Micromechanical device and method of manufacturing

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to microelectronics. The inventive micromechanical device includes a strain sensitive element is made in a semiconductor structure doped silicon carbide on a substrate with a dielectric surface. As semiconductor structures using silicon carbide, doped calculated as the ratio of active impurity and defect centers 1:(2-20), a semiconductor structure is additionally formed temperature resistant sensor element. A method of manufacturing a micromechanical device provides for deposition on a substrate a semiconductor layer containing alloying impurity, under control by the partial pressure or rate of gas supply with the subsequent application of a dielectric layer and formation of the sensitive elements in the resulting semiconductor structure using selective etching. Precipitated semiconductor layer based on silicon carbide, while the control action is carried out on the basis of the ratio of the active impurity and defect centers in the semiconductor layer 1:(2-20) and the sensitive elements formed to physical impacts and increase the manageability characteristics of strain and thermal sensitivity of the micromechanical devices. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 ill., 3 table.

The invention relates to microelectronics and related design and manufacturing technology microelectronic multi micromechanical device. Most effectively be used in the manufacture of multi-pressure sensors and temperature, working in conditions of high temperatures, vibrations and radiation effects.

Known micromechanical device containing recrystallized silicon layer, which is formed testcustomer element, and contact pads for connection to an external electrical circuit (SU 1783595, H 01 L 21/28, 1992).

Also known micromechanical device for measuring the pressure containing substrate with an insulating coating, a piezoelectric element located on the front side of the substrate, and the membrane is etched on the reverse side of the substrate aligned with the piezoelectric element (JP 5-251714, H 01 L 29/84, G 01 L 9/04, 1993).

Such devices have low reliability at high temperature and radiation. In addition, these devices may not be designed as multi-touch because of the diverse requirements of their sensitivity on various measured wasteson, made in the semiconductor epitaxial structure of silicon carbide (SiC), doped by ion implantation of boron on a substrate with a dielectric surface (RU 98103183/25, H 01 L 21/00, 49/00, 1998 prototype device).

However, such a device requires temperature compensation of testosterone (Ballandovich V. S., S. V. Bogachev, II in V. A., Korlyakov A. V., S. Kostromin V. , Luchinin V. V., Petrov A. A. Realization of silicon carbide sensors for measurements on gaseous working fluids. - "Materials science & engineering, 46 B, 1977, 383-386). In addition, like other counterparts, this solution cannot be performed in multi-touch performance due to the heterogeneous requirements of sensitivity on various measurable impacts.

A known method of manufacture of this class of devices provides for deposition on a substrate film made of conductive monocrystalline silicon, separated from the substrate by a dielectric layer, followed by etching areas of the film and the dielectric layer to the substrate for forming the measuring site, the creation of electrical contacts for measuring and partial removal of the dielectric layer to release the movable elements of the measuring node (FR 2700065, H 01 L 49/02, G 01 P 15/08, 15/125, 1994).

However, the devices manufactured Yes is also a method of manufacturing a micromechanical devices, providing epitaxial deposition of a film of SiC, doped by ion implantation of boron on a substrate with a dielectric surface, followed by etching areas of the film to the substrate for forming the measuring unit and the liberation of the movable elements and the creation of electrical contacts for measuring (EN 98103183/25, H 01 L 21/00, 49/00, 1998).

However, using this method allows you to get a micromechanical devices, especially multi-touch, with the required sensitivity to various physical effects.

To correct the noted deficiency in the design of micromechanical multi-touch devices put sensitive to various physical effects of the semiconductor multi-layer silicon structure on different areas of the common substrate with the subsequent formation on these areas of the respective sensing elements (JP 5-1873, H 01 L 21/203, 1993).

However, this technical solution ethnologica, time-consuming and material-intensive.

Closest to the claimed on the principle of a method of manufacturing a micromechanical device provides for deposition on a substrate at least the Choma pressure or rate of gas supply with the subsequent application of a dielectric layer and formation of the sensitive elements in the resulting semiconductor structure using a selective etching (US 5298436, H 01 L 21/20, 1994 - prototype method).

