surface smooth or stepped cylindrical body are devices for detachable and tight connection of the mixing element with adjacent assemblies.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the mixing element.

In Fig. 2, 3, is a view along arrow A, shows the location of the bypass holes.

In Fig. 4, 5 shows the variations of the geometry of the through holes in the bottom.

In accordance with Fig. 1 mixing element contains a cooled cylindrical housing 1, a multiple of the mixing chamber 2, the cooled plate 3, the node supplying the oxidant 4, the fuel input Assembly 5, the infeed and outlet of the cooler 6.

The mixing chamber of the mixing element includes a section of the pre-mixing of the components 7, section turbulence in the flow 8, section flow equalization 9, section final homogenization - a flame arrester 10, bounded on one side by a metal grid 11, on the other - bars 12, which draws permeable metal gasket flame arrester and sealed with the casing of the mixing chamber.

NR is and D210-20%. The transition from the D1for D2should be smooth, and the outer casing Pets ledge for placement of the seal.

The longitudinal length of sections preliminary mixing, turbulence and flow equalization, respectively, 1-2,0,2-0,5 and 1-3 to the diameter D1.

In order to avoid leakage of flame into the mixing chamber when the overpressures in the reaction zone of the longitudinal length of the suppressor 10, provided with a permeable metal gasket, such as copper pipes or wires is 2 - 3 diameter of the mixing chamber. The hydraulic resistance of the gasket is set in the range of 0.1 - 0.3 MPa. In branched, with small hydraulic diameter of the channel stuffing the process of homogenization is largely completed.

A cooled plate 3 has a through-pass holes 13, executed or in the form of a cylinder, or in the form of a truncated cone, rolling in the cylinder, and a larger base of the cone facing the mixing chamber. The second solution is intended to reduce impacts on stream in the mixing element from the reaction zone in the variants of its use in highly dynamic when you start the combustion chambers.

Hole RA series or rays of not less than 3.

The total area of the flow cross sections of the through-pass hole is 0,02 - 0,1 transverse area of the mixing chamber.

The ratio of the longitudinal length L of the through-pass holes to diameter (L/d) should be not less than 5, the length L1to the diameter d is at least 2.5, and the diameter d is selected in the range of 0.3 - 3.0 mm, see Fig. 4 and 5.

All inlets and outlets of the components executed on the input side of the mixing element, in this case, the paths of the oxidant and the hydrocarbon gas inlet into the pre-mixing section 7 installed swirler 14 and 15, see Fig. 1.

On the housing 1 are devices for detachable and tight connection of the mixing element with a connecting Assembly with the housing of the mixing head).

The mixing element is as follows, see Fig. 1.

Gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, for example, primarily natural gas, supplied to the supply node 5 and through the swirler 15 is fed into the section 7 preliminary mixing of the components. Oxygen-containing oxidant, such as air or oxygen, or air enriched with oxygen, or oxygen in a mixture with one of the gases modifiers (CO2N2O), enters the node ptx2">

From section 7 flows into the section of turbulence 8, which has, for example, two flat walls 16 through channels of small diameter 1-5 mm with radial or angular offset channels in the walls relative to each other. Next gomogeniziruetsya mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxidant enters the section of the flow equalization 9, and out through the grate 12 - in flame arrester 10. Passing the flame arrester and the metal grid 11, a homogeneous mixture pass through the holes 13 in the form of gas jets leaks out, into the reaction zone of the combustion chamber, at a speed not less than 2-3 times the speed of flame propagation in the mixture of the same composition. Recommended speed range jets at the exit of the bypass holes 50-100 m/s

For cooling of the housing 1 and the end plate 3 to the input node of the inlet and outlet of the cooler 6 is supplied with a cooling component, mainly water, but can be used and the main components, which flows in the gap between the partition 17 and the housing 1 in one direction, washes the inside of the end plate 3 and the gaps in the intermediate wall along the sleeves bypass holes 13 is drained into a collecting reservoir bottom and next >/P>Recommended materials of construction - stainless steel and alloys. For stuffing flame arrester and for the bottom 3 at high pressures in the reaction zone, it is recommended to use alloys based on copper and/or Nickel.

1. Mixing the homogeneous element type for combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas (nH2+ CO), working mainly on the method of non-equilibrium high-temperature partial oxidation of hydrocarbon gases oxygen, containing a cooled cylindrical body with devices for fastening, multiple the mixing chamber, the cooled end plate, the node supplying the oxygen-containing gaseous oxidant, the node supplying a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, the site feed and exhaust cooler, characterized in that the mixing chamber located within the housing along its longitudinal length is in the direction of travel mixed gaseous components of the pre-mixing section, the section turbulization of the flow section of the flow equalization and final section of homogenization, and performing the functions of the flame arrester, made in the form of permeable metal gaskets, for example, from scraps of copper tubes and the flow clamped gasket grille, which Rethimno or narashima bonded with the body, and in the end the bottom is made through holes with diameters in the minimum cross section of 0.3 - 3.0 mm, arranged in parallel rows or radial rays when the total number of rows or rays of not less than 3 and having the total area of the flow cross section of 0.02 - 0.1 of the square end of the bottom, at the entrance to the mixing chamber in each of the nodes in the supply of mixed gas components installed swirler-jets.

2. The mixing element according to p. 1, characterized in that the longitudinal length of the porous section of the flame arrester is 2 - 3 of the internal diameter of its body, the longitudinal length of sections preliminary mixing, turbulence and flow equalization, respectively, 1 - 2, 0.2 - 0.5 and 1 - 3 of their internal diameter, which may be equal to the inner diameter section of the flame arrester or it may differ in more or less 10 - 20%.

3. The mixing element under item 1 or 2, characterized in that each of the through-pass hole in the end plate is made in the shape of a truncated cone with a top that extends into the cylinder, facing outwards, towards the reaction zone, and with the base pointing towards ctro d is not less than 2.5, and the base diameter of the cone not less than 2d.

 

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