However, this method does not provide a stable micromechanical, especially multi-touch, the device with the required sensitivity to various physical effects, as in the method disclosed only control actions, but does not specify criteria for the management, their values depending on the semiconductor material, as well as the values of control actions.

The technical objective of the proposed invention is the provision of controllability characteristics of strain and thermal sensitivity produced micromechanical devices.

The decision of the specified technical tasks within the object "device" objectivities the fact that in the design of a micromechanical device, containing a strain sensitive element is made in a semiconductor structure doped silicon carbide on a substrate with a dielectric surface, with the following changes:

as semiconductor structures using silicon carbide, doped calculated as the ratio of active impurity and defect centers 1: (2-20);

in semiconductor structures is ri manufacturing a micromechanical device by deposition on a substrate of the semiconductor layer, containing alloying impurity, under control by the partial pressure or rate of gas supply with the subsequent application of a dielectric layer and formation of the sensitive elements in the resulting semiconductor structure using a selective etching makes the following additions:

is precipitated on a substrate a semiconductor layer based on silicon carbide;

- control the deposition process carried out on the basis of the ratio of the active impurity and defect centers in the semiconductor layer 1:(2-20);

all sensitive elements form not containing potential barriers, i.e., resistor (wire strain gauge (DMS, thermistor, etc.,).

As ligands can be used boron, nitrogen, aluminum, etc.

For implementing the method in the optimal mode selected samples of the intermediate semiconductor structure doped silicon carbide, obtained at different values of operating parameters that define the specific resistance, and strain the sensitivity of the samples and set values of control actions at the stage of deposition of the semiconductor layer from the condition of maximum generalized UB> - the resistivity of the sample, MSM;

y2- thesocialist sample;

y3the sensitivity of the sample, the-1.

This variant of the method should be carried out when changing the substrate material and operating parameters phase deposition.

The principle of the proposed technical solutions based on first established by the authors of the uneven patterns reduce strain and thermal sensitivity SiC semiconductor structure with the increase of ligand concentration above the limit of solubility, as measured by the change in ratio of active impurity and defect centers. The latter, apparently, significantly changing the character of the conduction charge carriers, resulting in the receipt of the different nature of external influences. In addition, defective impurity centers increase the resistivity of the semiconductor structure, thereby to allow standardisation of the instruments on this parameter. These circumstances have the greatest effect on the direct - resistor - performance sensitive elements.

When the technical implementation of the method, the ratio of active impurity and defect centers in technology is on the corresponding signals at the resonant frequencies of these centers (wanger A. I., Ilyin C. A. , Tairov Y. M., Flowers, C. F. Study of thermodetection in silicon carbide by the EPR method. - FTP, 1979, 13, 2366-2370).

The resistivity of the sample semiconductor structure (y1) is determined in chetyrehstolbovoi bridge circuit or by using Hall effect (Grishchenko A. F. Ion doping in microelectronics. - "High school", M, 1985, S. 43-45).

Thesocialist sample (y2) set by the formula

y2= (R/R):(l/l), (2)

where R/R is the relative change of resistance;

1/1 - corresponding relative deformation of the sample.

The sensitivity of the sample (y3) set by the formula

y3= (R/R):T (3)

where T is the corresponding change in temperature, K.

In Fig. 1 shows the graph of the function Harrington for the evaluation of the output parameters of the method. Its use simplifies the calculations by the formula (1) and ensures their visibility.

The graph is constructed as follows. Complex function (1) contains the following private harringtoni functions optimality:

q1= exp[-exp(|2,5 y1-7,5|-6)], (4)

where q1private function optimality of the resistivity of the sample;

q2= exp[-exp(3-0,1 y= exp[-exp(|5y3103-7,5|-6)], (6)

where q3private function optimality in relation to thermal sensitivity.

Functions q1, q2and q3is depicted in Fig. 1 by a corresponding change in scale on the x-axis, as is customary for generalized harringtonia functions. This graph determine the values of private functions optimality of q1, q2and q3. Then, as follows from the formula (1), the generic function optimality of Q is defined as the geometric mean of these functions

Q = (q1q2q3)1/3. (7)

In table. 1-3 lists the technical characteristics of the SiC semiconductor structure for manufacturing micromechanical devices to the following examples.

In Fig. 2 is a diagram of a multi-touch version of the proposed micromechanical device.

Micromechanical device includes a substrate 1 with an insulating coating 2, on which is deposited a semiconductor structure 3 silicon carbide, doped calculated as the ratio of active impurity and defect centers 1: (2-20). In the semiconductor structure 3 is formed, a strain and temperature resistant sensitive elements (POS. 4 is 4, partially Vitruvian with the formation of the membrane 6, which serves for transmission of the measured mechanical impact, a strain sensitive element 4. Sensitive elements 4 and 5 are provided with pins 7 for connection to a power source and to an external measuring circuit.

When voltage is applied to the sensing elements 4 and 5 devices external measuring circuit record the current change caused by the change in strain or thermal resistance under the action of measured forces and temperatures.

A method of manufacturing a micromechanical device is illustrated by the following examples.

EXAMPLE 1. On a substrate 1 of silicon orientation (100) is applied insulating coating 2 of A1N and film 3 of SiC sequential deposition in the installation magnetron sputtering at a constant discharge current of 0.5 a and a power of 150 watts of aluminum and silicon targets.

Each layer is precipitated for 20 min under vacuum at a temperature of the substrate 900oC. the Deposition is carried out in astarhanova environment that is fed in with a flow rate of 3 l/h at the stage of deposition of the SiC partial pressure of nitrogen in the gas environment in various parties obtained intermediate product is polopoly. Get epitaxial sandwich structure of SiC (1 μm) on a silicon substrate with a dielectric coating A1N (1 μm). When this layer of SiC doped with nitrogen, which is part of your environment.

In each batch of intermediate product determine the ratio of active impurity and defect centers at the facility EPR.

In the film 3 photolithographically form a strain and temperature resistant sensitive elements 4 and 5, and then form a titanium-Nickel contacts 7 to connect these sensors to the external electrical circuit. The plot of the reverse side of the substrate 1 under a strain element 4, is partially etched with the formation of the profiled membrane 6, designed for the transmission of the measured mechanical action item 4.

The instrument was tested at the 5 V supply voltage in the range of mechanical loads from 0 to 500 kPa and temperatures from 20 to 350oC.

Average values of the basic technical characteristics of the received multi-touch devices are listed in the table. 1.

As can be seen from the table. 1, in the range of the ratio of the active impurity and defect centers from 1:2 to 1:20, which is provided regulirovaniya within acceptable limits for measurements on both channels (pressure and temperature) and consists of:

1) the resistivity of 1.4 to 5.3 MSM;

2) thesocialist - 12,2-20,5;

3) sensitivity - (from 0.6 to 2.7)10-3TO-1.

If you have a low ratio of active impurity and defect centers (less than 1: 2) dramatically increases the sensitivity of the semiconductor layer, and, although it increases the accuracy of the temperature measurement, however, makes a significant temperature error in strain measurement (up to 30% from the nominal value). When the ratio of data centers 1:33 thesocialist and sensitivity, as well as the specific resistance of the sensitive layer 3 is considerably reduced. When the ratio of active impurity and defect centers 1:(8-12) temperature error strain measurements does not exceed 5%.

EXAMPLE 2. On a substrate 1 of sapphire directly (because the substrate material is an insulator) is applied semiconductor film 3 of SiC deposition in the installation of gas epitaxy at a temperature of 1200oC in a stream of a gas mixture of hydrogen (90 vol.%), silane (6 vol.%), methane (3 vol.%) and DIBORANE (1 vol.%). In this mixture of DIBORANE is a source of ligand - boron. The deposition is conducted for 40 minutes Get the party intermediary is controlled by rotameter. Receive the semiconductor structure doped with boron silicon carbide (2 μm) on sapphire. Further operations are performed as in example 1.

Technical characteristics of the SiC semiconductor structures obtained in different modes, are given in table. 2. As can be seen from the table. 2, in the range of the ratio of the active impurity and defect centers from 1:2 to 1:19, which is provided by regulating the feed rate of the gas mixture in the range from 10 to 40 l/h, the main technical characteristics of the devices are within acceptable limits for measurements on both channels (pressure and temperature) and consists of:

1) the resistivity of 2.8 to 9.2 MSM;

2) thesocialist - 16,3-28,7;

3) sensitivity - (1,6-6,8)10-3TO-1.

If you have a low ratio of active impurity and defect centers (1:1) dramatically increases the sensitivity of the semiconductor layer that makes a significant temperature error in strain measurement (up to 25% from the nominal value). When the ratio of data centers 1:32 thesocialist and sensitivity, as well as the specific resistance of the sensitive layer 3 is considerably reduced. When the ratio of active and defective PI 3. The working surface of the substrate 1 made of silicon orientation (110) Passepartout curing for 4 hours at a temperature of 1000oC in an atmosphere with a high oxygen content (70 vol.%) for education on her dielectric layer 2 of silicon dioxide. Next on the passivated surface of the substrate precipitated semiconductor layer 3 of silicon carbide at high frequency installation magnetron sputtering at a power rating of 1 kW from a composite target containing silicon carbide and aluminum rod that is moved into the zone of the target using the automatic control system of the partial vapor pressure of aluminum in the generated particulate flow, which is measured by the mass spectrometer. The deposition of lead for 30 min under vacuum at a temperature of the substrate 850oC in an argon environment, the consumption of which support equal to 3 l/H. Produce test samples intermediate semiconductor structure of SiC doped with aluminum at different values of its partial pressure in the particulate stream.

In the samples determine the ratio of active impurity and defect centers at the facility EPR. They are analysed in relation to specific soprotivlenie using stemming from this formula the graph of Fig. 1 and formulas (4) to(7) compute the values of private and generalized harringtonia optimality criteria q1, q2, q3and Q. the Results are shown in table. 3. As can be seen from the table. 3, the modes of deposition in rows 2, 3 and 4, in which the ratio of active impurity and defect centers in SiC is in the claimed range, have high values of the optimality criterion Q. When is the best mode N 3, providing the ratio of active impurity and defect centers 1:8. In this mode, the resistivity of the sample y1= 3,6 Omsm, thesocialist y2= 39,6, the sensitivity of y3and the value of the generalized optimality criterion Q=0,85. So next, the intermediate product is obtained in the optimal mode. The next stage micromechanical multi-touch devices, as in example 1.

Temperature error strain measurements in this example does not exceed 5%.

As explained above examples, the proposed technical solutions ensure optimal production control multi micromechanical devices.

1. Micromechanical device containing teenie on a substrate with a dielectric surface, characterized in that the semiconductor structure using silicon carbide, doped calculated as the ratio of active impurity and defect centers 1 : (2-20), a semiconductor structure is additionally formed temperature resistant sensor element.

2. A method of manufacturing a micromechanical device, providing for deposition on a substrate a semiconductor layer containing alloying impurity, under control by the partial pressure or rate of gas supply with the subsequent application of a dielectric layer and formation of the sensitive elements in the resulting semiconductor structure using selective etching, characterized in that the precipitated semiconductor layer based on silicon carbide, while the control action is carried out on the basis of the ratio of the active impurity and defect centers in the semiconductor layer 1 : (2 - 20), and the sensitive elements form not containing potential barriers.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that for its implementation in the optimal mode selected samples of the intermediate semiconductor structure doped silicon carbide, poluchennoi samples and set values of control actions at the stage of deposition of the semiconductor layer from the condition of maximum generalized functions optimality Harrington

< / BR>
where Q is the generalized function optimality Harrington;

y1, y2and y3- resistivity (Omsm), thesocialist and sensitivity (-1) sample, respectively.

 

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